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THE
PENNSYLVANIA
MUSEUM OF ART
LIBRARY
PHILADELPHIA
Call Number
NK
» J >0*^3pURCHASED
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X
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FRONTISPIECE EXPLAINED.
To fhew in as pleafing a way as I could, the ftability of this Performance,
and the fubje6t of the book in general, I have, by the figure on the right
hand, reprefented Geometry ftanding on a rock, with a fcroU of diagrams
in his hand, converfing with Perfpeftive, the next figure to him, who is
attentive to the Principles of Geometry as the ground of his art; which art
is reprefented by the frame on which he refts his hand. On the left, feated
near the window, is an Artift bufy in defigning; at whofe right hand is the
Genius of Drawing, prefenting the Artift with various patterns. The back
figure is Architefture, meafuring the (haft of a Tufcan column ; and on the
back ground is the Temple of Fame, to which a knowledge of thefe arts
diredlly leads.
THE
CABINETMAKER
AND
UPHOLSTERER'S
D RAWI N G  B O O K,
IN FOUR PARTS.
B y
THOMAS SHERATON,
CABINETMAKER:
RECOMMENDED BY MANY WORKMEN OF THE FIRST ABILITIES IN LONDON
WHO HAVE THEMSELVES INSPECTED THE WORK.
THE THIRD EDITION, REVISED,
AND THE WHOLE EMBELLISHED WITH 122 ELEGANT COPPERPLATES,
LONDON:
PRINTED BY T. BENSLEY, BOLT COURT, FLEET STREET,
FOR W. BAYN£S, (SUCCESSOR TO G. TERRY,) 54, PATERNOSTERROW : SOLD ALSO BY
J. ARCHER, DUBLIN J AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS.
1802.
Directions for finding and binding in the Plates, with
an Account of their Contents.
The Frontifpiece faces its Explanation before the Title Page.
PART I. Of Geometrical Lines.
PLATES. PAGES,
1. To divide a Line into equal Parts, to divide a Freeze, to raife Perpendiculars,
and to illuftrate the Ufe of the SetStor   b aces Page 28
2. Of Scale of Tenths, Chords, Sines on the Se6lor; to draw an Oval by the
Sedlor ; and of various geometrical Figures    32
3. To draw Polygons, Ovals ; and to find the Center of Ovals   44
4. To take the Plan of a Room for a Carpet .  _ _ 47
5. Of mitering a CombTray, and Mouldings of different Projeflions ; of Raking
Mouldings, and the Tufcan Pediment _   _ ^5
6. Various Geometrical Solids, and of finding Curve Lines to anfwer the Sec
tions of irregular figures     56
7. To find Lines for Hip and Eiiptic Domes    84^
8. The Tufcan Order _ _    102
9. The Doric Order _ _ _   109
10. The Ionic Order     ill
1 1 . The Compofite Order .     1 14
12. The Corinthian Order      116
13. Of diminifliing the Shaft of a Column, and of the Ionic Volute  113
PART
Tl
DIRECTIONS FOR
P A R T II. Of Perfpedlive.
PLATES.
14. The Elementary Planes, and Nature of the Eye
'5
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
PAGES.
Faces Page 182
227
/^
The Reprefentation of Squares in different Pofitions
Squares in Inclined Planes _    234
Ditto Ditto  _ .   241
The Reprefentation of Cubes and Prifms ,   S44
The Reprefentation of Polygonal Figures . _ _  357
The Reprefentation of a Row of Equidiftant Columns, and of Long and
Short Diftances      268
Curvilinear Figures _._ 289
The Reprefentation of Steps, and the Tufcan Pedeftal and Bafe  297
The Reprefentation of the Tufcan Entablature, and of Arches   302
The Reprefentation of Houfes and Chairs .  _ 309
The Reprefentation of Tables and a Commode   " 3^5
The Reprefentation of a Cylinder Deflt and Bookcafe, of a Chair oblique,
and Shadows in general ; bound in by a Guard   329
PART III. Of Pieces of Furniture.
25. The Univerfal Table .....
a6. Sideboard Table ; marked on the Plate 54 by miftake. N. B. The Brafs Rods
are made by Mr. Pentou and Co. Newflreet Square, near St. Andrew's
Holborn      
27. Bookcafe Doors      .  
28. A Secretary and Book cafe .._._
29. Bookcafe Doors . _    . 
2g. A Sideboard Table .___._
30 A Library Table, binds in without a Guard ...
356
363
368
37^
368
363
37«
I. A
FINDING THE PLATES.
PAGES.
Vil
PLATES.
31. A Sofa, and the Perfpeaive Lines of it; binds in without a Guard
Faces Page 379
32. DrawingRoom Chairs . . . _ _ g»
33. Parlour Ditto  _ _ . _ j^id
34. Drawing and Parlour Ditto    _ Jbid
35. A Sofa   . . . . . ^gg
36. Chair Backs   _ . , . ,g«
37. A Lady's Writing Table   _ . . ogg
38. Tripod FireScreens     _ qq
39. KnifeCafes, and Lady's TravellingBox    aqi
40. Alcove Bed  _ _ _ _ _ _ ,g
41. A Summer Bed   . . , _ o_
42. Corner BafonStands    . _ .__
43. Wartihand Stand, Pot Cupboard, Secretary and Screen Table  394
44. A Reading and Writing Table    _ oq5
45. A French StateBed   . ^ _ . g
45. A Lady's DreflingTable  . ._.„
47. A Cylinder Delk and Bookcafe     _ onn
48. A Cabinet     .
  403
49. A Cabinet and DreflingTable .:;_ .^^
50. A Lady's Cabinet and WritingTable  _  407
51. Window Curtains and Drapery   _ _ o
52. A Gentleman's Secretary   .
J'    409
53. A Cylinder Wafhhand Stand  . _  411
54. Pembroke Table and French WorkTable  _ .  412
55. Tripod CandleStands . . _ _  416
56. A Harlequin Pembroke Table    _ j.,*
56. Ornament
wK DIRECTIONS, &c.
HLATES. PAGES.
56. Ornament for a Freeze or Tablet   Faces Page 430
57. Pediments for Bookcafes   ... ^.ji
58. A Kidney Table      378
59. Cornices at large     4,3a
60. The Lady's Drawing Table, and the DiningParlour   437
61. The Drawing Room , . .  . 444,
CONTENTS. '
CONTENTS.
Addr.ess Page 5
A Book publirtied before Chippendale's ' 6
Chippendale's next in order of Time ibid.
Chippendale's Remark on the Ufefulnefs of Perfpe£live 7
After his there appeared another Book of Defigns in Chairs only. ... ; ibid.
An Apology for a Remark made on Chippendale's Third Edition ibid.
Ince's and Mayhew's Book of Defigns fucceeds that one of Chairs only ibid.
Hepplewhite's Upholfterer's Guide, publifhed in 1788 — Remarks on it 8
The Cabinetmaker's Book of Prices, publifhed in the fame Year — Remarks on it. . ibid.
The Stability of the Plan on which the Cabinet DrawingBook is publifhed 9
Conclufion of the Addrefs lo
Remarks on Malton's Criticifms 1 1
PART I. Of Geometry.
Introdudion , i^
The term Geometry defined ibid.
RegjiJar Geometry not necefTary to Workmen in attaining a competent Knowledge
of Lines i5
Geometry founded upon a few Principles of common Senfe ibid.
Technical Terms propofed to be explained 17
SECT. I. Of Geometrical Lines.
Problem 1. To divide a Right Line into any Number of equal Parts by the firfl
Opening of the CompaflTes 10
■ 2. To divide a Freeze , 21
3. To raife a Perpendicular by different Methods 25
— — — 4, Ditto , ,, ,, ,,, 23
b SECT.
li CONTENT S.
SECT. II. Of Geometrical Problems.
Of the Ufe of the common Cafe of Inftruments Page 24
The Conftruflion and Ufe of a Scale of Feet and Inches — its Derivation ibid.
■■ of a Scale of Tenths 25
————————— of a Scale of Chords a6
On the Protraftor — its Derivation 27
Of the SeiSlor — its Derivation 28
Of the Line of Polygons on the Sedtor — its Derivation 30
~^— of Chords on Ditto 32
. of Sines on Ditto 33
Of the Tangent Line on Ditto — its Derivation 35
SECT. III. Of Geometrical Figures.
The Names of Geometrical Figures ought to be known 36
Of Superficies — its Derivation 37
Of various Triangles 38
Of Mixtilineal Figures 4'^
Of Polygonal Figures — the Derivation of the Term Pentagon ibid.
Tiie Names of the various Sorts of Polygons 41
What the Sedlions of a Cone produces 42
A Circle and an Oval the only regular Surfaces bounded by one Line — the Deriva
tion of the Term Ellipfis ibid.
SECT. IV. Of drawing Geometrical Figures.
Of drawing various ufeful Geometrical Figures 42
Problem 5. To draw a Geometrical Square 43
. 6. To draw a Rhomb ibid.
.. 7. To draw Polygons 44
■ 8. To defcribe a Hexagon 4.5
9. To defcribe a Heptagon ibid.
— — 10. A Circle given to find the Sides of a Pentagon 46
_ • II. The Infcription of a Hexagon ibid.
. 12. Different Methods of drawing Ovals 47
13. Ditto ', 48
14. Ditto ihid.
— 15. Ditto .,.,... 49
Problem
CONTENTS.
Hi
Problem i6. Different Methods of drawing Ovals Page <o
■ 17. Ditto jj J
18. To find the Center and Diameter of an Oval qa
19. To find the Center of any Segment r^
20. To find tlie Diameter of a Cylinder without meafuring its Eud 54
S E C T. V. 0/ Geometrical Solids.
Oi the Names and Properties of various Geometrical Solids ec
Derivation of Hexaedron and Prifm c6
Derivation of Tetrahedron ty
The Learned differ about the Derivation of tiie Term Pyramid en
Derivation of the Terms Hemifphere and Seaion 61
Of the Se6tions and Coverings of regular and irregular Figures ibid.
Problem 21. Of the Covering for a Vale 64
22. Of the Covering of an irregular Vale 66
Of the Covering of a Sphere 67
23. The Sedion and Covering of a Knifecafe 68
SECT VI, Problems pertaining to the forking Fart.
Problem 24. How to cut all the Steps of a Ladder to their proper Length before any
Part of it is put together q
25. How to draw an Elliptic Cornice, and to fit a Valance to it yi
26. To defcribe a Segment of a large Circle without a Center 75
27. To take the Plan of a Room for a Carpet *^
28. To miter any Thing of the Nature of a CombTray «5
29. To miter the fame when the Sides of the Tray are oblique to each other 78
■ 30. To find Lines for mitering a Clock Bracket «„
31. Of mitering Raking Mouldings gg
32. Of mitering Mouldings of different Projeftions gl
Of the Tufcan Pediment jj,jj
The Nature of Hip and Elliptic Domes g
33. To conftruft a Hip Dome g^
34. To con(lru£l an Elliptic Dome gg
SECT. VIL 0/ the Proportion of the Five Orders.
Introduftion g
Of the Origin and Antiquity of the Orders , , . . , . 01
b2 The
iv CONTENTS.
The Derivation of the Term Architedure Page oi
Its Progrefs in building a City and Tower to reach tlie Heavens 92
No regular Proportions affigned to any Pillars before thofe of Jachin and Boaz in
Solomon's Temple ibid.
Pillars were in ufe long before Solomon's Time ; but no mention is made of their
Proportion, except what Jofephus fays of their Height ibid.
The Proportions of Jachin and Boaz anfwer to the moft Ancient Doric Order 93
Some Particulars wherein they refemble each other ibid.
What Vitruvius fays of the Antiquity of the Doric Order does not confift with other
Fa6ls ..., 96
The Ionic next in order — a Temple built of it at Ephefus ibid.
The Corinthian fucceeds — Vitruvius's Account of its Origin ibid.
Who Vitruvius was ibid.
The Tufcan Order the Fourth in point of Antiquity 97
The Compofite the Laft ibid.
The Compofite Cnpital derived from the Corinthian, and not limited to one Kind. . ibid.
The Chara6lcr and Proportions of the Tufcan Order 98
The Diminution of a Column. . .\ JOO
Sir William Chambers's Remarks on Diminution loi
The common Method of Diminution ibid.
The beft Standard for the Quantity of Diminution 102
Vignola's. Method of Diminution 103
Nicomedes's Inftrument for diminifhing Columns ibid.
Of tlie principal Parts of a Column, and the Names of each Member 104
Of the Charafter and Proportions of the Doric Order 109
Of the Chara£ler and Proportions of the Ionic Order. 1 1 1
How to defciibe the Ionic Volute 112
To graduate the Fillet of tlie Volute 113
Of the Charader and Proportions of the Compofite Order 114
The CompoGte Order (hould be placed before the Corinthian — Reafons why, fhewn ibid.
General Proportions of the Compofite Order 115
Of the Charadler and Proportions of the Corinthian Order 116
How to draw the Scatia, Cymaredla, and Cymainverfa ; . 118
Obfervations on the Agreement of the Five Orders ibid.
Of the Proportions of Frontifpieccs 1 20
General Diredions for drawing the Five Orders — Indian Ink J 2 1
PART
CONTENTS. >
PART II. Of Perfpeclhe.
Introdudion Page 177
SECT. I. Principles of Perfpedive,
Of the Principles on which Perfpedlive is founded 182
Of the Elementary Planes 188
The Ground Plane 189
The PerfpecSlive Plane ibid.
How the Appearance of Objedts may be determined on Glafs 190
The Horizontal Plane ipr
The Direiling Plane 196
The Vertical Plane ibid.
The Vifual Plane 198
Of Lines produced by the Interfedlions of the foregoing Planes 200
Of Points produced by the Interfedtions of thefe Lines 202
S E C T. II. Of Optical Laws.
Of the Affinity of Opticil Laws with the Principles of Perfpeflive 205
The Ufe of the thrte principal Elementary Planes in the Pradtice of Drawing 211
Of various Pofitions of Lines to the Pidlure 315
How a Geometrical Square appears on tlie Plane of the Pidlure in various Cafes. ... 217
SECT. III. Of Problems in Perfpeaive.
Problems folved according to the preceding Principles 22C
The ufual Metliod of teaching Perfpedlivc is to begin with Points and Lines ibid.
Thefe unnccefTary, becaufe included in finding the Rcprefentations of Superficies. . . 226
Problem i. To reprefent a Square lying on the Ground , 227
2. perpendicular to the Ground and to thePidture 228
3. perpendicular to the Ground and parallel to the
Pidlure 230
4 inclined to the Ground, and perpendicular to
the Pidture 23 1
' — 5 inclined to the Ground and to the Pidlure. . . . 234
6. To find the Reprefentation of a Square lying on the Ground, having
its Sides oblique to the Pidture 236
' 7 To find the Reprefentation of a Square perpendicular to the Ground
and oblique to the Pidture 238
7 Problem
*i CONTENTS.
Problem 8. To find the Reprefentation of a Square, having its Sides oblique to tlie
Piifture, and fituated in a Plane inclined to the Ground. . . . Page 239
■ 9. To find the Reprefentation of a Square fituated in a Plane oblique both
to the Ground anJ to the Pidlurc 241
■ 10. To reprefent a Floor of Squares 244
1 1 . To reprefent a Row of Cubes parallel to the Pitlure 246
' 1 2. To reprefent Cubes oblique to the Picture 248
13. To reprefent objedts when the Diftance and Vanifliing Points exceed
the Bounds of the Pi(£lure 250
' 14. To reduce the Point of Diftance to the Limits of the Pi61ure 254
SECT. IV. The Reprefention of Obje£is.
Of the Reprefentation of Polygonal and Curvilinear Figures 257
Remarks on Polygons ibid
Problem 15. To reprefent a Hexagon having two of its Sides parallel to the Pifture 259
16. To find the Reprefentation of an Hexangular Prifm 260
I 17. To find the Reprefentation of an OiSagon, having two Sides parallel
to the Pi(£lurc 262
■ 18. To find the Reprefentation of an Odtangular Prifm, having its Sides
oblique to the Picture 263
Remarks on the Difference between the Reprefentation of Objefts on a Plane, and
their Appearance to the Eye 265
Of the Reprefentation of a Range of Equidiftant Columns 269
Of the proper Choice of the Diftance of the Pidture, proportioned to the Heiglit of
the Horizon 275
How to choofe a Diftance when the whole Length of the Pifture is filled with Ob
jcds on the Front 2S0
How to choofe a Diftance when the Objefts are drawn by a large Scale, fituated not
far from the Center of the Piflure 281
How to choofe a Diftance when a Piece of Furniture, not very long, is reprcfcnted
near the Middle of the Front of the Pidure. 282
Of the Reprefentation of Curvilinear Figures 283
Problem 19. To reprefent a Circle lying on the Ground Plane 289
20. To reprefent a Circle perpendicular to the Ground and to the Picture. . 291
21. To reprefent a Cylinder eredl on the Ground 292
— — 21. To reprefent a Cylinder lying on the Ground and oblique to the Piflure 293
Problem
CONTENTS. yii
Problem 33. To find the Reprefentation of a Semiellipfis whofe tranfverfe Diameter
is parallel to the Pidure Page 204
. 24. To find tlie Reprefentation of an Elliptic Segment inverfely jgc
SECT. V. Application of the Problems.
The Application of the preceding Problems to the Pradice of drawing Pieces of Ar
chite(5ture and Furniture jqg
Example i . How to reprefent a receding and returning Flight of Steps 297
2. How to reprefent a Tufcan Bafe and Pcdeftal 299
3. How to reprefent a Tufcan Entablature and Bafe 302
4. How to reprefent Arches 07
s Ditto ......'!..!!!!! 308
5. How to reprefent a Houfe having its Front Parallel to the Pidure 309
7. To find the Reprefentation of a Houfe when the Gableend is parallel to
the Pidure  j j
8. How to reprefent a Chair when its Front is parallel to the Pidure 31a
9. How to reprefent a Chair when its Front is perpendicular to the Pidure 314
■ 10. How to reprefent a round Pillar and Claw Table 31^
— ^— II. How to reprefent an odagon Ditto ,iQ
12. To put a Commode in Perfpedive when its Front is parallel to the Pidure 317
13. To reprefent a Chair when its Front is oblique to the Pidure 319
14. To put a Cylinder Delk and Bookcafe in Perfpedive when its Front is
oblique to the Pidure 021
SECT. VI. The Principles of Shadows.
A fhort View of the Nature and Principles of Shadows 035
Preparatory Obfervations Hjjj
Cafe I. To projed the Shadows of Objeds in various Pofitions when the Sun's Rays
are parallel to the Pidure ^28
Example i. Ditto ^
2 I^'"° .'.'.".'.'.'.".' 330
3 Ditto ibi,,,
4 Ditto 22J
Example i. When one Objed Aands in the Way of the Shadow of another 332
2. Ditto ibid.
Cafe 2. To projed the Shadows of Objeds when the Rays come in a Diredion from
behind the Pidure „„.
Obfervations on the Theory of Cafe 2 355
Cafe
viK CONTENT S.
Cafe 3. To find the Projeftion of Shadows when the Sun's Rays come on the Front
of the Pidure Page 340
Example i. When the Shadow falls on the Ground ibid.
— ^^— 2. When the Shadow falls on upright, oblique, and horizontal
Planes 341
Of Shadows when the Sun does not {hine 343
Of the Proportion of Tints in a Pidlure 345
Of rcfleded Images on Water 347
TO THE BINDER.
The above are the General Contents of the Firfb and Second Parts, to be bound up at
the beginning of the Work. — The Index, containing an Account of the Third and
Fourth Parts, to be bound up at the End of the Work.
••
TO
CABINETMAKERS AND UPHOLSTERERS
IN GENERAL.
GENTLEMEN,
I PRESUME, that to publlfli a Drawingbook anfwerable to the preceding title
page will not require many words to convince you either of the neceffity or
propriety of the attempt.
Nor will it be requifite to ufe an oftentatious preface to recommend it to
your notice, or to perfuade you of the utility of fuch an undertaking. There
fore, what I have further to fay in this Addrefs (hall be to give fome account
of my plan, and point out to you the difference between this and other books
which have been publifhed for the affiftance and ufe of Cabinetmakers and
Upholfterers.
Books of various defigns in cabinet work, ornamented according to the
tafteof the times in which they were publifhed, have already appeared. But
none of thefe, as far as I know, profefs to give any inftrudions relative to the
art of making perfpedive drawings, or to treat of fuch geometrical lines as
ought to be known by perfons of both profeflions, efpecially fuch jof them as
have
( 6 )
have a number of men under their diredions. Nor have thefe books given
accurate patterns at large for ornaments to enrich and embeUifh the various
pieces of work which frequently occur in the cabinet branch. Such patterns
are alio highly neceflary to copy from by thole who would fufficiently qualify
thcmfelves for giving a good fketch, or regular drawing, of any thing they
meet with, or are required to draw for others. Nor indeed would this per
formance anfwcr fo well to the title of a Drawing book without them. I
hope, therefore, that in fome degree the above defedl is fuppUed in the follow
ing work, and that it will be confidered as an enhancement to the real value
and ufefulnefs of the Cabinetmaker and Upholfterer's DrawingBook to be
furniflied with a variety of fuch ornaments as fhall ferve, both for the pur
pofe of the learner, and alfo to affifl the ideas of thofe who have occafion to
adorn their work in this way.
As I have alluded to fome books of defigns, it may be proper here juft to
fay fomething of them. I have feen one which feems to have been publifhed
before Chippendale's. I infer this from the antique appearance of the furni
ture, for there is no date to it ; but the title informs us that it was compofed
by a Society of Cabinetmakers in London. It gives no inftrudions for draw
ing in any form, but we may venture to fay, that thofe who drew the defigns
wanted a good fhare of teaching themfelves.
Chippendale's book feems to be next in order to this, but the former is
without comparifon to it, either as to fize or real merit. Chippendale's book,
has, it is true, given us the proportions of the Five Orders, and lines for two
or three cafes, which is all it pretends to relative to rules for drawing : and,
as for the defigns themfelves, they are now wholly antiquated and laid afide,
though pofTefled of great merit, according to the times in which they were
executed. But it may here be remarked to his credit, that although he has
not given rules for drawing in * perfpedive himfelf, yet he was fenfible of
their
* This is ftri(ftly true of the third edition of Chippendale's book ; but the firft edition of it, printed
in 1754, has given two chairs, a dreffingtable, and a bookcafe in perfpedlive, fhewing the lines for
drawing them. But why thefe examples were not continued in the fucceeding editions I know not.
In
( 7 ) .
their importance and ufe hi defigning, and therefore he fays in his preface :
** Without fome knowledge of the rules of perfpedlive, the cabinetmaker
cannot make the defigns of his work inteUigible, nor flievv, in a little com
pafs, the whole condu6t and efFe£l of the piece. Thefe, therefore, referring
to architedure alfo, ought to be carefully fludied by every one who would
excel in this branch, fince they are the very foul and bafis of his art J' .
After Chippendale's work there appeared, in the year fixtyfive, a book of
defigns for chairs only, though it is called " The Cabinetmaker's real
Friend and Companion," as well as the Chairmaker's. This publication
profefles to fhew the method of ftriking out all kinds of bevelwork, by which,
as the author fays, the moft ignorant perfon will be immediately acquainted
with what many artifts have ferved feven years to know. But this aflertion
both exceeds the bounds of modefty and truth, fince there is nothing in his
diredlions for bevelwork, which he parades fo much about, but what an ap
prentice boy may be taught by feven hours proper inftrutflions. With refpe(£l
to the geometrical view of the Five Orders which he has given, thefe are
ufeful, and the only thing in his book which at this day is worthy notice;
as all his chairs are nearly as old as Chippendale's, and feem to be copied
from them.
The fucceedlng publication to this feems to be Ince's and Mayhew's Book
of Defigns in Cabinet and Chair work, with three plates, containing fome
examples of foliage ornaments, intended for the young defigner to copy from,
but which can be of no fervice to any learner now, as they are fuch kind of
ornaments as are wholly laid afide in the cabinet branch, according to the pre
fent tafte. The defigns in cabinets and chairs are, of courfe, of the fame
caft, and therefore have fuffered the fame fate : yet, in juftice to the work,
it may be faid to have been a book of merit in its day, though much inferior to
Chippendale's, which was a real original, as well as more extenfive and maf
terly in its defigns.
In the laft edition of any work, wc naturally expeft to fee it in its beft fiate, having received its laft
revifal from the author, or fome other hand equal to the tafk ; and therefore it can never be thought
unfair for a reader to form his judgment of a book from the laft impreflion. I hope, therefore, this
will fufficiently apologize for the above obli^rvation.
4 In
( 8 )
III looking over luce's book I obferved two cardtables with fome perfpec
tive lines, fhewing the manner of defigning them. Thefe, fo far as they go,
are a ufeful attempt ; but certain it is to me, from fome experience in teach
ing, that no perfon can have the fmallefl acquaintance with the principles of
perfpcctive, merely from feeing two or three lines joined to a plate, without
proper inftrudlions by letterprefs. It is true, a defcription is given of thefe
lines in the 7th page of his book, but not equal to what is abfolutely requiiite
to fuch as have no previous acquaintance with the art j and thole that have,
will not require that which can give them no affiftance. Properly fpeaking
then, what is done in this book, relative to perfpcdive lines, can only lerve as
a hint to the workman, that this art is eflential in defigning.
In the year 1788 was publifhed, *' The Cabinetmaker's and Upholfterer's
Guide." In which are found no diredions for drawing in any form, nor any
pretenfions toit. The whole merit of the performance refts on the defigns,
with a (hort defcription to each plate prefixed. Some of thefe defigns are not
without merit, though it is evident that the perfpedlive is, in fome inftances,
erroneous. But, notwithflanding the late date of Heppclwhite's book, if we
compare fome of the defigns, particularly the chairs, with the neweft tafte,
we fhall find that this work has already caught the decline, and perhaps, in a
little time, will fuddenly die in the diforder. This inftance may ferve to con
vince us of that fate which all books of the fame kind will ever be fubjed to.
Yet it muft be owned, that books of this fort have their ufefulnefs for a time ;
and, when through change of fafliions they are become obfolete, they ferve
to fliew the tafte of former ages.
I fhall now conclude this account of books of defigns with obferving, that
in the fame year was given a quarto book of different pieces of furniture, with
the Cabinetmaker's London Book of Prices j and, confidering that it did
not make its appearance under the title of a Book of Defigns, but only to
illuflirate the prices, it certainly lays claim to merit, and does honour to the
publifliers.
Upon the whole, then, if tht intended publication, which now petitions
your patronage and fupport, be fo compiled and compofed as fully to anfwer,
and
( 9 )
and alfo to merit, t?ie title which has been given to it, I think it will be found
greatly to fupply the defefts of thofe books now mentioned, and will appear
to be on as lafting a foundation as can well be expefted in a work of this kind.
For inftance, the firft part, which provides the workman with geometrical
lines, applied to various purpofes in the cabinet branch, cannot be fubjeft to
alteration any more than the principles of reafon itfelf. The fame may be faid
of Perfpedive ; the fubje6l of the fecond part. This art, being founded on
Geometry and Optics, may be improved in its pradice, but its fundamental
principles can never be altered, any more than the nature of vilion itfelf.
As to the defigns in furniture contained in part third, thefe are indeed liable
to change; nor is it in the power of any man to provide againfl: it, by
making fuch drawings as will always be thought new. Yet the inftruclions
given on the manufaduring part being founded on real experience and practice,
will be much the fame at all times. It alfo adds to the ufefulnefs of the de
figns, that I have in general given their geometrical dimenfions, either laid
down on the ground, or other fcale lines adapted for that purpofe, or elfe de
fcribed them in the letter prefs. So that no perfon, however ignorant of per
fpe6live, can eafily miflake the perfpe6live for the geometrical meafurements,
or be at any lofs to know the general fizes of fuch pieces as Ihall be intro
duced.
In proceeding, however, with the firft edition, I found that to give fcales
for the perfpedive heights and widths could not be done, in many inftances,
without encumbering the defigns in fuch a way as greatly to hurt their appear
ance. To remove this inconvenience, and to aflift thofe who have a little
knowledge of perfpedive, in obtaining the true meafurements of fuch defigns
or engiavings as may have no fcales to them, I have flievvn, in the perfpedive
part, that this may be eafily done, by finding the vanifiiing points and diftance,
and tracing their vifuals forward to the ground line. In the firft edition this
is done at the end of the Appendix, becaufe its ufefulnefs did not ftrike me till
I came to that part of the work.
With refped to mouldings and various ornaments, the fubject of the fourth
part, it is granted that thefe are of a changeable kind. Yet it is pretty evident
B that
( 10 )
that materials for proper ornaments are now brought to fuch perfe«5lion as will
not, in future, admit of much, if any, degree of improvement, though they
may, by the (kill and touch of the ingenious hand, be varied, ad infinitum^ to
fuit any tafte at any time.
Lafllv, I would intreat leave gratefully to acknowledge the general encou
ragement I have been favoured with in going through the firft edition : and
though my vaft expence has deprived me of the emolument that might have
been expe(5led from fo numerous a fubfcription, yet it is fome confolation to be
confcious that I have fpared no expence, nor withheld any thing in my power
to do the work juftice, and give fatisfadtion to the public.
And I have the additional happinefs to know, from feveral teftimonies, the
full approbation that the work has obtained in the judgment of the candid and
Ikilful. And, notwithftanding the ill nature of fome, who hate to fpeak well
of any thing but their own productions, I only wifh that a comparifon be made
with any other book hitherto publifhed for the ufe of Cabinetmakers and Up
holfterers, and then it will fufficienly fpeak for itfelf.
And now, in going through this fecond edition, it is ftill my fteady interim
tion to contribute as much as I can towards improving the work, and render
ing it as complete as is in the power of,.
6ENTLEMEN,
Your humble Servant,.
THOMAS SHERATON..
TO
II
TO THE READER.
Near the conclufion of the flrft edition I had put into my hands a work,
written by Mr. Malton, entitled the New Royal Road to Geometry ; at the
end of which there is an Addenda and Poftfcript to the reader, containing
fome ftridures on a fmall piece written on perfpedive by Mr. Bradberry,
whom he pofitively accufes of having copied, verbatim, Mr. Martin's fmall
performance on that fubje£l. I have read Mr. Martin's, but not Mr Brad
berry's, and therefore whether this charge be juft, I am not a competent
judge; but if, as Mr. Malton affirms, the latter is nearly a literal copy of the
former, then, in a fenfe, I may be faid to have alfo read Mr. Bradberry's.
But if in Mr. Bradberry's performance there are any errors, the blame muft
originate with Mr. Martin, of which it feems Mr. Bradberry's is a faithful
copy, for Mr. Malton fays, " The whole of the letter, and the diagrams
alfo, being exa(5tly copied, without the lead variation or tranfpofition ; no
varying the expreflions to give an appearance of being his own ; the very re
ferences are by the fame letters, and every, even the moft palpable error, truly
and faithfully copied." See Poftfcript, p. 26.
So it appears that the ingenious Mr. Martin was capable of grofs errors in
perfpeftive with all his mathematical fkill. Yet Mr. Malton, in his critique on
the various authors that have written on this fubjecl, did not think it worth his
while fcarcely to notice it; for he fays, " He thought it fo infignificant a
work as to deferve not four lines to be faid on it." Grofs errors, then, accord
ing to this gentleman, deferve no attention when they appear in fmall
pietes, not even when their authors are of great repute. An Emerfon, a
Muller, an Ozanam, a Prieftley, a Fergufon, or a Martin, are as nothing, and
lefs than nothing, in his eftimation. What a wonder it is then, that poor
Bradberry is in the leafl: noticed by this greateft of champions in perfpedtive,
fincc he is convinced that this wonderful man, as he calls Bradberry, knew
nothing at all of perfpeiftive. On confidering, therefore, how little thefe
B 2 names
( '2 )
names of repute appear in the eyes of Mr. Malton, I cannot but congratulate
myfelf in conning ofFfo moderately under the lafh of him whofe vigilant hand
of chaftifement none have efcaped, lefs or more.
Our author begins his remarks in the following manner : " A quarto work
has been publifhed fuice the commencement of the year 1793, by a Mr.
Sheraton, Cabinetmaker*, called, The Cabinetmaker and Upholflerer's
DrawingBook, which feems to intimate its being of no ufe to any other."
It intimates that it is chiefly intended for their ufe, though not to the ex
clufion of any other who are concerned to know perfpeftive. And, what
ever Mr. Malton may think, we have rcafon to believe, and have had fome
proof from trial, that any mechanic, whether cabinetmaker, carpenter, or
any othep that requires a general knowledge of perfpeftive, will fooner obtain
it in the Cabinetmaker's DrawinsrBook than in Mr. Malton's moft; elaborate
performance ; we mean not to fay that the former is fo worthy the attention
of mathematicians as the latter; far from It. And though, as our remarker
obferves, " A large part of the book is on perfpedlive applied to furniture, and
that without any pretenfions to improve, or render the fubjedl more clear ;
yet we believe, from teftimonies written to the author, and other perfonal
remarks, that fome Iktie portion has been contributed, in the Cabinetmaker
and Upholllerer's DrawingBook, towards rendering the fubjeft more intel
ligible to workmen than has hitherto been done in any other work. And the
author thought it more modefl: to avoid any pretenfions to improvement until
he found what was the opinion of others, after having finiflied the whole. It
is too common to hear of propofed improvements, and new lights on fubjefls,
which after all turn out in the end to be none at all."
In the next breath our author fhews his wonted contemptuous fpirit on all
who write on his favourite fubjedl:. " I fhould have taken no notice of this
produdtion, had not the author given fome glaring proofs of his incompetency
in perfpedlive."
* Mr. Malton, who is certainly one of the firfl writers on perfpecSlive, Was himfelf a Cabinet
maker; and to this, as a brother craftfman, perhaps it is owing that I am fo moderately dealt with.
And
( ^3 )
And here the candid reader will pleafe to obferve, that this great outcry of
incompetency with which we are charged, amounts to no more than a matter
of mere fpeculation, which by no means aftedts the practice of perfpedive,
and which Mr. Malton himielf, in the next page, calls a fmall miftike; for
though he here refers to the oblique fedion of a cone, which he lays proJuces
an ellipfis of equal curvature at each end, it is clofely conneded with the other
point on which the charge of incompetency is founded; namely, that the per
fpedlive reprefentation of a circle feen obliquely, is an irregular ellipfis, which
Mr. Malton affirms to be regular. Now, whichever way it be, rules to the
fame efFe6l for putting a circle in perfpective are propofed by both; for if his
rules produce a regular ellipfis, Co do mine; as the reader may fee by com
paring each together. To convert then a fmall miftake into a glaring proof of
incompetency, is, in my opinion, taking the advantage, and is a glaring proof
of a want of candour.
It is, however, but juftice to remark the candour which appears in the fol
lowing paflage: " Probably," fays Mr. Malton, " the feveral writers on the
conic fedions have not well confidered this matter; future writers would do
well to confider it, and benefit themfelves of this author's obfervations there
on. Or that Mr. Sheraton reconfiders (fhould it not be reconfider) it with at
tention, before he publiflies a fecond edition ; and if he fliould find himfelf
luidcr a fmall miftake, that he will not be afhamed to acknowledge it can
didly ; it would redound more to his credit than to perfift (is there any occa
fion for, and perfevere) in error, though it may not appear quite clear to him ;
but, as acquiefcing in the general concurrence of fo many fcientific men of
greater repute in the world of fcience." To this it is anfwered, that we cannot
but comply with fo juft arequifition as to reexamine the fubje6l, and even to
fubmit to the general concurrence of fcientific men, if after all it remain a
doubt to us ; and fliould the refult of future inquiries on this fubjed prove
decifive in favour of Mr. Malton, the error will be frankly acknowledged.
Mr. Malton next obferves, *' that there are fome few inaccuracies in this
work," which mufl mean the whole work ; and therefore it is no fmall fatif
fadion to me, to find, after the revifal of fo able a hand as Mr. Malton, that
the inaccuracies are but feWj and that thefe particularly lie hi the rakin
I mouldings
( 14 )
mouldings for pediments, which, in fa£l, take up little more than half a
quarto plate. But though thefe, according to our author, are particularly the
things where the inaccuracies are found, yet he does not point out to the
reader what thefe are in any infrance.
His next remark is, " that in Plate XVII. Fig. 1 1, there are fome unne
ceflary lines, in order to determine the vanifliing line of a plane inclined ob
liquely to both the horizon and the picture." But Mr. Malton ought to have
confidered, that in Fig. ii. are two methods of determining the vanifliing line
of a plane inclined both to the horizon and pidlure. And, befides, he certainly
knows that I have there (hewn the vanifliing line in two different degrees of
obliquity to the horizon, one at an angle of 28 degrees, the other at 45 degrees,
which accounts for fo great a concurrence of lines. And, moreover, before he
had pafled this cenfure, he ought in juftice to have examined page 241, in
M'hich a reafonable apology is made for the intricate appearance of thefe lines.
But if the reader is merely to judge of unnecefTary lines by their great number
interfering each other, let him look into Mr. Malton's own performance, and
then let him fay whether, in condemning others for this fault, Mr. Malton has
not involved himfelf in the fame cenfure.
The next obje£t of his criticifm is an inclined pofl: in Plate XXVI. or the
laft in perfpe6live, whofe reflefted image he apprehends fliould be meafured
from the furface of the water, becaufe of the ground's variablenefs. In this
Mr. Malton differs from fome other writers of repute, who meafure from the
bafe of the objefl:, not from the furface of the water. Mr. Kirby, forinftance,
meafures from the ground, Plate XVI. Fig. 4. as alfo Dr. Prieftley. This
nice point, however, we iTiall reconfider in its proper place.
In refpea to the Problem in page 71,1 acknowledge it is not fo geometri
cally flated as it ought to be ; but the ufe and application of it is ftill the fame to
workmen, being intended to Ihew how the fteps of a ladder, whofe fides are
inclined to each other, may be cut to their proper length without firft putting
any part of it together.
INTRO
INTRODUCTION
T O
PART THE FIRST.
Geometry literally means, to meafure the earth *, but in praftice is applied
to many arts and trades, as well as fcience in general. With refpedl to that
part of it which becomes ufeful to us, it is pleafant and eafy, readily under
ftood, and of a mechanical nature ; fo that no workman need to be fliocked
or frightened at the idea of learning fuch geometrical lines and figures as (hall
be confidered in the fubfequent pages. Nor is it requifite to the workman to
* Geometry ; from yij gi, the earth ; and i^sr^ov metron, to meafure. It appears from general hif
tory, that the Egyptians were the firft who apphed this art to meafuring the earth. The river Nile,
wliich overflowed its banks, fwept away thofe boundaries, or landmarks, which ferved to diftinguifh
their different eftates. This made it ncceflary for them to take plans and draughts of their fields, to
afcertain their quantity, and know their proper fituation. To obtain accuracy in thefe, prompted the
ftudy and improvement of Geometry in that nation ; but various other reafons fince have induced
men to cultivate this fcience. Some have contended that the Hebrews were the firfl inventors of it.
Jofephus is of this opinion ; and fo far as the invention of flringed inftruments of mufic, the working
of brafs and iron, and the building of the city of Enoch, required the aid of geometry, it mufl be ac
knowledged that the Hebrews, Jubal and Tubalcain, were the inventors of it, and that at a period
long before Egypt exifled as a nation. Thefe perlbns, living the length of five or fix of tlie lives of
men in after ages, might probably bring this fcience to a greater perfedlion than we are apt to imagine;
and as Egypt appears to be the fecond nation in point of antiquity, originally flyled in Scripture the
Land of Ham, I think it rational to fuppofe that the Egyptians had firft derived their ideas of geome
try from the Hebrews, but that the Egyptians were the firft that applied it to the ait of plotting and
drawing.
begin
( ^^ )
begin with the ufoal definitions in geometry, as thefc would be foreign to my
plan, and unneccflluy for him to know. For inftance, he need not be told
that a point is without parts or naagnitude, that a hue is length without
breadth, or that the terms of a line are points, &c. Sec. Thefc, and a number
of others of this kind, are known by the common undcrftanding of every one.
I (hall therefore confine myfelf to fMch particulars as every candid workman
will at once pronounce ufeful, and which may be applied to the praftice of
fome parts of the ingenious art of Cabinetmaking. Yet, from what I have
here advanced with refped to geometrical definitions, I would not be under
ilood as fpeaking difrcfped^fully of them, much lels to deny their ufefulnefs to
Inch as learn geometry regularly. It is impofllble to proceed without thefc,
when this ancient fcicnccis taught as the groundwork of mathematical learn
ing. We might as well attempt to teach logic without a method of arrang
ing or diftinguifhing ideas, or arithmetic without the powers and properties
of numbers, as geometry diveflied of its chain of definitions and axioms, Sec.
by which at length we arrive to the certain knowledge of truth, and are able
to demonftrate it to others. But, on the other hand, as it is pofilble for a
man of found fenfe to reafon well without knowing the rules of logic as they
are taught in fine and regular fyftems, fo I apprehend it is alfo pofllble for a
workman of no learning, but what is common, to attain to a ufeful know
ledge of geometrical lines, without the trouble of going through a regular
courfe of Euclid's definitions and demonftrations, &c. And we may jufily
lay of his definitions and demonftrations, the found of which fo often alarm
ing the ears of the ignorant, that they are, as a certain writer obferves,
" lAiilt upon a few principles of common fenfe, without which the moft do
meftic and fimple negociations of life cannot be tranfaded ; and that, what
they fhun as fubjedls too fublime and intricate for their comprehenfion, are
only the moft familiar truths made artificial by regularity, and difguifed by a
technical language."
Upon this view of Geometry, I fhall now proceed to the confideration of
fuch Problems as every workman of tolerable capacity will eafily underfiand,
and find advantageous to him.
And,
( '7 )
And, for the fake of making every part of this book as intelligible and ufeful
as I am able, I fhall, in the courfe of proceeding, explain fuch * technical terms
as may be neceflarily ufed in the fubfeqiient pages, and which, for propriety's
and brevity's fake, cannot well be avoided on fubjcifis of this nature. And, in
attempting this, 1 hope not to incur the difagrecable title of a pedant ; as I
pretend not to give thefe explanations as the produce of my own Ikill in ety
mology, but fhall recommend them to the reader as they are found in the
writings of men of unqueftionable abilities in this way f . Befides, when it
is confidered that the following work is not written for the learned, but fuch
as may want fome afliftance in the derivation of particular words ufed in Geo
metry, Architeflure, and Perfpedive, in order to fix their real meaning more
laflingly on their memory, it is prefumcd that this confideration alone will,
in the view of the candid, fufficiently apologize for me. As for thofe of an
oppofite cafl of mind, it is not eafy to fay what would pleafe, or what dif
pleafe, them.
* From fi'xj^yi, techne, art ; which belong to the terms and rules of arts and fciences.
t As Chambers, Johnfon, Bailey, Parkliurft, Lemon, &c.
THE
THE
CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S
DRAWINGBOOK.
PART I.
CONTAINING NECESSARY INSTRUCTIONS FOR OBTAINING THE KNOW
LEDGE OF SUCH LINES AS ARE USED IN BOTH BRANCHES.
SECT. I.
On dividing a Line into any Number of equal Parts — raifing a Perpendicular on
a given Point — and the Method of dividing a Frieze or Pilajler into Flutes
and Fillets.
* Problem I. Plate I. Fig. i.
A RIGHT line being given, to divide it into any number of equal parts. The
line to be divided is 7.1, which is to be divided into 7 parts.
Operation. — Firft, from 7, on the given line, draw a right line at pleafure,
as 7,8, making any angle with the line 7.1 to be divided. Then with the
* Problem, '7tpo^>.riii.Xy problema, " from ^clKKui, hallo, to throw; and itpo, before; i. e. to propofe,
or fet before : a propofition relating to praftice, or which propofes fomething to be done; as to bifeft
a line given, to draw a circle through any three points;" or, as in the prefent cafe, to divide a line
into any number of equal parts.
C z foot
( 20 )
foot of your compafles fixed on 7, turn the arch* 1.8, and, without any
alteration of the inftrument, place its foot in i, and turn the arch 7.9 at
pleafure.
Second, Take the fpace 1.8, and place it on the arch 7.9 which was drawn
indefinitely . Then from i to 9 draw a right line, which will be parallel to
the line 7.8.
Thus far it fliould be obferved, that the problem teaches to draw two lines
parallel, both with difpatch and accuracy.
Laftly, with your compafles opened at random, lay on the divifions 1,2,3,
4, 5, 6, on both lines, firfl: from i to 9, then from 7 lo 8 ; and by drawing
lines from each correfpondent point, the given line 1.7 will then be divided as
required. Obferve, that whatever number the given line is to be divided into,
the lines 1.9 and 7.8 are to be divided into one le(s.
A little reflexion will point out the reafon of this, if we confider that the
lines 7.8, 1.9, are perfe£lly parallel to each other.
For if the divifions laid on each line be greater or lefs than thofe fought for,
yet lines drawn acrofs to each refpcclive divifion will cut the line to be divided
in the fame points ; becaufe what is loft or gained on one line by thefe uncer
tain divifions, will be regained or loft when the fame uncertain divifions are
placed the contrarv way on the other parallel line. Tliis is clearly exemplified
in the fic^ure by the fmall dotted lines drawn from fmaller divifions, as at 0,
which interfea the given hne 1.7 as before.
This may be performed by fewer lines, thus: — Let a b. No. 2, be the line
to be divided, fuppofe into four; draw ac, making any angle with ab at dif
cr(.t;on, and oi any length. Open the compafles at random, and fpom a to
* Arch, from axus, a bow, Lat. and whea ufed in Geometry implies " any part of a circum
fennce of a circle."
t That is, without bounds or limits.
wards
( 21 )
wards c lay on four divifions ; draw a line from c to b, and to the line c, b^ e^
draw the line 2, 3, 4, each of them parallel, then will the given line a^ be
divided as required.
Problem II. Fig. 2.
To divide a frieze or pilafter, &c. &c. into any given number of flutes and
fillets :
I. Let AB be the fuppofed width of the pilafter required to be fluted.
Operation. — Draw the right line CD indefinitely. Take then two pair of
compafles, one for the flutes, and the other for the fillets ; and with the firft
opening of your compafles for the flutes, lay it on C D, and divide this uncer
tain opening ab into three. Again, take one of thefe three parts for each
fillet, as c a, and repeat it on the line C D, firfl: a fillet, then a flute, till you
have the propofed number, which in this cafe is 5, (and always in pilafl:er3
fliould be an odd number*).
Second, Extend your compafl'es from c to d^ the whole fpace which the
uncertain divifions include; and with one foot on c or ^/, turn the arches Ec
and Ed', and from the point where thefe two arches interfed, as at E, draw
right lines to c and d, which will then form an equilateral triangle.
Laflly, Draw lines from all the divifions on C D to E. After which, take
A B, the given width of the pilaflier, in the compafles, and turn the arch e d,
and through the two fedlions ^</ draw a right line, then will ^^beequ.il A B,
and the pilafl:er or frieze will be divided in the mofl: accurate manner as
required.
* Obferve, aiiv opening of one pair of compafles will do the wlioie bufiiiefs, if a previous calcu
lation be made of the equal parts contained in all the flutes and fillets. Thus, in the prefcnt cafe,
\vc fay there are five flutes, allowing the fpace of three fillets to a flute, which make together fifteen ;
and the addition of fix, the number of fillets in the pilafter, make twentyone. Therefore lay on t!»e
compafles at random twentyone times, and proceed as above,
Problem
( 22 )
Problem III. Fio. 3.
To raife a perpendicular from any given point on a line as its bafe.
Operation. — Let G be the given point on the bafe line G V. Take then
the * radius G O, or any other at pleafure, and turn the arch O S. Fix again
your compafs foot in O, and, without any alteration, interfedl the arch at P.
On P, with the fame opening of the compafles, make another feftion at S,
and from thofe points SP turn an arch each way, and their interfeclion at R
will form a point perpendicular with the given point G, as required.
This may alfo be effe(5ted another way with more difpatch, but perhaps not
always with equal accuracy.
Operation. — Let A P, Pig. 15, Plates, be the bafe, and P the point
whence you would ereft a perpendicular. With any opening of the compaffes,
and with one of its legs fixed any where out of the line, as at R, defcribe the
arch O, P, R, till it cut the bafe line, as at O. Then from O draw O R
through the center S, cutting the arch at R, and their fedtion will form a
point perpendicular to P, as required.
Thefe problems may be very ufeful to an Upholflierer when he is laying
down the plan of a room for a carpet, as it is not convenient always to take a
fquare with him. Befides, by a good line, bradaul, and chalk, a perpendi
cular may be raifed with more exadtnefs than can be drawn on a floor by a
fquare. But, as I intend giving fome direflions to the Upholfterer how to lay
down a room in an accurate manner, fo that a carpet may be properly cut by
his plan, Lfliall at prefent fay nothing more on this fubjeift.
* Radius, a right line drawn from the center of a circle to its circumference. This right line, I
conceive, anfwers to the rays of light (in optical fenfe), which, falling upon the eye every where in
rightlined direftions, form a lioriion to our fight.
Problem
( 23 )
Problem IV. Fig. 4.
To draw a perpendicular line by a fcale of equal parts, as by a conimon
rule, or by a rod divided.
Operation. — Let the line G V be the line required to raife a perpendicular
from. Let V be the propofed point, and from any fcale of equal parts lay
down ten of thofe parts from the point V towards G. Take then fix of thofe
parts (or fix inches of the common rule) and turn the arch 1.2 at pleafure.
Again, take ten parts, or ten inches of your rule, and place the end of the
rule or rod on the eighth of thofe ten parts or inches, as at Q, and with the
other hand, by a pencil, interfed the arch 1.2, by which a point will be
gained exailly perpendicular to V, as required.
This problem will be of ufe to the Cabinetmaker and Upholfterer when
neither fquare or compaflTes are at hand. For inftance, if a Cabinetmaker
would cut a board acrofs perfeflly fquare, without compafles, chalk line, or
fquare, if he have but a rod, let him proceed thus:
Divide the rod into ten equal parts, and by this ftraight rod ftrike a line
on the fide of the board ; and then lay down ten parts on this line, and proceed
as above.
SECTION
( «4 )
SECTION ir.
On the life of a Common Cafe of Injlruments, together with fame Geometrical
Problems confidcred.
As the various inftruments found in common cafes are not commonly un
derftood by Cabinetmakers and Upholfterers, and as the principles by which
they are devifed and con(lru£ted are purely geometrical, I think it neceffary
and ufeful to give an explanation of them, fo far as they can any way aflift the
above perfons, or others, in the pradlce of drawing.
The firft thinsc that needs be noticed is a fcale of feet and inches.
The intention and ufe of a fcale is to reduce the real meafurements of any
objedt to a convenient proportion, fo that it may be reprefented on a (heet of
paper, &c. with as much exadtnefs as if it were drawn at full fize *.
A fcale of feet and inches fliould be ufed when we reprefent any piece of
furniture either geometrically or perfpedivcly, becaufe fuch a fcale anfwers to
our common rules ; but mathematicians ufe a fcale of tenths.
On the ConfiruSlion and Ufe of a Scale of Feet and Inches.
To conftru6t a fcale of feet and inches, draw feven lines parallel to each
other, and at equal diftances, as in Plate I. Fig. 9. Then, as on the line
1,2,3, lay down as many divifions for feet as will comprehend the largeft
* The term Scale feems to have been derived from the fteelyard, and its notches or divifions
marked on tl>e beam, to adjuft the different degrees of weight by.
dimenfiou
( ^5 )
dimenfion of the piece you would draw. Secondly, divide one of thefe parts,
which you luppofe to be a foot, into twelve equal parts, the number of inches
in a foot ; to efFe£l which, divide that part or foot into two equal parts, as at
6 : draw then the two lines 6.1, 6. i 2, and the foot will be divided as required,
and in the moft accurate manner, as is clearly demonftrated by the fmall di
vifions on the line 12, each of which are perpendicular to their refpedlive
numbers on the oblique lines.
To ufe the Scale.
If you want one foot one inch, place your compafs foot on the lecond
line from the bottom, over i, and extend the other foot to No. i on the fame
line. Again ; if you want one foot two inches, then place the foot of your
compafles on the third line from the bottom, and extend the other foot to
No. 2 on this line. Laftly j if you want three feet feven inches, place one
foot of your compafles on the fixth line, over 3, and extend the other
foot to No. 7, and fo on for any other number of feet and inches that may be
required.
On the ConJlru6lion and Ufe of a Scale of Tenths.
Draw eleven lines parallel to each other, and at equal diftances, as in Fig.
10, Plate II. Afterwards lay down eleven divilions, as you fee on the fcales
found in cafes of inftruments (I have divided mine only into fix, for want of
room). Take one of thofe divifions or parts, and by Prob. I. Fig. i, divide it
again into ten equal parts, placing the divifions on the bottom and top line.
Then from the point draw a line to the point 1 on the top line, and fo on,
as the Figure fhews. When all thefe lines are drawn, there will then be
precifely one hundred equal parts, diftinguifhable by the dots on the feveral
angles of the rhombs, becaufe, being divided into ten each way, they multi
ply into one hundred, by which we fhall be able to take any tenth or any
hundredth part of the large divifions or integers, i, 2, 3, 4, &c.
D To
( 26 )
'to uje this Scale,
If you want one of the large divifions and one loth, this is afcertained by
placing one foot of your compafles on No. i, and extending the other to the
firft divifioa beyond o, and fo on, as may be required. Again, if you want
one large divifion (which may be called a foot) and eight hundredth parts of a
foot, place one foot of your compalTes on the line 9, and extend the other to
the firfl tenth on that line, and you will then have one foot and ei^ht hundredth
parts, as required. Laftly, if you want five feet, five tenths of a foot, and
five hundredth parts, place your compafs foot on No. 6, on the right hand
end of the fcale, which is the fixth line from the bottom, and extend the
other foot to the fixth dot on the fame line, as at 0, and the required dimenfioii
will be obtained. It will be evident, therefore, by a little reflection on the
nature of this fcale, that any tenth, or hundredth part of a foot, may be ac
curately taken ; for it is evident that, by this method, the whole fpace, com
prehending what we may fuppofe a foot in length, will be accurately divided
into one hundred equal parts.
The fcale of chords comes next under confideration. This fcale is com
monly found on the contrary fide to that whereon the fcale of tenths is
marked, which we have now defcribed. The ufe of it is to lay down
angles of different degrees, and to divide a circle into various proportions
and parts.
'the ■ConfiruSiion and Ufe of a Scale of Chords.
1. Open the compafles to fixty degrees on the fcale marked C H O, Fig. 11,
Plate II. and by this opening defcribe a femicircle, as B D A,  Fig. 1 2. Then
if the arch B D be divided into ten equal parts, thofe parts lo, 20, 30, &c.
will anfwer to 10, 20, 30, &c. on the fcale of chords, Fig. 11. Hence, if
you want to divide a circle into twelve parts, take thirty from the fcale of
chords, and apply the compalTes to the arch B D at 30, then B D will contain
it
( 27 )
it three times, and confequently the whole circle will contain it twelve times.
If again you want this circle divided into eight equal parts, then from the fcale
take the chord of 45, and apply it to the arch BD at 45, and this will divide
the quadrant into two equal parts, and therefore the whole circumference may,
by the fame opening, be divided into eighths. In this manner any other di
vifion of a circle may be certainly known at once, which a little thought will
eafily make clear, and therefore it is unneceflary to give any other example on
dividing the circumference of a circle into equal parts.
This fcale may likewife be ufed in laying down any angle* not more than
ninety degrees. Draw the line Go, Fig. 16, at pleafure ; then take the
chord 60° and defcribe the arch 00 at pleafure. With your compafles take the
chord 37°f and place it on the arch 00 ; draw the right line G 0, and you have
an angle of thirtyfeven degrees and an half, and fo of any other, to ninety
degrees.
On the PROTRACTORf.
The Protraftor is a femicircle of brafs, divided into one hundred and eighty
degrees, by the help of which we may defcribe an angle of any afligned quan
tity whatever, and likewife meafure any angle already laid down.
Let the arch, divided into one hundred and eighty equal parts, on the line
AB, Fig. 6, Plate I. be confidered as the bpafs protradlor, which is found in
common cafes of inftruments.
* Angle. " This feems to be from AfKuXoy, ankulos, the bending of the elbow;" and in Geo
metry, implies the point in which two lines meet: but the quantity of an angle is the fpace compre
hended between the two lines meeting in a point, as 0, Plate II. Fig. 16. and its proportion is ex
preffed by degrees ; which term, Degree, means fimply the three hundred and fixtieth part of a circle,
whether great or fmall.
t Protrailor, {xom protraflum, " to draw out in length;" accordingly, by the help of this inftru
ment we may draw out the legs of a triangle to any length we pleafe.
D 2 Firft,
( ^8 )
Firfl, Obferve the center of the protrador, diftinguifhed by a fmall notch 9n
the diameter, anfwerable to 6, on A B, Fig. 6
2d. Let it be required to lay down an angle of ninety degrees, and let A B
be confidered as the bafe. Then place the fmall notch on the diameter of the
brafs protradlor, upon 6, on the line A B, and make a mark exadlly over 90 ;
confequently a line from 6, the center, to 90, the vertical* point, will form
an angle of ninety degrees, or what we commonly call a fquare.
Again, if an angle of fortyfive be wanted, proceed as before, and make a
dot over 45 ; to which draw a line from the center, and it will be an angle, as
required} and fo of any other to any quantity. This is fo plain, that to fay
more would be necdlefs. It may however be proper to obferve, that the
quantity of any angle already laid down may alfo be found by the protrador,
as follows :
Let Goo, Fig. 16, Plate II. be the angle to be meafured. Take the ra
dius, or half diameter of the protraflor, and defcribe the arch ; then open
the compaffes to 00, and apply them to the degrees marked on the inftrument,
and it will immediately be feen how many of thofe divifions are contained in
the anole, which number of divifions are called the quantity of the angle. Or
thus : place the center of the protraflor to the angle G, and let its adge coin
cide with either of the lines G 0, and in what degree on the protraftor the other
fide touches will be the quantity of the angle.
On the Sector f.
The Seftor is a moft univerfal inftrument, and ufed for various purpofes in
the different branches of mathematical learning. Nor is it without its ufeful
* Vertical, " placed in a dire£l:ion perpendicular to the horizon."
+ Seder ; it is fo called becaufe, when it is opened, it comprehends a portion of a circle between
two femidiameters, making an angle at the center, as OA4, Plate I. Fig. 6.
nefs
yj /)/ /.
Frflt/emah'/xi/ Sutures /(5r ,//i;'J,,i,; /ti.
2'ulil^Ai/aS'^ieAct ii'fVcArAug^ S7. 779/.
( ^9 )
nefs in the art of drawing, and therefore thofe who are concerned with defign
ing, ought, in fome meafure, to be acquainted with it.
To this end let us iirft confider the moft fimple part of it, which is, to di
vide any given right Une into any number of equal parts.
The line to be divided by the fe^tor is 7.7, Plate I. Fig. 5, which is to be
divided into feven.
Firfl:, Look for the line of lines on the fe6lor, which may be found by ob
fervins two brafs centers marked with l on each limb of the inftrument.
*D
Second, Take the length of the line 7.7 in your compafTes, and place one
foot on the point 7 on the line of lines, and opening the Se£lor, extend it till
the other leg of the compafles coincides with the point 7 on the other limb of
the inftrument, as Fig. 5 clearly expreffes. In this pofition keep the fedor,
and moving the compafles to i.i, which is the neareft figure to the center of
the inftrument, conrrafl: thsir legs till ynii take the opening 1. 1, which, if
corredtly done, will be one feventh part of the line 7.7, as propofed. Perhaps
it may be required to divide a line into fourteen ; if fo, then as there are only
ten on the line of lines, you take half the length of the given line in your com
pafles, and place their legs on the points 7.7 as before ; and, as this opening is
but half the length of the line to be divided, the compaflTes muft be contra£led
to I.I as before, and then the line will be divided into fourteen, becaufe twice
feven is fourteen. Take this in a numerical fenfe, and confider the line
7.7 as 70, to be divided by 10, and the quotient may be found on the {eStor
thus : extend the compafles from the center of the joint of the fedor to
I on the line marked L. And with this opening of the compafles place one
leg in the brafs center L, and extend the other limb of the feftor till the other
leg touch L. With this opening of the fedtor, take the compafl*es and con
trad them till they coincide on y.j on the fame lines. Laftly, apply the
compafles at this opening from the center of the joint as before, and it will
extend to number 7, that is, feven of the fmall divilions or tenths, which will
be the quotient fought for ; for if we fay, How often ten in feventy ? the an
fwer
( 3<^ )
fwer is, 7 times. The whole of this is more mathematically expreffed as fol
lows : to work a queftion in divifion by the line of lines, extend the compaffes
laterally from the beginning of the line to 1 ; and open the fe£tor till that ex
tent coincide with the parallel of the divifor, as in this cafe 10.10 ; after which,
by this opening, take the parallel of the dividend 70.70, which mcafured la
terally* will give 7 the quotient. This I only confider as a hint of what may
be done on the fedor.
Of the Line of Polygons f on the SeSor.
This line is intended to divide the circumference of a circle into equal
parts, by which various kinds of Polygons, from a pentagon to a duodecagon,
may be formed. Hence it is diftingui(hed by the letters P O L on this in
flrument.
Let it be required to divide the circle. Fig. 8, into five, which forms a pen
tagon. Take the radius or half diameter of Fig. S, and opening the fprftor, aS
defcribed by Fig. 7, place the compafs on the point 6.6, marked radius. In
this pofition keep the le61:or, and, without any variation of the inftrument,
you may divide the circle 8 from 4 to 1 2. In the cafe before us it is into five ;
therefore take the compaffes from the points 6, and extend them till they
touch 5.5, and this opening will go five times on the circle 8, as will be evident
if you take ^.c^ in your compaffes from Fig. 7, and apply it to Fig. 8.
Laflly, if you want the circle 8 divided into twelve, by which to form a
duodecagon (fee Plate II. Fig. 26), the fedor ftill remaining unaltered, place
* The term lateral, applied to the fe6lor, implies that the meafureir.ent be taken perpendicularly
to the horizon, or periphery, which is defcribed by the motion of each limb of the fedlor ; but pa
rallel meafurement on the fedor, implies an extenfion of its limbs, and an application of the legs of
the compaffes to fuch numbers as are of equal diftance from the center or beginning of the line
of lines.
t " Polygon, from ircAuc, polus, many; and ywwa, gonia, a corner; having many corners or
angles."
your
(i 31 )
your compafs legs on the points 1 2.12, and apply them to tlie circle 8, and it
will be divided as required.
Obferve alfo, that a geometrical fquare may, by the fame means, be infcribed
in any circle ; for by keeping the fe£lor extended as before, and opening the
compafTes till their legs touch on 4.4, this opening will turn four times on the
circle 8,, and therefore will form a fquare.
How this line of polygons is divided fo as to proportion any circle in this
manner, will eafily be underftood by confidering Fig. 6.
Defcribe a circle of any radius, and draw the diameter AB. Divide one half
of the circumference into one hundred and eighty equal parts, called degrees,
and from 90° draw the arch 4 from the center A, then will the lines AO and
A 4 reprefent the limbs of the fedlor, Fig. 7, and the fpace 4.0 on Fig. 6 will
anfwer to 4.4 on Fig. 7..
Next draw the arch 5 from 72°, and from the center to 5 will be the
chord of 72°, thp degrees rnntained in the fide of a pentagon, anfwerable to
5.5 on Fig. 7.
Proceed to the arch 6, and obferve, that this is the radius of the circle,
and is always equal to the chord line 60°, and therefore contains a length
equivalent to the fide of a hexagon, or a (ixfided figure, and agices with
6.6 on Fig. 7.
After thefe remarks, I think it unneceflary to go through each chord line;
only the reader ftioulci obferve, that I have marked luch chcrds as have frac
tional parts on the fine lines, or thofe drawn perpendicularl}' from AB. For
inftance, the chord for a heptagon is fiftyone degrees and threelevcnth parts
of a degree; and the meaning of threefeventh parts is nothing more than to
divide a degree into feven, and to take three of thofe parts and a^'d to fiftyone,
which is exactly the fide of a circle divided into feven, c^llc^i a heptagon.
Thefe parts are eafily found and proved by dividing three hundred and fixty,
the
( 32 )
the number of degrees contained in a whole circle, by the quantity of fides
contained in any polygon, for then the quotient will be the number of degrees
which are in the arch of e.very fuch chord line.
Thus for a heptagon : divide three hundred and fixty by feven, then will
the quotient be fiftyone degrees and threefevenths, equal to the fide of a
heptagon.
Of the Line of Chords on the Secior,
The chords on the fixed fcale have already been confidered (fee page 26).
Thefe chords are limited to one circle, which, to fuit that fcale, mufl always
be drawn by the compafles extended to fixty degrees on that fame fcale : but
the fcale of chords on the fe6lor is unlimited, becaufe the chords of circles of
various radii may be found according as the limbs of the inftrument are more
or lefs extended.
The line of chords is on the fame lide of the "ledtor with ^the polygons,
marked with C nigh to a brafs center on each limb : and if it be required to
find the chord of thirty of any circle, take the radius of the given circle, and
open the fedor till the compafs legs coincide with thofe brafs centers at 60.60,
then contracting the compafles till their legs touch 30.30, the required chord
line will be found. In this manner proceed in any other cafe; always ob
fervint^ that the femidiameter of the circle muft limit the opening of the fedlor
at the brafs centers.
By this line of chords on the fedlor it is evident that a circle may be divided
into feven hundred and twenty equal parts with confiderable difpatch and
great accuracy.
Of
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Sct/fe of 7e/if/i^. C/}or(/s. St't/ns. ^.c
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^/'^^f/ . //
Thtr i.
to 10 .J
To AtfH' ixn Oraf
fy^eSccrorand
JZ7M' to mifre a(h
reWp, ofitrffenytf
projetti'ons .
ff — *
S J J 2 r A
y rli/<'r/,j f/i <■ //tip, /(■//( ■y/(/fl ,r. J, \ //i,7i <
J*ti7 V ilh/i>ifrurn
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/. fhi^'f ^t'r/^//'.
TiJ'///JlJ ,u r/le ^4,t ,iirn^.r. .luo. 'jfi. /.//.
( 33 )
Of the hint of Sines on the SeSlor.
A Sine is a right line drawn from one end of an arch perpendicularly upon
the diameter drawn from the other end of that arch, as the perpendicular line
90, drawn from the diameter B A, Fig. 12, Plate II. is the fine of the arch
BD; and fo likewife all the other perpendicular lines, as r, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c.
on the line B A, are fines of fo many different portions of the arch BDA.
The line of Sines on the feftor, which Fig. 13 is intended to reprefent, is
marked s s nigh 90.90, with two brafs centers, one on each limb of the in
ftrument. The feveral divifions on this line, marked 10, 20, 30, &c. anfvver
to thefe perpendicular lines i, 2, 3, 4, ^.,^c. on the line BA, Fig. 12, and
the different fituations of thofe perpendicular lines are found by dividing the
arch D A into nine equal parts. Perpendiculars being then drawn from each
refpe£live divifion on the circumference of the circle to the diameter AB,
they are of courfe denominated fines of 10, 20, 30 degrees, and fo on.
to draw an Oval by the SeSlor.
Firfl, Draw a circle that will comprehend the longcft diameter of the oval
you wifh to defcribe, as the circle BDA, Fig. 12. Divide the quadrant DA
into nine equal parts.
Second, Take then the fhortefl diameter in the compafTes, and place one foot
on the fine 90", and open the fedtor till the other coincides or touches 90* on
the other limb of the inflrument. In this pofition keep the inflrument fixed,
and contrail the compafTes till their feet touch the fine 8o°.8o°; transfer this
opening of the compafTes to the perpendicular line 8 at 80, which mark with
the point of a pencil.
Proceed to the fine 70, keeping the fe£tor flill in the fame pofition, and,
after contrafting the compafTes till their legs touch 70.70 on the fedlor, tranf
E fer
( 34 )
fer this opening to the perpendicular line 7 at 70*, and fo on of all the reft to
the fine 10, by which will be obtained nine points, contrafted in due propor
tion * from the arch DA; and a line, paffing through each of thefe points,
and drawn by a fteady hand, will form an ellipfis perfedly true and agreeable,
as is evident by the figure.
From what has been faid, I prefume it will eafily be underftood by every
one how to proceed with the other quarters to complete the whole ellipfis.
A circle may alfo be defcribed by the fe£lor upon the fame principle that
an ellipfis is drawn by it. This, in itfelf, is not very neceflary to be known,
becaufe when we have no compafl!es, no ufe can be made of the fe6lor, and
when we have them by us, they are the beft inftrument for drawing a circle.
However, fince what belongs to the drawing of a circle by the fedlor, partly
belongs to the defcribing of an ellipfis by this inftrument, I fliall venture upon
this Problem.
Operation. — Draw a right line at pleafure, of length enough to contain the
diameter of the circle to be drawn. Bifei!! j this line, and draw a line at right
angles with it of the fame length. Take then the femidiameter of the circle,
and place it on the lines each way.
Open the fe<flor, and on the line of fines proceed as before to take the fine 80.
Transfer this to any femidiameter, as 9 A, Fig. 12, which will extend to 1
on that line. Then proceed to take the fine 70, and transfer this alfo, which
will extend to 2 on that line. Proceed to the fine 60, and this opening will
* This is evident by obferving, that as a right line drawn from 45 on the tangent line to the center
g, cuts the arch DA in the degree 45; fo likewife will a right line drawn from 10 on the tangent
line to the center, cut the elliptic arch 90 A in the fame degree.
+ A line is faid to be bife£ted when it is divided into two equal parts, from "Us znd/eflum, to cut
in two;" an operation which is eafily performed by defcribing two arches from the extremities of the
line to be thus divided; as from b and d, in Fig. 14, where two arches intcrfedt, which, if a line
be drawn from thefe interfeftions, it will both bifed the given line, and will at the fame time be
drawing one at right angles to it.
extend
( 35 )
extend to 3 on the fame line, and fo on, till you take the line 10, which will
extend from 9 to 8. The fame muft bs done on the other radius, as you take
the fines from the fedor. Having thus divided one diameter, draw perpendi
cular lines from each divifion each way at random. Laftly, take the fame
fuies again from the line 9 A, and place them upon their refpedive fines ; that
is, take from 9 to i, which is the fine 80, and place this upon the perpen
dicular line 8 at 80, and fo of all the reft, and they will form thirtyfix points
for the whole circle; through which points, if a line be corredlly drawn, the
circumference of a complete circle will be produced with as much accuracy as
when we draw the circumference of an oval in the fame manner.
Of the 'Tangent * Line on the Senior.
A tangent is a right line drawn perpendicular on the extremity of
fome radius, touching the circumference of the circle, but not cutting it,
as A 45, Fig. 12.
This line is of ufe to divide the circumference of a circle into any number
of equal parts, and may be found on the fe£lor by a brafs center on each line,
marked T. To this line there is added another of the fame kind, marked T
on each limb, but without a brafs center to it.
To divide a circle by this line, proceed thus :
Take the radius of the circle to be divided, and with this opening place
the compafs legs on each line T, marked 45.45, then will the fedlor be pre
pared for finding every degree of a circle up to 45. This is clear; for if
the radius be laid down on the tangent line, Fig. 12, as at 45, a line drawn
from 45 to 9, the center, will cut the arch DA at 45 degrees, as is obvious by
infpedion. Thus the circle may be divided into eight, fince forty fiye is the
half of ninety, confequently the eighth part of three hundred and fixty. The
* Tangent, from tangens, Latin, touching.
E 2 fedor
( 36 )
fedlor being ftill in the fame pofition, if you want to cut the arch DA at lo
degrees, contrafl the legs of the compafles till they coincide with ro.io on the
tangent line, and transfer this on the tangent line A 45, and a right line being
drawn to the center as before, it will cut the arch D A at 10. Hence if the
arch DA is required to be divided into nine, the extent of the compafles at
thofe ten degrees will turn nine times on the arch DA.
It has already been obferved, that there are two tangent lines on the fe(5lor.
The tangent line which has not the brafs center, is to increafe that which has
one up to y^j as it is marked on that line. When therefore any degree above
fortyfive is wanted, take the radius of the circle to be divided, and open the
ledor till the compafs legs touch 45 on the fecond tangent line on each limb;
then will the inflrument be prepared for taking the tangent of any degree up
to feventyfive, by proceeding in the fame manner as on the firft tangent
line.
SECTION III.
On the Names and Properties of various ufeful Geometrical Figures of the
Superficies.
To have fome knowledge of the names of ufeful geometrical figures is cer
tainly of advantage to every one, and efpecially to fuch perfons as are concerned
•with drawing or making pieces of work of the like forms..
It is certain from experience and matter of fa£t, that many, not acquainted
with names of this kind, are obliged to ufe a dozen words and figns when one
would be fufficient.
Befides, a knowledge of thefe names, together with an acquaintance with
the
( ^7 )
the general properties and manner of drawing fuch figures, muft certainly
be confidered as an introdudlory flep to a more advanced knowledge of Geo
metry, by thofe young men who intend to rife higher in this fublime fcience,
than can be expefted to be taught in a drawingbook.
I (hall therefore begin with the names and properties, and afterwards
defcfibe the conftruftion or manner of drawing, the moft generally ufeful
jfigures.
Of the Superficies*. (See Plate II.)
No. r, is a Geometrical Square, fo called becaufe it has four fides of equal
length, and four right angles.
Noi, 2, is a Parallelogram. This figure receives its name from its oppofitc
fides and ends being all parallel to each other.
No. 3, a Rhomb, which is properly a geometrical fquare moved out of its
pofition, fince all its fides are equal, but not its angles, two of them being acute,
and the other obtufe.
No. 4, is a Rhomboides, a figure which bears the fame affinity to a paral
lelogram that a rhomb does to a geometrical fquare. A rhomboides has its fides
and ends parallel to each other, but its angles differ the fame as thofe of the
rhomb ; and therefore a rhomboides is a parallelogram moved out of its proper
formf.
No. 5, is a Trapezoid, which has four fides, two of which are parallel, and
two not, the fame as the feats of fome chairs.
* Superficies, fuperficies, Lat. the furface or outermofl: part of any thing, and in Geometry
are fuch figures as are bounded by one or more hnes, or an extenfion which has length and breadth,
but no thicknefs.
t Thefe four figures are all parallelograms, though of different names.
No. 6,
( 38 )
No. 6, a Trapezium containiug four fides, which are all unequal, and none
of them parallel.
Thefe fix figures, being all of them bounded by four right lines, are, by
geometricians, called quadrangular or quadrilateral plain figures.
Of various Triangles.
No. 7, is an Equilateral Triangle, fo called becaufe all its fides are equal
to one another; and, as every triangle contained under three equal fides, whe
ther circular or mixed, is called equilateral, fo the figures ii, 12, 15, are
alfo of that denomination.
No. 8, is a Rightangled Triangle, becaufe two of its fides are perpendicular
to each other, and confequcntly make an angle of ninety degrees, as the line
9.90°, Fig. 12, is perpendicular to BA; therefore A 9.90° forms a right
angled triangle, comprehending a part of a circle equal to ninety degrees.
In all ri^htangled triangles, the fides containing the right angle are called
the Legs, as the fides 9 A, A 45, are the legs of the triangle 9 A, 45, in Fig.
1 2 : and the oppofite fide to the right angle is called the Hypothenufe,
as the line 9.45, in the triangle 9 A, 45, is the hypothenufe fide of that
triangle.
•' The perpendicular height of any triangle is a line drawn from the vertex
to the bafe perpendicularly :" thus if the triangle PRO, Fig. 15, be propofed,
P O muft be confidered as its bafe, and confequcntly R its vertex ; and if from
R you draw the line R P perpendicularly to P O, then the line RP is the height
of the triangle RPO, ftanding on PO, its bafe.
No. 9, is a triangle called Scalenous, becaufe none of its fides are equal,
nor its angles alike in quantity. A Scalene Triangle is compofed of two kinds
of
( 39 )
of angles, one obtufe and the other acute ; fo alfo a rightangled triangle is
compofed of two, a right one, and an acute.
All other triangles are of the acute kind.
An obtufe* angle is one that is greater than ninety degrees, or more than
what we call a fquare, as a line from 9 to the point D, Fig. 1 2.
An acute angle is lefs than ninety degrees, as a line from 9 to 10, confider
ing the fide 9 A as their bafe.
No. 10. This Triangle is called Ifofceles, becaufetwo of its fides are equal
in length, as G 0, G 0, Fig. 16; or if the feftor be opened, a triangle of this
kind is fitly reprefented by it.
Thefe four triangles, being bounded by three right lines, are called re£li
lineal plain triangles; and, in general, thefe are placed before the quadrilateral,
or fourfided figures, becaufe by geometricians they are confidered as more
fimple, having only three fides : but as triangles generally appear more out
of the way to workmen, I have alTumed this liberty to place them after four
fided figures.
Of mixed 'Triangles.
Of this kind are numbers 11, 12, 13, 14, and they are called mixed trian
gles, becaufe fome of their fides are right lines, and fome curved ones. Three
of thefe are equilateral, or equalfided, if meafured by a right line; and No.
14 is a fcalene triangle by the fame rule, as none of its fides are equal. The
fides of thefe mixed triangles that are round, are called convex tj but thofe that
are hollow, as No. 13, 14, are called concave.
* Obtufe, fignifies flat or blunt ; and acute, {harp or cutting.
t Convex is properly applicable only to any folid that has a curved or fwelled furface, and concave
is the contrary.
Of
( 40 )
Of Spherical* Triangles.
A fpherical triangle is one that is curved on every fide, as No. 15 and i6.
Thefe are both of the equilateral kind, becaufe their fides may be bounded by
right lines of equal length.
Of Mixiilineal Figures.
No. 17 is of this kind; and every other figure that is bounded both by
right and curved lines is called mixtilineal.
o'
Of thefe figures fome are regular, and fome irregular.
When a figure of this kind is compofed of equal curved and equal right
lines, then it is called a regular compound mixtilineal figure ; but when its fides
and ends are formed of unequal curved and unequal right lines, then they
are called irregular compound mixtilineal figures.
Of this fort is No. 18.
Of Polygonal Figures.
All Figures bounded by more than four right lines are termed Polygons.
The figures included between No. 19 and 26 are all of this denomination.
But each of thefe figures has its particular name from the number of the fides
of which it is compofed.
* Spherical, fomething like a fpliere or globe.
No, 19,
( 41 )
No. 19, Is therefore called a regular Pentagon i*, becaufe it is bound by
five right lines of equal length, and of equal angles; but if any of thofe lines
were unequal in length, then it would be termed an irregular Pentagon. The
fame might be faid provided the fides were of equal length, if the figure were
fo diftorted or pufhed out of its regular pofition as to caufe inequality in the
angles. The fame diftindlion is applicable to any other Polygon in the like
cafe.
No. 20 is termed a Hexagon,
21 a Heptagon,
22 an Odlagon,
23 a Nonagon,
24 a Decagon,
25 an Undecagoni
26 a Duodecagon,
> becaufe it has <
6 fides or angles.
7
8
9
10
II
> 12
No. 27, is a figure fo well known that it is unnecefl[;\ry to fay pny thing
about it.
The fame may be faid of the Semi and Quadrant, Nos. 28 and 29, the one
being an half, and the other onefourth of a complete circle.
No. 30, is called the Greater Segment f of a circle, becaufe it is the great
eft part of a circle cut in two by a right line ; and of courfe No. 31 is the
Lefler  Segment, becaufe it is not equal to a femi. But if we fpeak of a
fegment without regard to comparifon, it is a figure contained between a chord
and an arch of a circle.
* Pentagon, from *ev7e, penie, five, and ymia, gonla, a fivecornered figure. The other Polygons
have all their particular names formed in the fame way, from the Greek numeral adjedlives.
+ Segment, from fegmentum, a piece cut ofF.
X Leffer. This way of forming the comparative adjective is by Dr. Johnfon and Lowth confidered
as barbarous ; but as cuftom has fo long prevailed in the ufe of it, and as the car feems to prefer lefler
rather than lefs, I thought it would fuit the readers beft to retain it.
No, 32,
( 42 )
No. 32, is aa EUipiis*, commonly called an oval. This figure may be
confidered, in one view, as produced by the feftion cf a cone, or cylinder, by
a plane cutting both fides of the cone or cylinder obliquely to their bale. In
another it may be conceived as a circle comprefled at oppofite points in its cir
cumference, by which one diameter is diminifhed, and the other proportionally
lengthened.
It may alfo be obferved both of a circle and an oval, that they are the only
regular fuperficies that are bounded by one line ; and thofe which are
bounded by two, are their refpedlive fegments : as Figures 28, 30, 31,
33^ 34.
No. ^2, is the SemiEllipfis, or Halfoval; and it is faid to be on the
tranfverfe axis, when the right fide is equal to the longeft diametep; but
when it is only equal to the fliortefl: axis, then it is faid to be on the
conjugate, as No. 34.
No. 35, is termed an Hyperbolic Figure. When a cone, Fig. 12, Plate
IV. has a fedion parallel to its axis, the curved boundary produced by the fec
tion is an Hyperbolic Figure ; and when its fedtion is parallel to the fides of
the cone, then the curved boundary produced is called a Parabolic Figure.
S E C T. IV.
Of the manner of drawing various ufeful Geometrical Figures.
In the preceding fe£lion, the names and fome of the properties of the moft
generally ufeful fuperficies have been confidered ; and I fhall now defcribe
* EUipfis, from iXXh^k, elhpjts, a defeft or omiflion. If a fuperfice be apparently round, but on
meafuring it, if one of its diameters be found Ihortcr than the other, there is then a defetl, and wc
fay that the figure is elliptic.
the
( 43 )
the method of drawing them. However, in doing this it will not be necef
fary to defcribe every particular figure, fmce the fame operation for one will
fometimes apply to various others.
Prob. V. Fig. 14.
To draw a Geometrical Square.
By the fecoud method of Prob. III. raife a perpendicular, as E^, Fig. 14,
Plate II. then extend the compaffes equal to the fide of the propofed fquare.
«
Fix one foot in E, and defcribe the arch ^, d, which will cut the line E ^,
E </, equal to the fides of its fquare. Laflly, from d and b^ with the fame
opening of the compaffes, turn the other arches, and their fedtion will
form a perpendicular to the points b and d^ by which the fquare may
be completed.
From what has been faid, it will eafily be underftood how to draw a
Parallelogram.
Prob. VI. Fig. 2 and i6.
To draw a Rhomb.
if the fides of this figure be intended to Incline at an angle of fixty degrees,
all that is necefiary is to draw two equilateral triangles from their oppofite
bafesj and to draw an equilateral triangle is nothing more than to take
in the compaffes the given fide of the triangle, and from a right line turn an
arch each way, as Fig. 2. Plate I. and their fedion, as at E, by lines drawn
to it, completes the figure.
F 2 Then
( 4+ )
Then if a right line be drawn parallel to C D at E, and c dbe laid on this
line fuppofed to be drawn, it will complete the Rhomb.
The Rhomboides, being of the fame fpecies of figure, is eadly drawn by the
fame rule. Nor is it requifite to defcribe the method of drawing any other
of the figures till we come to the Pentagon, becaufe fome of them are variable,
and thofe that are not fo, are drawn by the fame rules that are applicable to the
Square, Rhomb, and Equilateral Triangle.
Pros. VII. Fig. 19.
How to draw the Polygons.
To draw a Pentagon whofe fides (hall be equal to a given length, as the line
12. I, Fig. 19, Plate III.
Operation. — Draw a right line 12. i, and take the fide 12. i of the propof
ed Pentagon. Place one foot of the compafles on 12, and with the other
defcribe the arch i.i. Again, place the compafs foot on 1, and defcribe the
arch 1 2. 1, and through the point where thefe arches meet raife a perpendi
cular line, and continue it at pleafure. Divide the arch 12.1 into fix equal
parts. Take then the firft of thefe parts, and defcribe it to the perpendicular
line downwards, as the figure clearly (hews ; and from this point on the per
pendicular line extend the compafles to 12, which will be the radius of a cir
cle that will contain 12.1 five times : therefore with the compafTes thus fix
ed, defcribe the circle, Fig. 20. and it will admit of 12. 1 five times, forming
a regular Pentagon.
And here it (hould be obferved, that what has been done in this Problem
for drawing a Pentagon, prepares the way for drawing any Polygon up to 12,
whofe fides are equal to 12.1 : therefore in defcribing the other Polygons, I
fliali proceed as being thus far advanced.
Prob.
A"^!. /./.:
J^o/vf/o/is. Ovet/j. .').i
J. froki^ J'ai/p r
TuiPiu' t/ir •i'.'.' dtr;rt.r.^l\f,t.''jO. i~,)i.ln ti./h
/',''/■//¥?//'// ift"/,'
( 45 )
Prob. VIII. Fig. 19.
To defcribe a Hexagon, vvhofe fides fliall be equal to any given length.
Operation. — Take 12.1, the fuppofed dimenfion of the fide of the Hexa
gon, and with this radius draw a circle, whofe center is at the interfedion of
the two arches 12.1, i.i; then will the radius turn fix times on the cir
cumference of that circle, as the fmall daflies which are on it fpecify. It
may be made a general rule without exception, that whatever the dia
meter of a circle be, its radius will always divide the circumference into
fix.
Prob. IX. Fig. 19.
To defcribe a Heptagon, whofe fides (hall be equal to any given length.
Operation. — Take one of the parts on the arch 12. i, and turn it to 7 on
the perpendicular line. Extend the compaffes from this point 7 to 12. which
will be the radius of a circle that will contain the given fide 12. i feven times,
which forms a Heptagon.
If an OcStagon be wanted whofe fides are equal to 12.1, take from the cen
ter two parts, and defcribe the arch 2.8. Laftly, extend the compaflTes from 8
to 12, which, as before, will be the femidiameter of a circle that will con
tain the given fide 12.1 eight times, by which an odagon may be
formed.
In the fame manner proceed with the other to a circle that will contain the
given fide twelve times, as the largeft circle in the figure evidently does, as
marked by the figures i, 2, 3, &c.
In the preceding diredions for drawing the Polygons, their fides are prcvi
oufly determined as to their length ; but the circle that will contain' the fides
1 fo
( 46 )
fo many times, is required to be found. We (hall now change the order,
and propofe a given circle, in which ftiall be infcribed any Polygon of the
above kinds.
Prob. X. Fig. 21.
Therefore a circle being given, let it be required to find the fide of a Penta
gon that may be infcribed within the given circle.
Operation. — Let the line q 5 be the diameter of the given circle.
Bifed the diameter, and draw a line at right angles with it; then with the
radius s 5 defcribe the circle.
Second, Divide any of the quadrants of this circle into five equal parts, and
a chord line extended to four of thefe parts will be the fide of a Pentagon that
may be infcribed in the given circle, as the figure plainly (hews.
Prob. XI. Fig. 21.
To find the fide of a Heptagon that will infcribe within a given circle.
Operation. — Let Fig. 21 be the given circle, as before. Divide any of the
quadrants into feven, as the under right hand one in the figure.
Take then four of thefe divifions in your compafiTes, and the whole circle
21 will contain it feven times, which forms a Heptagon.
In this way proceed with the other Polygons, always obferving, that what
ever number of fides the Polygon is required to have, the quadrant of the
given circle muft be divided into the fame number of equal parts; and four of
thefe equal parts muft always be taken for the fide of the Polygon without ex
ception.
 ( 47 )
eeption. This is exemplified on each quadrant of the circle, which has al
ready been referred to, and, by a little infpedlion and refledtion, cannot fail to
be underftood.
The fimplicity of this method of infcribing Polygons in any circle, makes it
highly ufeful to all who are any way concerned with defcribing fuch figures
on an extenfive fcale. For inftance, how eafy is it to lay down the plan of
any room, or mark out the foundation wall for any building of thefe figures,
by firft drawing a circle equal to their refpe6live areas, and dividing the qua
drant of that circle into the fame number of equal parts as the room or building
has fides ; and then taking four of thofe parts for each fide of the building or
room.
From thefe hints the Cabinetmaker alfo will eafily apply this method
to any tabletop, or other piece of work that is required to be made of thefe
figures.
Of the various Methods of defcribing Ovals*
pROB. XII. Fig. 22.
To draw an EUipfis by the interfeftion of two circles.
Operation. — Let the line B A be the tranfverfe, or long axis, which divide
into three equal parts. Take one of thefe parts for the radii of the two cir
cles, and on the centers^ and s defcribe the circles interfering each other at
n n. Draw from n a right line through d to b» From n draw n s to f, and fo
of the other fide. Place the compafs foot on «, and extending the other to by
turn the arch b e. Laftly, fix the foot of the compaffes on the other », and
defcribing the oppofite arch the oval will be completed^
PR0B»
( 48 )
Pros. XIII. Fig. 23.
To draw an Oval whofe tranfverfe axis (hall be equal to the diameters of
two given circles.
Operation. — Draw C D equal to two diameters of a given circle. Defcribe
the circumferences of the two circles. Then from the center of each circle,
with the compafTes in the fame pofition as when the circles were drawn, turn
two arches, s dp and p s, interfe*Sting in the points s and p.
To complete the EUipfis, fix your compafs foot on j, and extend the other
to n ; turn the arch « r. Laflly, fix the compafs foot on p^ and defcribe the
oppofite arch, and the work is done.
The method of drawing thefe two kinds of Ovals fuppofes that we are only
confined to the length of the long axis, without regard to the fhort one ;
but the following Problem is to draw an Oval of any length and breadth as may
be required.
Prob. XIV. Fig. 24.
To defcribe an EUipfis whofe tranfverfe and conjugate axes are pre
determined.
Operation. — Let EF be the tranfverfe, and a half the conjugate. Take
^zo half of the fhort axis, and "place it from E to ^. Divide then the re
maining part of half the long axis into three equal parts, as the figure
fhews, and take one of thefe three parts and lay it on the other way, as from d
to n. Take the diflance from « to 0, and lay it from tog. Extend then the
foot of the compafTes from g to «, by which turn two arches each way, inter
fedling
( 49 )
fevfUngcach other zi pq. From q to n draw a right line out at pleafure. Do
the fame from q to g, and alfo from p to n and ^ on the oppofite fide ; then
will every center be found for each refpe£live arch. From the center fi extend
the compafs foot to E, and defcribe the arch E (^ c. Do the fame from the
center^, and turn the arch mF i. Laftly, from q extend the compafles to l>,
and turn the arch lim; and fo of the other fide, which will complete the El
lipfis as required.
Method Second. Fig. H in Plate A fucceeding this.
Divide half the tranfverle and conjugate axes into the fame number of equal
parts, fuppofe four. From the extreme of the conjugate axis draw right lines
through 4, 5, 6, at pleafure. To the oppofite extreme point 2 draw lines
from a be, and their interfeftions will be the points required for drawing one
quarter of the ellipfis. How to draw the other quarter will follow of courfe*.
By the fame method the ellipfis may be infcribed within a rhomb or
rhomboid, as ihewn at Fig. E.
Prob. XV. Fig. 26.
To draw an oval of any length and breadth by means of two pins and
a line.
The above methods for drawing ovals fuit well for fmall ovals defcribed on
paper, or any kind of metallic furface, or when very fmall ovals are wanted to
be drawn on wood. But when ovals of a large fize are required, they become
Inconvenient on account of their centers. Therefore Cabinetmakers generally
make ufe of a tramel, by which any oval from two to about four feet may be
drawn, both with more difpatch and accuracy than can be done by any other
* See Nicholfon's Principles of Archite6lure.
G method.
( 50 )
method. The method, however, which is here propofed, is not without its
advantages, fince by it an oval may be drawn as large as we pleafe, both with
little trouble and confiderable exadlnefs, provided that materials fufficiently
flrong and large enough were adopted for pins and a line.
Operation. — Let BD be the length of the oval, and As half the fhort di
ameter. Take then half of the longeft diameter, and place it from A to a till
it touch the line as exa£lly at a. Again, take the length as and place it on.
the right hand at the pin ; then will the two centers be found in which the
pins are to be fixed. Laftly, take a line and put it about the two pins, and
bring the ends of the line exadlly to A, at which point fix your pencil or piece
of thin chalk, and begin to defcribe in the manner that the hand exhibits, and
the pencil, &c. will pafs through the points D B A as required.
I have found the preceding method vaftly convenient in marking out the
circular ends of a fet of diningtablesj in which cafe there is always an op
portunity of flicking in the pins at one fide of the board, after a line has beea
ftruck to make the edge of the board flraight. Then, after drawing a per
pendicular line by a fquare and pencil from half the length of your dining
table top, proceed as above, and you may draw the femiellipfis juft to fuit the
breadth of the board, if it is fo required.
PROB. XVI. Fig. 27,
To defcribe an Oval by Ordinate Lines.
Where an oval is wanted to be defcribed on a fmooth furface that wiU
net admit of any incifion or rough mark, the following method may be recom
mended.
Operation. — Draw the infcribed circle in Fig. 27 on a feparate board or
paper, that the compafsfoot may not mark the fmooth furface. Divide one
femi
( 5t )
femidiatneter of this circle into any convenient number of equal parts. From
thefe divifions (fuppofe four) raife perpendicular lines to the periphery * or
circumference, which are called the Ordinates of that circle. Obferve, the
diameter of this circle is always equal to the conjugate axis of the oval. —
Proceed now to draw a line on the fuppofed fmooth furface, on which to de
termine the length of the long diameter; which divide into the fame number
of equal parts from the center each way as the femidiameter of the circle is
divided into. From thefe divifions draw lines acrofs, as the figure (hews.
Number the ordinates of the circle, as i, 2,3, 4, and do the fame to thofe of
the intended oval. Take then the compaffes, and fixing one foot in i on the
circle, extend the other to the point where that line touches the circum
ference. Transfer this opening of the compaffes to the lines i.i for the oval,
and make a pencil mark at the point each way from the diameter. Take the
ordinate 2 from the circle, and place it each way from the diameter on the
ordinates 2.2 for the oval, and mark the points with a pencil as before. In
this way proceed till all the ordinate lines are taken from the circle and transfer
red to their correfponding ordinates for the oval ; after which nothing will re
main but to draw by the hand a fmooth curved line through each point, and
the oval will be complete.
Prob. XVII. Fig. i8.
To draw an oval by means of a notched piece of wood and a fquare.
I propofe this method as a good makefhift, where a proper tramel is not
to be had, and when, perhaps, the method of drawing ovals by the fore
going rules may have efcaped the memory, and no book near at hand to
affift it.
Operation. — Let // be the long diameter, and take any fquare, by means
of which draw the line et at right angles, or fquare v^'ith it. Then notch
* Periphery, from wsft, peri, about ; and iptfu, phero, I bear or cany ; which derivation, if I am
not miftaken, alludes to the hand bearing the radius about its center, in order to delcribe the circum
ference of the circle.
G 2 out
( 52 )
out a piece of thin deal, as ag, to fuit the thlcknefs of the fquare, fo that the
bottom of ^ may reft on the furface of the oval, and not prevent a from pafllng
in the circumfercncey«f. From the pencil point near a to the end near g muft
be equal to half the long diameter gf, and from the notched part a to the
pencil point « muft be equal to half the fhort dinmeter eg. Laftly, place
your fquare, and with one hand keeping it unmoved on the two diameters,
by the other turn the elliptic arch efiox one quarter. Hovv^ to proceed to the
other quarters raufl be evident to. every one, and therefore it is unneceflary to
fay more.
The truth of this method will appear to every one by obferving, that if ^,
which is the end of the notched wood or tramel ftick, is moved gradually to^,
the internal angle of the fquare, thea will the pencil point be at f^ becaufe
from b to the pencil point is equal to fg, half the long diameter : and again,
'\i a, at the notch, be gradually turned to g^ the inner angle of the fquare,
then will the pencil point be at e, becaufe from a to « is equal ^^, half the
Ihort diameter.
I have already fhewn the method of drawing an oval by the fe£lor in Sedt. Ill
page 38, and therefore I need not fay any thing on it here.
Prob. XVIII. Fig. 30.
To find the center and two diameters of any oval vi'hofe circumference is al«
ready given, and whofe center and diameters are erafed or rubbed out.
Operation. — Let mi qg be the circumference of the oval.
Draw the right line y at random, and draw mn any where parallel to oq^
by means of two arches, as the figure (hews.
Second, Brfe£l the line m n from its interfeflion with the circumference
of the oval, as at s, Alfo bifed: oq m the fame manner as at s. Draw
the
( 53 )
the line ig through ssy and from where ig cuts the oval, bifeft ig, as at the
center s.
Third, On the center s defcribe any circle large enough to interfe£l the cir
cumference of the oval, as at the points c l>. Draw the line ci>, and bife£l it,
as at « ; then draw the long diameter ai> through us, the center ; and, laftly,
draw e d parallel to cl> ; then will edhe the ftiort diameter, al> the long one,
and s the center, as required.
This Problem will be found ufeful in many cafes. For inftance, when
the face of a fire fcreen is a true oval, and it is required to put the brafs
fprings on it after being covered with paper or filk, &c. in this cafe it will be
very uncertain whether the oval will hang true, if the fprings are only put on
by guefs.
To avoid uncertainty, take a flieet of paper and lay on the face of the fcreen,
drawing a pencil round its circumference, from which proceed to find the di
ameter as above.
Pros. XIX. Fig. 17.
To find the center of any fegment or complete circle whofe circumference
is already given.
Operation. — Let BDA be the fegment whofe center is required. Draw
the chord lines AD, BD, any how at random. Bife6l the chord AD by
defcribing two arches from the points A and D, as the figure (hews. Do the
fame to DB. Laflly, draw the right lines ?^ and al> through the interfedions
of thofe arches, and where thefe two lines meet in a point, as at c, will be
the center as required.
It is evident, if c be the true center of the fegment BDA, that it will alfo
be the true center of any complete circle of the fame radius.
It
( 54 )
It is Ukewife farther evident, that if the chord lines AD and DB were con*
lidered as two fides of any regular polygon, the fame method would have the
fame effedl in finding its center.
The above Problem will be of ufe to the workman, when it is required of
tiim to fit up a board into the infide of an arch, in order to afcertain its true
curve and depth.
To this end, let the line B A reprefent a lath laid acrofs the foot of the arch
ADB, to find the length of its opening. Then find the middle of this lath,
and from the middle of it put up another perpendicular to it, as D, to find the
depth of the arch. After having proceeded thus far, take the board to be fitted
up, and make one edge of it ftraight, and draw a line fquare acrofs it, on
vs'hich lay on the depth of the arch, as at the point D. From D draw the
chord lines DA and DB, bifefting them as has already been taught, and the
true center will be found for the curve of the arch ; to which, if it be exadly
fawn, will fit the arch ADB, as required.
PROB. XX. Fig. 18.
To find the diameter of a cylinder, when its ends cannot be mcafured, or of
a circular building, when no dimenfions can be obtained from its infide.
Operation. — Let the circle, Fig. 18, be confidered as the circumference of
the cylinder, and let hk reprefent a ftraight rod, touching the outfide of the
cylinder. From any of the divifions on the rod hk put another rod acrofs,
till it touch the outfide of the cylinder in a perpendicular diredion from the rod
h k ; which is eafily done, by keeping the crofs rod exadly by the fide of the
lines drawn fquare, which mark out the divifions. Thus the lines ^/6 and /i,
reprefenting the crofs rod, are in a perpendicular direction from the long rod,
and are produced till they touch the cylinder.
After
( 55 )
After proceeding thus far, take paper, or a drawingboard, as may be re
quired, and draw a right line equal in length to /6X', as /jm^, No. 2. From
/ji dvsLW g& and i^ perpendicular to ^k, and of the fame length as ^,6 and ik
in Fig. 18. Draw then the chord line gm at random, and from the point m
draw mi, the other chord. Bifed thofe chords, as the figure fhews, and
where the right lines meet in a point will be the center of the cylinder ; and
any right line being drawn through the center s will determine the length of
the diameter as required.
Thus it is evident that the diameter, and confequently the circumference of
any round building, may be afcertained by this method.
The lath ^i, in fuch a cafe, may be confidered ten feet long, and five
inches broad, becaufe a lath of fuch length would require this breadth to keep
it from fpringing in the middle ; and each of the divifions on it one foot : and
proceeding in the manner taught above, the mofl accurate dimenfions of the
diameter of any fuch building will be found.
SECT. V.
Of the Names and Properties of various Geometrical Solids — Of the Se£iions of
Cones and Cylinders, and of finding citrved Twines to anfwer the Sellions
of various irregular Figures.
In Sedlion III. page ^6, I have there obferved, that to have fome know
ledge of the names and properties of ufeful geometrical fuperficies is certainly of
advantage to every one, efpecially to thofe who are concerned with drawing or
making pieces of work of the like figures.
6 With
( 56 )
With equal propriety the fame may be affirmed of the ufeful geometrical
folids, the knowledge of vvhofe names and properties frequently enable us to
communicate our ideas of the figures of various objefts that occur to us, with
greater precifion and freedom than we otherwife fliould be able to do, were we,
for want of this knowledge, obliged to ufe a number of explanatory words and
figns before we could be underftood.
However, I have not introduced more of thefe than what I think quite ne
ceffary to be known, and which I (hall now endeavour to explain in as fhort
and clear a manner as I am able.
Of the Names and Properties of the General Solids.
In Plate VI. No. i is termed a Cube, which is a regular folid, bounded by
fix equal geometrical fquares or furfaccs, from Kii/3of, kubos, a dye. It is alfo
called by fome a Hexaedron *, becaufe it has fix feats or bafes on which it is
capable of being refted.
No. 2, is a Parallelopipedon, or Parallelopiped, a regular folid, contained
under fix parallelograms, whofe oppofite fides are parallel and equal ; or it is by
fome called a Prifm, whofe bafe is a parallelogram.
If a piece of wood be feven or eight inches long, three broad, and two and a
half in thicknefs, fo plained that its fides are parallel, and cut fo that its ends
are fquare to its fides, then will the piece of wood be of the figure of a pa
rallelopiped.
No. 3 is a Pentangular Prifm +, fo called becaufe its ends are bounded by
pentagons, or fivefided furfaces, and its fides by five parallelograms.
* Hexaedron, from ef, hex, fix ; and i^^a., hedra, a feat,
t Prifm, from ^p"^^*, " fomething fawn or cut off,"
There
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( 57 )
There are various kinds of Prifms; as No. 4, is an Hexangular; No. 5, a
Trapezoid ical; and No. 6, a Triangular Prifm.
An Hexangular Prifm is terminated at its ends by two fixfided furfaces,
and its fides by fxngle parallelograms.
If a piece of wood, iev&n or eight inches long, be turned to two or three
inches diameter, and if this piece of round wood be planed fo as to have fix
fides parallel to each other, then it will be of the figure of an Hexangular
Prifm.
Again, a Trapezoidical Prifm is one which is bounded at its ends by two
Trapezoids (fee No. 5, Plate II.), and whofe fides are four parallelograms,
two of which are equal to each other, but not parallel ; and two unequal in
width, yet parallel.
If a piece of wood be feven or eight inches long, as before, and if one of its
fides be about three inches broad, and two of them two inches and an half,
inclining or beveling off alike from the fide which is three inches, reducing
the fourth fide to two inches broad, then will the piece of wood be of the
figure of a Trapezoidical Prifm.
Laftly, the Triangular Prifm is fo called, becaufe its ends are bounded by
triangles, or threefided fuperficies, and its fides by three parallelograms.
If, as before, a piece of wood be planed fo as to have three fides, fuppofe
each two inches broad, and their angles parallel, it will then be of the figure
of a Triangular Prifm.
No. 8, is a Tetrahedron*, called fo becaufe it comprehends, and is bounded
by four equilateral f triangles. It may alfo be conceived as a triangular
pyramid of four equal faces.
* Tetrahedron, from fslpa,, tetra, four; and sSpa, as before. t See Plate II.
, H Hence,
( 58 )
Hence, if a piece of wood be firft cut into the form of an equilateral trian
oular prifm, and then be ternninated from its bafe till the three fides meet in a
point perpendicular to the center of the bafe, and if the terminated or inclined
fides be equal in length to their bafe, then will the wood exhibit the figure of
the geometrical folid, termed a Tetrahedron.
No. 7, is an Oftahedron. It receives its name from the eight equal and
equilateral triangles by which it is bounded. It may alfo be conceived as two.
quadrangular pyramids, joined together at their bafes.
If, therefore, a piece of wood be formed into an equal quadrangular prifm,
and if this prifm be terminated from its center each way, till all the fides come
to a point perpendicular to the centers of the refpedlive bafes of the pyramids
fuppofed to be joined together, then will the piece of wood, thus cut, give the
true figure of an Oftahedron.
No. 15, is a Dodecahedron, a regular folid, bounded by twelve pen
tagons.
To form or conftruifl this regular folid, a piece of wood may firft be turned
round, and then planed into ten equal fides. Draw then a regular pentagon
(Plate II. Ficr. 1^.) on each end of the piece of wood, one of whofe fides fliall
be equal to one of the fides which the wood was firft planed to. Laftly,
make five faces on each end of the wood, which fhall comprehend two of the
firftmentioned ten fides, and one of the fides of the regular pentagon drawn
on each end ; then will the piece of wood form the figure of a Dodecahedron,,
as required.
No. 16, is an Icofahedron, which is a regular folid, compofed of twenty
equilateral triangles. See Plate II. Fig. 7.
This figure may be couftdered as confifting of twenty triangular pyramids,
as No. 8, whofe vertexes meet in the center of a fphere, imagined to circum
fcribe it, and therefore muft all have their heights and bafes equal.
To
( 59 )
To conftiufl this folid, a piece of Wood (hould firfl be made round, and
then planed into fix equal fides. Upon each fide draw an equilateral triangle,
and tlie fpaces between each triangle mu(\: be cut away to the fide of the tri
angle thus drawn ; and when this is done, there will then be four more planes
or fiices for four more equilateral triangles, which will make ten. Find
the center of one end of the piece of wood, and terminate each fide of the
hexagon to this center, and there will be produced fix more equilateral tri
angles, which, added to the other, make fixteen. Find the center of the
other end, and terminate the beforementioned four fides to this center, and
other four equilateral triangles will be produced, which will complete the
twenty as required.
From what has been faid, it is evident that five of thefe folids are regular,
fince they may each of them be infcribed within a fphere, fo that each angle
(hall touch the circumfcribing fphere in fome point. Flence, to form thefe
regular folids, namely, the Cube, Odahedron, Tetrahedron, Dodecahedron,
and the Icofahedron, it is prefuppofed, in the above confl:ru£l:ions, that the
pieces of wood mentioned are all cubes, whofe fides are equal to the dimenfion
of each figure.
No. 13, is a Pyramid, a folid whofe fides rife from a geometrical fquare as
its bafe, and terminate in a vertical point.
As the height of this folid is at pleafure, its fides are fometimes bounded by
equilateral triangles, and fometimes by ifofceles, as the figure referred to.
Nor are we to confine our ideas of pyramids to fuch only as have fquare
bafes, for thefe may be either triangular or polygonal, while yet their
refpeftive fines fhall terminate in a point perpendicular to the center of their
bafes.
The learned are divided in their opinions about the derivation of the term
Pyramid : fome think the name is from wuj, pur, fire, becaufe Pyramids
afcend to a point like fire ; but others more confidently affirnp, that it is from
H 2 _ TTV^Oiy
( 6o )
■rru^o;, wheat, or com. " Not," fays the author of this laft opinion, " that
we are to fuppofe that the Pyramids were ever intended for granaries ; but
that the Greeks, when, after many generations, they vifited Egypt, and faw
thofe amazing ftru£lures, looked on them as florehoufes for grain ; and
knowing Egypt to be a country fruitful in corn, they called them Pyramids —
corn ftore buildings ; being, as they thought, the repofitories for all the pro
duce of Egypt *."
No. 9, is a Cylinder. This is a folid, bounded by two equal circles at its
ends, and a parallelogram revolving round their circumference. This figure
is fitly reprefented by a garden roller, whence its name kuXh/S^oc, kutendros, a
roller; and as for its conflru6tion, it is fo fimple that it is unneceflary to fay
any thing about it.
No. 12, is a Cone; a folid, bounded by two fuperficies, one of which Is
convex, and the other ftraight.
The bafe of a Cone is fometimes au ellipfis, and fometimes a circle, and its
fides are terminated in right lines to a point perpendicular to the center of its
bafe. From this center to its vertical point, a line is fuppofed to pafs, called
its axis, on which this body might be made to revolve. And the fame may
be obferved of the Cylinder, Conoid, and Sphere, each of which has its
imaginary axis, or right line, paffing through its center, about which they
may be made to turn
No. 14, is a Conoid ; a folid, which terminates from its bafe to its vertical
point in a curved or elliptic direction. Sometimes the curve of its fide is
hyperbolic, and fometimes parabolic. See Plate II. Fig. 35, 36.
Its bafe, like the Cone, is either an ellipfis or circle.
* The bafe of thefe pyramids was equilateral, and meafured 693 Englifh feet. Their height
near five hundred feet. They were built in fine marble, and required the labour of tliree hundred
thoufand workmen for twenty years. Thefe are inconteftible proofs of the vart numbers, riches, and
power, of the Egyptians; as alfo of their fkill in architedlure and the mechanic arts.
No. 10,
C 6i )
No. lo, Is a Hemlfphere *, which is one half of a globe cut by a plane
paffing through its center, and therefore is contained under two fuperficies.
No. J I, is a Sphere, or whole globe, which is a body or folid, bounded by
one convex furface, whofe parts are all at the fame diftance from the central
point, as the periphery of a circle is to its center.
Of the Sextons and Coverings of regular and irregular Figures", and how iofnd
curved Lines to anfwer their various Sedions.
The Se£Hon f of any folid is, when it is fuppofed to be cut by any plane
paffing in feme dire£lion through it, which, of courfe, produces a furface or
fuperficies confonant to the nature of the fedion, and agreeable to the (hape
of the folid which is cut.
The fedions of a cylinder are three. — If a plane pafs through a cylinder
parallel to its bafe, it will produce a circle, as is evident. Second, if a plane
pafs through the center of both ends of it, there will then be produced a paral
lelogram. Thirdly, if it be cut oblique to its bafe, this fedion will produce
a furface perfe6lly elliptic.
In Plate A, fucceeding Plate III, this is clearly demonflrated, as follows :
Let A B, Fig. M, be the diameter of a cylinder, the figure of whofe oblique
fedion is required. And let D C be confidered as the feftion propoled, and
AD, BC, the fides of the cylinder. Divide the diameter AB into any num
ber of equal or unequal parts, it makes no difference, as at i, 2, 3, 4, 5. From
thefe draw lines to the fedion DC, perpendicular to A B. Then, through
* Hemlfphere, from oipaifa, fphaha, a globe of fphere; and ri'MTus, hemifus, half, i. e. half a
globe.
t Section, a cutting or dividing; "from feco, to cut."
the
( 6> )
the points i, 2, 3, 4, 5, on DC, draw lines indefinitely, but perpendicular to
the fedion DC. Take the ordinate i.i from the bafe, and transfer it to i.i'
each way on the line DC, and fo of all the other ordinates refpeflively, as the
figure (hews ; then will a curve line, pafling through thefe points of the or
dinates, produce a true ellipfis, as is evident ; for D C is the tranfverfe axis,
equal to the oblique fe61: ion ; and 3G the conjugate, equal to A B, the
diameter of the cylinder. Therefore fuppofe the lines ABDC the boundaries
of a plane paffing through the center of the cylinder, and that plane to be
divided by parallel lines, as the lines i. r, &c. of that plane ; then it is evident
that in whatever ratio A B is divided, into the fame muft the line DC, the
oblique fedtion, be divided ; and confequently if lines be drawn through each
divifion perpendicular to DC, and if thefe lines be made, refpedtively, equal
to the ordinates of the bafe, then would the point i, on the curve DG, if
raifed perpendicular to the paper, be perpendicular to the point i on the curve
A O of the bafe ; and fo of all the reft.
N. B. If the reader cut the curve AOB and DGC through with a knife
point, and turn them up perpendicular, he will fee that the points on the
elliptic curve will perfedly coincide with thofe on the femicircle.
The fedions of a cone are five. — The Triangle, the Circle, the Ellipfis,
the Parabola, and the Hyperbola. But as that which produces the ellipfis is
of mod confequence, we (hall endeavour to make it clear, that a cone being
cut bv a plane oblique to both its fides, will produce a regular ellipfis, per
fectly the fame as that produced by the like fedion of a cylinder.
It is natural to fuppofe that a cone (fee Fig. 12. Plate VI.) which termi
nates to a point from a round bafe, would, if cut as above, produce an ellipfis
broader at one end than the other. But that it is a regular ellipfis, may be
proved as follows :
Fif. K, Plate A, is a right cone, whofe vertex is at V, and the center of
its bafe at B. The line BV is its axis, and the line qr the propofed fedion
of the cone. Divide the fedion yr into any number of equal parts; and
6 through
( 63 )
through thefe draw lines perpendicular to the axis BV, as at i, 2, 3, 4, 5.
From thefe feveral lines delcribe femicircles, each of which may be coafidered
as a parallel fedlion to the bafe of the cone. From the divifions i, 2, 3, &c.
of the fedlion ^ r, draw lines parallel to the axis, or perpendicular to the bafe,
till they cut each femicircle refpedtively at i, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Now it is clear that thefe perpendiculars muft each of them be an ordinate
to their refpeclive circles produced by the feveral parallel fedions ; therefore,
from the feftlons q r draw correfpondent ordinates perpendicular to it, and
take the feveral ordinates i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and transfer them to the lines drawn
perpendicular to the fe6tion qr; and a curve line pafling through thefe points
will form a regular ellipfis, when the ordinates are laid on each fide.
But it is however neceffary to obferve, that there is one cafe to be excepted,
and only one ; and that is, when the cone is cut by a plane fubcontrary to its
bafe^as Fig. N, which then produces a circle.
A cone cut fubcontrary to its bafe, is when the triangles NAP and S RO
are fimilar under their common angle V, the vertex ; for it is evident, that if
the bafe of the cone WXP be confidered a circle, then muft the fection line
QJT' produce the fame ; for the fedlion Q^T is to the fide of the cone WS as
the bafe WP is to the fide of the cone PA. This may be fliewn by lines in
the fame manner as in the other cafe. Let the litie be^XS ^^ ^ fedtion of a
cone in a fubcontrary pofition. Divide the line eh into equal parts, and
through each draw lines perpendicular to the faid feclion, and continue thefe
lines to Fig. O. On each of thefe defcribe femicircles to touch each fide,
of the cone, as at 5, 4, 3, 2, i.
Obferve that the feftion line eb gives the ordinates to each femi. There
fore take from 5 to ^ of that line, and place it from 5 to d^ at O the circle;
next take from 4 to c, and place it from 4 to <r at O; then from 310 b, placing
it from 3 to ^ at O ; from 2 to «, placing it from 2 to « at O ; laftly, from
I to
( 64 )
1 to O, placing it from i to o; and a curve line through all tliefe points will
defcribe a femicircle : for if the compafs foot be fixed on the center 3, and the
other extended to ^, it will pafs through each point.
'* If a fphere be cut in any manner, the plane of the feftion will be a circle,
whofe center is in the diameter of the fphere."
But if two planes, or flraight furfaces, cut each other, their common Ccc
tion is a right line.
O'
I mention thefe particulars, that the reader may more readily and clearly
underfland the following Problems.
Prob. XXI. Fig. 32. Plate VI.
Of finding curved hines to anfwer the Seiiions of irregular Solids.
Let Fig. 32, Plate VI. be confidered a folid of the (hape of a vafe, whofe
covering and fedtion are to be found ; or, in other words, if a vafe is required
to be veneered, how to cut the veneer fo as each joint (hall appear ftraight
when the veneer is laid.
Operation. — Draw the fhape of the vafe, which, in this cafe, is a femi
ellipfis on the conjugate axis. Draw a perpendicular line through the center
of the vafe, which will be the long axis. Divide this diameter into a
number of equal parts, and on thefe divifions draw lines parallel to the con
jugate axis, as the figure fliews at 1,2, 3, 4, &c. Draw then on each of
ihefe right lines a femicircle, and, for the fake of greater accuracy, let the
eighth fpace be fubdivided, by which another circle will be obtained near the
renter, as at 9. Draw next a perpendicular line at pleafure, as at No. i.
Proceed
( 65 )
Proceed then to take the dimenfions of the curvature of the vafe thus: — place
one foot of the compaffes on lo, and extend the other to 9, and with the
fame opening of the compafs fix one foot on 10, in No. i, and defcribe the
arch 9 at pleafure. Again, fix the compafs foot on 9, and extend the other
to 8 on the vafe, which transfer from 9 to 8 at No. i, and opening the com
paffes, fix one foot on 10, and with the other turn the arch 8 at pleafure. In
this manner proceed with all the other divifions on the vafe, until its whole
curvature is laid down on the perpendicular line at No. i.
After proceeding thus far, it mufl: then be confidered how many pieces of
veneer will cover the circumference of the vafe, and how broad the veneers
may be laid ; which in this example I have fuppofed to be fourteen. Divide
therefore each femicircle into feven, as fpecified by the fmall dots on each arch.
Upon the femicircle 9 of the vafe, place one foot of the compafles on the point 9,
and extend the other to the perpendicular line, which will be half the breadth
of the veneer, according to the number of pieces propofed. Take this open
ing of the compaffes and place it each way from the perpendicular line at
No. I on the arch 9. Again, on the femicircle 8, take the fpace from the
perpendicular line to 8, and transfer this to the arch 8 at No. i, placing it
each way from the perpendicular as before. In this manner proceed with the
refi:, by which the proper breadth of the veneer on each femicircle will be de
termined; and if a regular curve line be drawn through each point on the
feveral arches at No. i, the curved boundaries of thefe arches will be the exadl
fliape of the veneers, v^'hich, when properly laid down, will then have the
appearance of fo many flraight joints. And hence, by whatever rule or me
thod we find the coverings of folids, regular or irregular, by the fame rule we
alfo find curved lines to anfwer their fedionsj for it is evident, if the vafe,
after being veneered, was cut through its center perpendicularly, and the ve
neer raifed up again, that its edge would be a faint curve, like that at No, i.
Prob.
( 66 )
Pros. XXII. Fig. 33. Plate VI.
To find the covering and perpendicular Sedion of a Solid partly convex and
partly concave.
Operation. — Draw the profile of the folid propofed, as Fig. 33. Let fall a
perpendicular from the center of the top. Draw a line through 1 1 parallel
with the top, and divide the aforefaid perpendicular line i;ito any number
of equal parts, which in this example is ten. Draw parallel lines through
each of thofe divifions, and on thefe lines draw fo many femicircles, whofe
diameters fliall be equal to the length of each line. Draw a perpendicular at
pleafure at No. i. Fix one foot of the compafTes at i on the profile, and
extend the other to 2. With this opening fix one foot at i , No. i , and defcribe
the arch 2. From 2 on the profile, extend the compalTes to 3, and transfer
this from 2 to 3 at No. i. Then opening the compafies, fix one foot at i,
and turn the arch 3 at No. i, and fo on of all the other; by which the di
raenfions of the curvature of the profile will be obtained.
Laftly, take half the whole fpace from 1 1 on the femicircle to the perpen
dicular line fpecified by the dot, and place this opening of the compafles each
way from the perpendicular line on the arch 1 1 at No. i , and mark the places
with a pencil. Proceed to 10 on the femicircle 10, and take half of its whole
fpace, and place it each way from the perpendicular on the arch 10 at No. 1,
as was done on the arch 1 1 before; and in this manner go through the whole,
and a fufficient number of points will be found in ordec to draw an irregular
curve anfwerable to a perpendicular feiftion of the propofed folid, and which
will alfo anfwer for its covering: or veneering.
• But
( 67 )
But here I muft obferve to the workman, that in cafe it (hould be propofed
to him to veneer any thing of the Hke forms of Fig. 32 and 33, it would not
do to cut out the veneers fo broad that fourteen pieces fliould be equal to the
circumference. It would require twentyeight pieces at leaft, before they
could be laid down with fafety and eafe, efpecially if it were required that the
joints of the veneers fliould be fo clofe as to preclude the neceffity of putting
in bringing to hide them. I fpeak this not merely from theory, but pradice,
having myfelf veneered knifecafes of the fame fliape with the figures in the
Plate, and where no ftringing was admiffible to hide the joints. But every
thinking workman will eafily perceive that it makes no difference in the me
thods of finding the curve lines for the covering, whether the number of
pieces be fourteen or twentyeight.
By thefe methods a fphere or globe may be covered, and a curve, anfwer
able to any fedion, through its center may be found. I have not given any
example of this on the Plate, as it is prefumed that a few hints will ferve,
after what has already been faid on the fubjed.
Operation. — Draw a circle whofe diameter fliall be equal to the axis of the
fphere to be covered. Divide the femidiameter into nine equal parts, and on
thefe parts draw lines acrofs at right angles with the diameter, till they touch
the circumference of the circle on each fide. From thefe feveral lines draw
femicircles, as was done before in Fig. 32 and 33. Divide the feveral femi
circles into eighteen degrees each, and take one degree from the largefl: femi
circle, and place this opening of the compafles on a right line eighteen times.
Then from the extreme points on this line draw arches each way, till they
meet in the center of the line. Laftly, transfer half a degree from each femi
circle to their correfpondent arch, laid on each way from the right line, as was
done on No. i. Fig. 32; and the whole thus transferred, a curve line pafling
through each half degree laid on the feveral arches both right and left from
the center line, will form the proper covering for the fphere or globe as re
quired.
Obferve, the covering pieces will be of the figure of two fegments of a cir
I 2 cle
( 68 )
cle joined together, and the length of the covering will be equal to half the
circumference of the propofed fphere.
I muft here entreat leave to remark, that notwithftanding the above direc
tions are addrcfled to men in the wooden way, yet it is certain that the Up
holfterer may avail himfelf from what has been faid on the fubjeft: for
the coverings of the like folids made of any kind of ftuff, ought to be cut
by the fame methods, and fewed together in feams anfwerable to the
joints in wood : but the elafticity or pliablenefs of ftufFs, &c. makes it
unneceflary to cut them into fuch fmall pieces as is abfolutely required in
wood.
Prob. XXIII. Fig. 34. Plate VI.
To find the Sedion and Covering of a Knifecafe whofe front is a double
ogee.
Draw half the plan of the front, as Fig. 34, and divide the curve of the
front into ten equal parts, as the figure (hews. Next determine how much
rake the knifecafe is to have from back to front, by which it will be eafily
feen how much the fwell of the front falls at that rate, as the diagonal line
10. 1 (hews in the cafe before us. Draw from 10 a perpendicular line 10 A at
pleafure. From the feveral divifions on the curve of the front draw parallel
lines till they cut at the numbers on the aforefaid perpendicular. Obferve,
that the numbers on the perpendicular line are placed to anfwer the parallel
lines as they proceed from each number on the curve of the front. Every
thincr beino now prepared for finding the covering and fedion of the knife
cafe, proceed to No. i, and draw a right line at pleafure, as i.i 1. Take
from II to 10, or any other of the divifions, on the front of the knifecale,
and with the compafles repeat it nine times on the right line i.ii at No. i.
Then obferve, that from 2 to i on the front of the knifecafe is rather a wider
fpace than the other divifions, which are all equal. The intention of this is,
to
( 69 )
to bring the parallel line, which proceeds from 2 on the front, a little farther
on from the front line i.i ; therefore take from 2 to I on the, front, and place
it from 2 to i on the right line at No. i, then will the whole length from i
to 1 1 at No. I be equal to the whole curvature of the front of the knifecafe,
fuppofed to be ftretched out in a right line. On the feveral divifions on the
right line i.ii, at No. i, draw perpendicular lines at pleafure. Take in the
compafs the fpace i.i from Fig. 34, and transfer this opening to the perpen
dicular line I c at No. i, marking it with a pencil. Then again take the
fpace from 2 to the diagonal line at Fig. 34, and transfer this to the perpendi
cular line 2 at No. i, and mark it with a pencil as before. Do the fame from
the lines 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, at Fig. 34, and obferve that 11 follows 7, becaufe it
proceeds from the point 1 1 on the front of the cafe; therefore take the fpace
from II on the perpendicular line to where the parallel cuts the diagonal, and
place it on the perpendicular at No. i. Likevvife take 8 and 10 in the fame
manner. As for 9, it is loft, becaufe that divifion on the front of the knife
cafe falls on the right line, and, of courfe, has no projedlion. Laftly, through
all the points on each perpendicular at No. i, draw a curve line, which will
anfwerto the fedion of the knifecafe, if it be cut anfwerable to the bevel line
1 0.1 on the plan of the cafe.
The dark (hade e a b, at No. i, fhews half the veneer or covering of the
knifecafe; and if a piece of ftrong paper be cut double, according to the
boundaries of the dark (hade, it will ferve as a pattern to cut the knife cafe
open by, and likewife to cut the veneer by, before it it is glued down. The
infide veneer for the front of the top may alfo be cut near enough by it, though
it will vary a little; but this defe(£l is not equal to the advantage of having the
infide veneer pretty nearly cut to the curve, becaufe it will then glue down
much eafier, and be lels liable to fplit.
From what has been faid on this Problem, the Ingenious workman may
apply the rules and obfervations to other purpoies that may be of more im
portance than the cutting and veneering of a knifecafe.
SECT.
( 70 )
SECT. VI.
On various ufeful Problems pertaining to the working Part of both the Cabinet
and Upholjlery Branches', as the Methods of mitring Mouldings of dif'
ferent Projections — of drawing large Circles, without the Trouble of extending
a Lath to their Centers, to defcribe their Circumferences by — of drawing cir
cular Cornices, and fitting up their Valances to them — of mitring the raking
Mouldings of Peditnents — the Manner of planning a room to cut a carpet by —
and of the Nature andConflruClion of Hip and Elliptic Domes for State Beds.
Pros. XXIV. Plate A.
Let it be required to cut a number of fleps to their proper lengths, anfwer
able to any given inclination of two fides, as of a ftepladder, or the like,
without making any drawing, or previous to any part of it being put to
gether,
o
Take a piece of deal about three feet long and nine wide, and plane it over,
making one edge of it ftraight. Then confider how much the firfl: and lafl:
fteps are to differ in length; which difference, place on aline drawn perpen
dicular to the edge of a board, as 3.1 Fig. B, which confider as the edge,
and 1.2 the perpendicular litie; the fpace 1.2 being fuppofed equal to the dif
ference between the firft and lafl: ftep. Take then a pair of compafles, and
open them at difcretion, and repeat this opening as many times from i to 3 as
there are (leps, fave one; in this cafe eight. From 2 to 3 draw a line, and
from each divifion on 3.1 draw perpendiculars to the line 3.2 ; then will each
of thefe I, a, b, c, &c. be equal to the refpeftive difference of each ftep to each
other. This is clearly proved by Fig. A, which is fuppofed to be a drawing
of the ladder at full fize, only for the fake of demonftrating the truth of the
method; for we fay that the line 1.2, Fig. B, is equal to the difference be
7 tween
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( 71 )
tween the firft and laft ftep, which is twice 1.2 at Fig. A; fo alfo the per
pendicular line a at Fig. B is equal twice a at Fig. A; and confequently the
remaining ones are equal to the difference of each refpedive ftep, as the figure
will prove by applying the compafles. Or it may be done by taking half the
difference, and drawing a line from 4 to 3, which will bifedi each perpen
dicular, and confequently thefe will be equal to a, b^ c, &c. at Fig. A.
To find the true bevel for the ends of each ftep, take 1.4 from Fig. B, half
the difference of the length of the firfl: from the laft ftep, as at 1.8 Fig. C ; and
divide 1.8 into eight equal parts, which is the number of fpaces between each
ftep. Draw 1.3 perpendicular to 1.8, and make 1.3 equal to the fpace between
the center line of each ftep, as from i to a Fig. A. Laftly, draw from 2, the firft
divifion on 1.8 Fig. C, and produce it through 3, and it will be the true bevel
for the ends of each ftep. This is evident, byobferving that the aforefaid line
2.3 produced is parallel to the fides of the ladder, and therefore muft be the
true bevel required. In cutting the fteps a gauge ftiould be run on the center
of each ftep edge, and the reipedive ditFerences of each ftep laid on this line.
The advantage of this is, that any thing of the nature of a ftepladder, fup
pofing it 20, 30, or any nun;ber of feet in length, may be fet out accurately
on a Imall piece of board two or three feet long, provided the width of the
board be equal to the difference between the length of the fiift and laft ftep:
the length of the board is not limited; for the triangle i, 3, 4, at Fig. B,
though vaftly ftiorter than i N 3, at Fig. A, yet both triangles being divided
in the fame ratio to each other, produce the fame length in the perpendiculars
drawn from each divifion, as will be clear by mealuring the perpendiculars of
each triangle.
PROB. XXV. Fig. 29. Plate III.
To draw an Elliptic Cornice of any given length or depth, and to fit the
valance to it.
Operation.
( 72 )
Operation. — Let o p he the depth of the cornice with its facia, and make
lo half the length of the cornice; draw the quadrant p 2, and divide its
chord into nine equal parts, from whence draw lines perpendicular to the
bafe of the qua^irant till they cut the circumference. Divide then half the
length of the cornice into ten, and draw perpendiculars from each refpedlive
divifion, marked i, 2, 3, 4, &c. From the divifions or points on the circum
ference of the quadrant draw lines parallel with the bafe line 10 0, till they cut
the perpendicular lines to which they belong; that is, from 8 on the circle
draw a parallel line till it touch the perpendicular 8, and from the reft do the
fame, which will form fo many points on the refpedlive perpendiculars as will
be a fufficient guide for an elliptic arch to pafs through. Obferve, the ninth
divifion is fubdividcd, by which another point is gained in the quick part of
the ellipfis, for the convenience of drawing the fvveep more perfeclly. The
proportion of the hances may be eafily afcertained, as the figure (hews; but in
this particular, fiiney will generally be the rule.
Method Second.
It has already been obferved, that the chord line of the arch 2 /» is divided
into nine equal parts, from which lines are drawn till they touch the circum
ference; after which draw the line ^ 9, as a correfpondent chord for the el
liptic curve, and divide it into the fame number of equal parts as the chord of
the quadrant is divided into. Then take, for inftance, the length of the perpen
dicular line 8.8 in the quadrant, and transfer this to the perpendicular line 8 on
the other chord, and mark it with a pencil. Again, take 7.7 from the chord
of the quadrant and transfer it to 7 on the other chord, and mark it as before.
In this way proceed till all the perpendicular lines on the chord of the circle are
placed on the correfpondent perpendiculars on the elliptic chord, and nine points
will be obtained through which the curve is to pafs as before.
( n )
Toft up a Valance to a Cornice of the above Kind.
The fluff for the valance fhould be tacked flraight on a board, and with a
piece of foft chalk draw a line anfwerable to the line lo o, or bottom of the
facia. Divide the facia of the cornice in the manner (hewn in the figure, and
draw fquare lines up to the cornice: do the fame on the ftufffor the valance,
and take from the cornice the length of each perpendicular line o, 1,2, 3, &c.
and transfer thofe different lengths to their refpedive perpendiculars on the
fluff, and mark them with chalk, Laftly, by a fteady hand draw, with foft
chalk, a curve to pafs through thefe points, which, if accurately done, and
cut by the line, mufi: evidently fit at the firft trial.
Pros. XXVI. Fig. 31. Plate III.
To defcribe the Arch of a Sep;ment of a large Circle, without the afliftance
of a lath from its center, nearly true.
Operation. — Let Fig. 31 be confidered.a fegment, whofe chord is twenty
feet long, and its fwell two feet, as the perpendicular C 10. Draw then a
femicircle, whofe radius (hall be equal to C 10. Divide one quadrant into
ten equal parts, and into the fame number divide half the chord A C. From
each divifion on A C raifc perpendiculars, as i, 2, 3, and fo on. From 9 on
the quadrant draw a line parallel to A C, till it touch the perpendicular 9, and
mark it with a point. Again, from 8 on the quadrant draw a parallel till it
touch the perpendicular 8, and mark it as before; and fo on, from 7 to 7,
6 to 6, till the whole are done. Through the points on the feveral perpen
diculars draw, with a fteady hand, a curve line paffing through thefe points,
and it will form a regular arch. It fhould, however, be obferved, that this
method, ifpurfued, in drawing a quick curve, will gradually degenerate to a
hyperbolic curve, which will be difcernible if the depth of the arch be more
than about one tenth of its chord.
K Method
( 74 )
Method Second. (On the right hand of Fig. 31.)
This method will be found perfed in all cafes without exception.
Let ac be the depth of the arch, and a 5 half the chord of the whole arch.
Draw c 5, and to this line draw 5.5 at right angles to it. Divide the lines c 5,
«5, and 5^, into the fame number of equal parts, and draw the lines i.i,
2.2, &c. Laftly, from i, 2, 3, 4, on the line 5^, draw lines toe, the cen
ter of the arch, till they touch each correfpondent line drawn through i.i,
2.2, &c. and thefe will form points, through which a curve line pafling will
be a true fegment of a circle. For this method I am indebted to Mr. Nichol
fou's Principles of Architedlure, by whofe permifllon it is here inferted.
Prob. XXVII. Plate IV. 
To take the plan of a Room in an accurate manner, fo that a Carpet may
be properly cut by it.
Operation. — The room being cleared of ^vtxy obftru£tion, and the floor
fwept clean, proceed as follows :
Firft, Take a chalk line, and by it ftrike a line parallel to that fide of the
room which feems freefi: from irregularities, as dc^ in Plate IV. Then by
Problem III. page 25, raife a perpendicular from c continued to ^. Proceed
next to the other end of the room, as at d, and by the fecond method of Pro
blem III. if moft convenient, raife another perpendicular continued to a. Draw
then a line from a to b, exactly parallel to dc, the oppofite fide of the room.
Then will the angles a/Jfd'forma true parallelogram, proportioned to the fize
of the room, by which the principal diflortions or irregularities of any of the
3 fides
( 75 )
fides of the room will at once appear. For inftance, the angle v is lomewhat
out, as the line parallel to ad phhAy fliews: and in this manner any other
angle of the room, whether obtufe or acute, may be afcertained.
Second, Let the hexagon end of the room be next confidcred; and let it be
obferved, that the plantaker is fuppofed to have no fquare, or flraioht rule
but only a cafe of inftruments and line. Therefore, in order to know how
much the fide // bevels off from a fquare, take the line and flrike it by the
fide // of the hexagon, and continue the line at pleafure beyond /6. Take
then the brafs protraftor, and place the center of its bafe to /, as the figure
fhevvs. Make a pencil mark over 90, on the arch of the inftrument, and
from z draw a ftraight line acrofs the pencil mark to g at pleafure. Take the
fide zVof the hexagon, and place it from i to h. Draw gh parallel to the bafe
of the protra£lor, or to be; then will^^ fhew how much //is out of fquare,
as required. Examine then the other fide of the hexagon by the fame rule,
and if there be any variation from the oppofite fide, it will eafily be difcovered.
Proceed to the windows, and find the rake of the jambs in the fame manner
as before, which need not be repeated: only obferve, that the protradtor can
not be placed to the architraves becaufe of their irregularity; and therefore it
muft be placed on the line ab zt m, after the liney is drawn from the jamb
cutting at m. From m draw a perpendicular to e, and make it equal 1.2, the
depth of the jamb, and it will, by drawing a line parallel to ab^ fhew the
bevel, or the protradtor will fhew what angle it is under.
Laftly, Proceed to the circular end of the room, with its windows; and in
order to find the center of the arch rop, draw pv at its foot, and parallel with
ad. On the middle of pv raife a perpendicular, and continue it to / at plea
fure. Draw then the chord op, and bifed it as at n, whence raife a perpen
dicular, cutting 0/ in /. which will be the center. From the opening of each
window draw the feveral radii, as (hewn in the figure, by which it will be
eafily feen how much the jambs vary from thefe central lines.
K a The
( 76 )
The room being thus lined out, take a ftieet of paper, and lay down a fcale
of feet and inches that will comprehend the longefl: part of the room. Mea
fore then, with your common rule, the fides and ends of the parallelogram
which was chalked out on the floor, and whatever thefe meafure by the rule,
take the lame number of feet, inches, and parts, from the fcale, and draw
the parallelogram on the paper in the fame manner as was done on the floor:
and in this way go on, taking off every dimenfion from the floor by the rule,
and transferring them to the paper by the fcale; fo that at length the paper
will have all the lines and (hapes which the room has, by which means it is
evident that the moft exad meafurement will be obtained.
The next thing to be done, is to provide a place large enough to lay
down the full fize of the room again. The order will now be reverfed; for
thofe meafurements which were before taken from the room by a rule, and
transferred by the fcale on the paper, muft again be taken from the paper by
the fame fcale, and replaced on fome convenient place, by the fame rule that
was ufed in taking the plan. If this method be purfued with accuracy, I ara
certain it cannot fail to anfwer the purpofe, if a proper allowance be made for
{training the carpet.
Prob. XXVIII. Fig. 32. Plate V.
To mitre any thing of the nature of a Comb Tray, the breadth of whofe
fides (hall be given, and their inclination from a perpendicular predeter
mined.
Let Ba he confidered equal to the given proje£tion of the fide of the tray,
and let the perpendicular e a he the height of the fpring of its fides. Draw the
bevel line elf, and fixing one foot of the compafles at ^, dcfcribe the arch eJ;
then will d'on the bafe line be the mitre point of the fide of the tray //, and
dl> will be the required breadth of its fides neceflTary to raife it to e, perpen
dicular over fl, the point of projedion. Again, if the tray fide Ihould be re
quired
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3fifrin>/ ^■TfbrAin(^ J/(>///(Ym^s . <f f •
1' tfhfr^cUon deZT
J Cooke ^ci<Jp '"
J*ubfaj thc^ct dtreett.J\^oi'ViZij^ fy' tr Terry .
^ 71 )
quired to be raifed from its bafe up to ;«, then draw mb, which will be the
breadth of the fide, and with bm in your compaffes defcribe the arch ;;; n ; then
will « be the mitre point of the fide of the tray, as required. How much
(horter the point n is than a full mitre, is feen from « to o of the dotted lines
meeting together.
Whence it is evident, that as the tray fides are raifed higher and ftill higher
from their bafe, the mitres will become proportionably (horter, till at length
the fides will be in an upright pofition, and confequently will have no mitre in
their breadth, it will be all in their thicknefs. On the other hand, if the
fides of the tray be deprefled nearer to their bafe, and ftill nearer, their mitres
will proportionably increafe, until they arrive at full length, and confequently
they will be in a perfedt horizontal pofition, or parallel to their bafe, and will
have no mitre in their thicknefs.
How to JinJ the Mitre in the Thicknefs of the Stuff. See Plate A. Fig. D.
Take the fide of the tray Ob, and with it defcribe a femicircle. Make ae
equal to the perpendicular height of the fide of the tray. Draw a line from e
to the center; and parallel to this, fet off a line for the thicknefs of the tray
fides, and the bevel of the under edge will be at 4. Draw a fquare at the
center, the length of whofe fides (hall be equal to the thicknefs of the tray
fides, as 3, 1 , 2. Next draw the line B A E parallel to the diameter ; and take ae^
the fine of the angle of the tray fides, and transfer it to E A. From A draw a
line to the center, cutting the fmall fquare at i, and the fpace 1 .2 will be the
mitre fought for ; that is, when the fides are mitred in their breadth, accord
ing to Fig. 32, Plate V, fet a gage to 1.2, and run the gage on the infide
along the mitre, and plane it off to the gage from the outfide, and the mitres
will all come exadlly together. If the tray fides were raifed to b, bi would
then be the fine of their angle; and which being transferred from E to B, a line
from B to the center cuts the fquare at 3; then is the fpace 3.2 the length of
the mitre fought. And thus it is evident, that as b advances to E the perpendi
cular, fo will the mitre point B approach to D the full mitre. It is alfo evi
dent, that by this figure the mitre of any thing not exceeding in its thicknefs the
diameter
( 78 )
diameter E of the femicircle may be found. For inftance, if the fides of any
tray be half an inch thick, and it is required to be mitred and keyed together^
draw a fquare of that dimenfion, as the fec'ond fhevvn in the center; and if the
fides bevel in an angle equal to the line e O, then 1.2 of the fecond fquare will
be the length of the mitre, I proved the truth of this theory by practice, and
therefore the workman may depend on its infallibility ; but he may eafily make
the fame experiment himfelf.
Prob. XXIX. Plate A. Fig. F.
To mitre the fides of any thing of the nature of a Comb Tray, when the
fides are not at right angles to each other, or when they fpring from any kind
of polygon.
Let the lines BO, OP, denote the fide of the polygon, or the angle which
the tray fides make with each other. From O raife a perpendicular at
pleafure.
Confider next how much the fides are to fpring out, as from O to 4.
Through 4 draw the line 4.3 parallel to OP; and next determine how much
the fides are to rife from the plan, as 4.5. From 5 draw 5 O, which line gives
the breadth of the fides. Turn an arch from 5 to 6, and through 6 and 8 draw
lines parallel to B O, OP; which will then be the tray fides, meeting at Q^he
full mitre point, provided the fides were flat on the plan. But the fides arc to
be raifed till the point Q^ comes perpendicular over 2; therefore raife a per
pendicular from 2, which will cut at the point 7; then a line from 7 to O
will be the true mitre for each fide. Laftly, confider the thicknefs of the
tray fides, as at qs, which is parallel to O 5. From q draw a line parallel to
OP, cutting the full mitre line at/', which gives the mitre at the ends of the
tray fides. Thus, when the tray fides are bevelled off from Otoq, as they are
rcprefented to be at No. 2, lay a fquare flat on the bevel edge of the fides, and
draw
{ 79 )
draw a line acrofs, as at 1.2, No. 2j then take the length pg, and place it
from 2 to 3, No. 2; which will give the true bevel of the ends.
This pradice the workn:ian may depend on as perfeft in all cafes, as I have
proved it by real experiment. And we would by all means advife the work
man to make the trial, both in this and the preceding problem, as moft ufeful
and neceflary in many cafes, and which has never yet been publi(hed in any
work.
Prob. XXX. Fig. 33. Plate V.
To find the Lines for working the Mouldings of a Clock Bracket, &c.
when the front moulding projedls more than the ends.
Operation. — Let aol>tJ be the plan of the clock bracket. From the center
of ao draw the mitre lines to ^ and c/, and from the center let fall a perpen
dicular, as at f. From this perpendicular draw a profile of the cavetto and
aftragal, according to the projedion intended for the ends of the bracket.
From the fpring of the cavetto on the top of the necking raife a perpendicular
up to the line ao; then, from the upper part of the cavetto, as from i, raife
another perpendicular up to i on ao. Divide the intermediate fpace into any
number of equal parts, as at i, 2, 3, 4, &c. From thefe draw perpen
diculars to the mitre line, and continue them downwards till they touch
the cavetto at 2, 3, 4, &c. Laftly, draw from the utmoft projedlion of
the aftragal, or necking, a perpendicular, cutting the mitre line at 5; then
from 5, 4, 3, 2, I, on the cavetto draw parallels out at pleafure to No. i.
Take in your ccmpaffes Jo from the plan of the bracket, and place it from
dx.0 p, No. I. From p let fall a perpendicular; then from the plan, as before,
take I.I and place it from i on the perpendicular line /> to i on the parallel
line. Again, take the line 2.2 from the plan, and place it on the parallel
line 2 to 2 at No. i, and fo of all the reft, forming fo many points, by which a
profile of the front cavetto may be formed, and which will mitre in with the
end
C 80 )
end cavetto, if the mouldings are exadly worked to thefe profiles, and the
mitres be accurately cut. How the mitres are to be cut is ealily feen by the
mitre lines on the plan.
In Plate II. Fig. 12, an example of the fame kind is fliewn, as it may be
performed by the Seflor.
Let the quadrant AD be confidered as one of the cavettoes to be mitred to
gether. Then let it be propofed that another cavetto is to mitre to the
former, whofe projection fhall be equal to i.io. Proceed then to draw
this cavetto by the fame diredtions as are given in page 33 for drawing
an Oval; after which the cavettoes are to be worked according to thefe
curves. The length of the mitre for the leafl: projefling cavetto is from 90 to
10, and that of the largefl projeding cavetto is from 10 to A, and the mitre
line is 9.10.
By thefe methods it is evident, that any moulding of different projeftions,
and confiding of various members, may be worked, and cut fo as to mitre
cxadly together.
Prob. XXXI. Fig. 34. Plate V.
Of working and mitring raking Mouldings.
Let No. I, Fig. 34, be a level ovolo in a broken pediment. Make its pro
jeftion equal to its height. Divide the height of the ovolo into any number of
equal parts, and from thefe divifions draw parallel lines, as is fhewn in the
figure. Next, from 1.2, the extreme points of the ovolo, draw two parallel lines,
according to the rake of the pediment defcribed below, which will of courfe
increafe the height of the ovolo as 3.4. Draw then a perpendicular or a line
fquare from either of the raking lines, as at No. 2. Divide this line into the
fame number of equal parts, and from thefe divifions drav/ lines parallel to the
raking
( 8i ;
raking part, and continue them out at pleafure. Take then 5.5 from No. i,
and transfer this opening of the compaffes to ^.^ on No. 2, and alio at No. 3,
marking where it extends to. Again, take in your compaffes 4.4, from No. i,
and transfer this alfo to 4.4 on No. 2 and 3, marking it as before ; proceeding
in the fame manner with the reft ; by which points will be found to enable us
to draw the raking ovolo fo that it will mitre with the level one at No. i, and
alfo the returning ovolo at No. 3^ thus found, will mitre in with the raking
moulding No. 2.
In the fame manner may be found the raking and returning cymare6la
mouldings, defcribed in Fig. ^5^ which it is unneceflary to fay any thing
about, after what has been faid on the ovolo.
Prob. XXXII. Fig. 36. Plate V.
As I have in this Section defcribed the methods of drawlngf and mltrinsr
mouldings of different proje£lions, and alfo of drawing and mitring raking with
level mouldings, it may be proper here to defcribe the proportion of the Tuf
can raking Pediment, and the manner of drawing it.
It, is true, according to an orderly arrangement, the Pediment fhould come
after the column ; but. this is of fmall confequence, if it can as well be under*
flood in this place.
The intention of a clofe pediment; whether raking or circular, is not only
to ornament the front door or entrance of any building, but likewife to fhelter
fuch as feek admittance from inclement weather. For this purpofe the raking
clofe pediment of any order is beft calculated ; for whilft we are Sheltered from
rain or fnow. by the bold projedlions of the feveral members of each order, ef
pccially the Doric, the defcending fliowers eafily and quickly glide off on each
fide, on account of the rake of fuch pediments.
( 82 )
It is therefore improper to have open pediments of any order at the exterior
entrances of buildings : and it is conlidered by architeds as improper to have
clofe ones over interior entrances or doorways, where they are only employed
as ornamental.
The pitch of the Tufcan pediment is the fame with the other orders, for in
this refpeft they are all uniformly the fame ; but their intercolumniations, or
fpaces between the pillars or pilafters, together with other particulars, vary
according to the refpedive order to which they belong ; which 1 fhall mention
afterwards, in treating on the Orders.
To proportion and draw the Tufcan order, proceed thus :
Obferve, that Fig. 36 is exadly half the pediment only; and therefore, in
drawing a whole pediment, the divifions fpecified in the figure muft be laid on
each way from the central line. And obferve likewife, that the frieze and
architrave are not drav^'n to the cornice, becaufe they are not wanted in de
fcribing the pediment.
Operation. — Lay down three diameters from the center of the pediment to
the center of the flnaft, as at 1,2,3, in the figure. Divide a diameter into
eight equal parts, and take three of thefe and place them each way from the
center line of the fhaft, which gives the upper diameter of the column, as the
figure fhews. Again, divide a diameter into four, as that diftinguifhed by the
writing in the figure, and take three of thofe parts for the perpendicular height
of the cornice : at this height draw a parallel line at pleafure fufficient for the
whole length of the pediment, as the upper line with the numbers. Then
take the perpendicular height of the cornice, and place it from the out
fide line of the fhaft on the line continued out from the under ed^e of the
cornice, which will determine its projedlion, as is eafily feea by the level
fcale line ^. Raife a perpendicular line from the whole projeftion, as g, till it
cut the upper parallel line ; then will this line ferve as a fcale for the heights
of each member in the cornice, the proportions of which are eafily feen by the
8 al quot
( 83 )
aliquot parts on the fcales; but if not rightly uuderftood, the reader may
fufpend his judgment till the Tufcan order is defcribed.
Divide the upper parallel line, which is equal to one half of the whole
length, into nine equal parts, and give four of thefe for the pitch of the pedi
ment, as the figures i, 2, 3, 4, (hew. Draw then a right line from 4 to the
utmoft proje(flion of the level cornice, and proceed to draw each member of
the level cornice, as the fcale lines dire<3:.
Note, The two upper lines, containing the nine divifions, reprefent the
upper fillet of the level cymare£ta.
The next thing to be done, is to proportion the members of the raking cor
nice by thofe of the level one. To do this, draw a line fquare from the pitch
of the pediment, and continue it till it pafs through the level cornice. Take
then the Ikew meafurement of the lower fillet of the level cymareda, as ab^
and transfer this to the raking cymareda downwards, from a \.ob. Again,
take be from the level corona, and transfer it from b to c for the raking corona.
Laftly, take c d, ef^ in the fame manner, and transfer them one after another
for the raking mouldings, as before ; after which, draw lines through the
feveral points parallel to the pitch or raking line, and the pediment will be
completed for (hading, if required..
Of the Nature and Conjlru&ion of Hip and Elliptic Domes for Beds.
Domes of various kinds have, for many ages pad:, been introduced into
elegant and magnificent buildings, on account of their graceful efFedl and ma
jeftic appearance.
I am of opinion that the notion of employing domes for the roofs of grand
buildings, was firft fuggefted by the appearance of the hemifphere furrounding
L 2 our.
( 84 )
our earth or horizon, forming a canopy or roof to the globe ; which if it were
fo, domes had their origin from a truly fublime and magnificent idea.
The ufe of domes for the tops of beds is of much later date than for build
ings ; but it is certain, whoever he was that firft employed domes for the tops
of beds, muft be coufidered as a perfon of enlarged ideas, as no other top or
roof for a genteel bed can equal them : therefore we fee them generally afed
for flate beds, where both grandeur and boldcffeft are effcntially rcouifite.
The term Dome generally implies a vaulted, arched, or fpherical roof
Some derive it from domus, a houfe ; and others from the barbarous Latin
doma^ a roof or open porch.
When an arched roof is raifed from a fquare or oblong plan, it is called an
Hip Dome, becaufe they require mitre ribs at eacli angle, uniting ia a center
at top. But thofe domes which take their rile from an oval plan, are called
Elliptic ; and, laltly, thofe which have au oclagon or hexagon for their plan
may be ftyled Polygonal Domes.
Prob. XXXni. Fig. 35. Plate VII.
To conftru6t an Hip Dome.
Operation. — Let A B C D be the under teller, upon which another tefter is
to be fixed to receive the ribs of the dome. Draw the diagonals D B and AC,
and their interfe£l:ion will be the center for the dome. Draw a right line
through the center parallel to A B ; draw another line through the center at
right angles with it, then will the diagonal lines be the plans of the hip ribs,
and thofe at right angles to each other will be the plans for the center libs.
Draw a circle from the center of the dome of about eight inches radius, as the
ficTure (hews, which is intended as a ground for ornament in the center of the
dome at the infide, and alfo to combine together the hip and center ribs.
Proceed
Ji^<y. /»/. 2.
J. ii . ii
"^• ^v,* J ■ — ■ .
^Itite.
tj'hmxii?n dt^.^
Jiboke^a*^^
J\idfit.Tf/if.ffri/frt\tr7)i\\'jo.jjiiiiiv (r. Terrv
( ^5 )
Proceed next to confider the height of the dome as may be required. Let
7.6 at No. I be the perpendicular height of it, and let mn be the width of the
dome. Then draw a femiellipfis to pafs through the points «2 6 «. Divide
half of this femiellipfis into as many equal parts as it may be thouoht neceflary
to have ribs in that fpacc, which in this example is fix. Draw on thefe di
vifions perpendicular lines, as the figure fhews, and fubdivide the lall: fpace,
from which raife a perpendicular as before.
Proceed to No. 2, and divide half the length of the dome, as/o, into the
fame number of equal parts as half the width was divided into. From the di
vifions raife perpendiculars at pleafure. Take the length of the feveral per
pendiculars from No. i, and place them on the correfponding perpendiculars at
No. 2, and draw a curve line through each point ; then will the ellipfis thus
produced bfe the outfide fliape of all the long ribs, the fame as No. i is of the
Ihort ri':3. Laftly, proceed to No. 3, which is for the four hip ribs. Draw
the dotted lines from 8, 9, 10, it, 12, at No. i, till they cut the diagonal
line ^ Z* at the correfponding numbers. From thefe interfedions raife perpen
diculars at pleafure, as before. Transfer the length of each perpendicular line
from either No. i or 2 to No, 3 on each perpendicular as numbered, and draw
ing a curve line through each point as before, it will produce an ellipfis for the
outfide fhape of each hip rib.
The next thing to be confidered, is the length required for each rib, accords
ing to their diftance from each angle of the dome. A little thought will make
this eafily underflood ; for if No. 3 was placed in an upright pofition, being
confidered as a frame, and if the portion of the curve from « to i at No. i
was placed upright to it, the two points, i in No. i and i in No. 3, would
coincide, and the point 2 of No, i would coincide with 2 at No. 3, and fo of
all the reft. Hence, from « to i of No. i is the length of the firft fhort rib,
whofe plan is at a ; from n to 2 is the fecond (hort rib, whofe plan is at i> ;
from n to 3 is the third (hort rib, its plan at c ; from « to 4 is the fourth ftiort
rib, its plan at ^; and from « to 5 is the fifth fhort rib, its plan at e. The
long ribs are taken from No. 2, in the fame manner ; each of which has its
plan laid down at No. 3, as «, i^, f , ^, e,f, fo that I need not fay any thing
more on this part of the fubjedl. For the length of the hip ribs, take from J>
to
( 86 )
to 5 at No. 3, and allow three quarters of an inch for dovetailing into the cen
ter block.
Prob. XXXIV. Fig. 36. Plate VII.
'To con/Jruct an JLlliptkal Dome,
Operation. — Let AB, DE, be the plan of the teller, whofe infide forms a
true ellipfis by the help of angle pieces framed in, which mull: be evident to
every workman.
The oval beinsf thus formed according to the infide length and breadth of
the tefler, and the two diameters being already drawn, proceed with one
quarter of the dome thus: draw the plan of the upper tefter, into which the
ribs are to be fixed, as the fecond elliptic line fhews. Divide then the portion
of the ellipfis between and / into as many equal parts as it is required to have
ribs in one quarter of the dome, as at 0, a, 6, /,y, k^ I, tending to the center b.
From thefe center lines draw parallel lines on each fide, which (hall deter
mine the thicknefs of the ribs, and at the fame time fhew how broad each rib
will be required, in order to give it its proper twill fo as to fuit the ellipfis ;
for here it mufl: be obferved, that every rib, excepting the one that is upon
each femidiameter, muft have a winding form, both infide and outfide, in pro
portion to the length of the oval with its breadth.
Determine, next, how much the dome is to rife from the tefter, which, in
this example, 1 confider to be equal to half the fliort diameter ; and therefore
the arch of the rib B is a quadrant of a circle drawn from the center b. This
arch will lerve for two ribs, that is, B and its oppofite. Likewife from the
arch B we determine the outline of every other rib thus : divide the femi
diameter ab into five and an half equal parts, and raife perpendiculars till they
touch the arch B. Divide the plan of the rib ab z.t No. 2 into the fame num
ber of equal parts, and raife perpendiculars at pleafure ; to which perpendicu
Urs
( 87 )
hrs transfer the Teveral lengths of thofe at No. i to the correfponding ones at
No. 2, as acdefg ; by which the rib A will be formed. The libs for h'lj and
k are formed in the fame manner, and therefore it is unneceflary to defcribe
thefe.
Obferve ; C, on the plan of the elliptic tefter, is for the long center rib and
its oppofite, as will eafily be uuderftood by infpefting the figures, and a little
refledion on the fubjeft.
Of the Management of Elliptical Domes.
Thefe domes may be made in four parts, the fame as hip domes, if required.
The ribs of thefe domes are all dovetailed into a center block, which may be
circular or elliptical to fuit the dome, and which ferves for the ground of a
carved and gilt patera for the infide of the dome, as has already been mentioned
on hip domes.
When the ribs are all completely fixed, the fpaces between them may be
filled up by gluing white deal in ; and when the pieces of deal are worked
down to the ribs, the whole will form an agreeable dome, which fhould be
covered with canvafs, and painted to fuit the furniture, or otherwife covered
with the fame kind of fluff. And if fo, it will be unneceflary to cover it witji
canvafs ; but as the fluff mufl be put on the dome in fo many breadths, cut fo
as to anfwer its fhape, a gimp may be flitched on to hide the tacks and give the
dome a more rich appearance. But if the dome be large, it may have fmall
gilt moulding in place of the gimp, which are fixed to the dome by giltheaded
fcrews.
For the infide of the dome, it will be requifite to have a gilt moulding, to
hide the joining of the under and upper tefter, and to fcrve as an architrave to
the dome.
The
( S8 )
The triangular compartments at each corner of the tefter, occafioned by the
manner of framing it to fuit the dome, fhould have fmall mouldings put on to
fuit that fhape, which will take off the flat and heavy appearance it would
otherwife have, and add to the effedt of the whole. As for any other particu
lar with refpeft to ornaments, what has already been obferved on hip domes,
may alfo be applied here.
With refpect to the dome defcribed by Fig. 37, I do not think it neceflary
to go through an explanation of it after what has been faid on Fig. 35, which,
if the reader has fully underftood, he cannot fail to be acquainted with the lines
laid 'Ijwn in Fig. 37, merely from infpedion, efpecially as I have marked each,
correfponding line with fimilar letters and numbers.
( S9 )
SECT. VII.
Of the Proportion of the Jive Orders, adjufiedhy Modules, Minutes, and aliquot
Parts; together with Jome Account of their Antiquity and Origin. Aljo of the
general Proportions of Frontifpieces adapted to each Order.
INTRODUCTION.
I HAVE no doubt but it may be thought unneceffary by feme to introduce
the orders of architedture into this work, after fo many publications of this
Ibrt by men of the firft clafs in the profeffion of the art.
To remove this obje£lion and unfavourable impreflion from the mind, I
fhall juft mention two or three particulars which induced me to make the five
orders a part of this Drav^'ingBook.
Firft. — In my opinion, and it is prefumed that I am not fingular in this,
nothing can appear more worthy of a place in a complete drawingbook than
the five orders accurately laid down and neatly engraved ; by which we fee
the proportions and etFe6l of each moulding arranged and connected together,
according to the compofitions of thofe ancient architedls of Greece and Rome,
who are lo juftly famous in the world.
Befides ; from a plate of the above kind, we are not only made acquainted
with the proportions and fliape of each moulding, but have likewife the ad
vantage of feeing the effeft of light and fhadow produced by the fun's rays
falling in a certain diredlion on the feveral parts of a column.
M The
( 90 )
The knowledge of thefe particulars mufl: ever be confidered as efTential parts
of <^ooJ drawinsf, in which architedure is often introduced, and ibmetimes
makes the principal figure.
Second. — As many cabinetmakers, and even fome ingenious upholfterers,
are found defirous of having a knowledge of the five orders, and the propor
tions of the feveral frontifpieces, I thought an attempt of this Ibrt would be
favourably received, as it undoubtedly tends to make the work more generally
ufeful, and will prevent the trouble and expence of having recourfe to other
books on the fubjeft. And this has not been merely my o.vn opinion, but the
fentiment of fome wellwiflicrs, who defired me to let the orders have a place
in my book.
Laftly. — Befides the reafons juft mentioiied for publifhing the five orders, I
muft frankly own mylclf a lover and admirer of thofe ancient produ(5lions of
ingenuity and art, which, in c»y opinion, cannot be much, if In the lead, im.
proved by the force of modern genius.
If, therefore, the author confiders himfelf as a kind of devotee or bigot to
thefe remaining monuments of ancient ingenuity, furely he may be granted
the liberty of paying the following fmall tribute to the memory of thofe great
architedls who had the honour of bringing the five orders to that perfe(5tion
which we now fee them in at this day.
And further, as I believe that the orders are now brought to fuch perfedion
in their proportions, as will bear the ftriileft mathematical examination, I
confider them as incapable of improvement, except perhaps in fome part of
their ornament, and therefore they are clafled with thofe things in this book
that will remain unalterable.
Of
( 9^ )
Df the Origin and Antiquity vf the Orders of Architeflure.
Some diftindion is to be regarded between the origin and antiquity of the
orders, and that of archite<Slure * in general.
The firft ideas of archite£ture in general, may perhaps be traced from thofe
de and irregula:
bitations of man.
rude and irregular methods of building tents and huts which were the f.rfl ha
But in thefe fl:ru£tures, nature and neceffity were their only guides, unlefs
they obtained fome infl:ru£lions or hints from the manner in which birds build
their nefts, as Vitruvius conjedures.
We are informed by Mofes, that Jabal was the father of fuch as dwelt in
tents : and I fuppofe it is meant, that he was the firfl maker of them likewife.
And I further imagine, that the city which Enoch built about that time was
an affemblage of thofe tents, perhaps furrounded by a mud wall, and fo ob
tained the name of a city in thofe days; for it can fcarcely be thought that
they had at that time either difcovered ftone, or knew how to make brick,
and much lefs how to put them together in houfes, io as to form a city accord
ing to thofe mentioned in after times.
But, however, very early after the flood of Noah, we read of an attempt
made to build a city and tower whofe top was to reach the heavens ; meaning
to be a very high one. Their materials were then brick, and flime for mor
tar. And when we confider how great their defign was, and how fuccefsfully
they proceeded until the Divine Hand ftopt them, we mufi: neceflarily infer.
* Architecture implies the fcience of building in general, which gives rules for defigning and
laifing all kinds of ftruftures or edifices. It is from the word architect:, compounded of aex^f » crchos,
the principle ; and tty%y, teiion, the chief artificer, or one who gives rules for, and dire6U the ma
nagement of, buildings.
M a that
( 9:^ )
that men in thcfc: days began to know the rules of building, and of courfe this
may be confidered the origin of regular architefture *.
But the origin of that part of architefture called theyfx;^ Orders, is of much
later date than this. They appear to me, and it has been the opinion of fome
great architeds, that they owe their beginning to Solomon's Temple.
I do not mean that pillars or columns were never in ufe before this famous
building was ere6ted, but only that we do not read of certain proportions af
figned to their height and diameter till thofe given to Jachin and Boaz, the
names of two pillars fet up at the entrance of the porch of this building.
We read of pillars above four hundred years before the days of Solomon :
and we read alfo, that thefe pillars had chapiters and fillets of gold and filver ;
but no mention is made of their height + or diameter ; yet fomething may be
known as to the intercolumniation of thefe pillars, for there were twenty pil
lars {landing in an hundred cubits, the length of each fide of the tabernacle.
See Excd. xxxvi. 38. and xxxviii. 11. However, as there are no proportions
afligned to thefe pillars, I prefume we cannot date the origin of the orders
here ; yet I think there would be more plaufibility in it than what fome have
advanced on this fubjedl.
* This tower was 660 feet high at the time of the confufion of tongues ; and from the proportion
of its bafe, which was not quite fo large as the Egyptian pyramids before mentioned, fee p. 60, it may
be prcfumed that they did not intend literally to make the tower reach to heaven, even according to
their own conception of that place, otherwife they muft have affumed a more extenfive bafe or area
for that purpofe. It is probable, therefore, that this prodigious building was brought to a finifli at
this height. Profane hillory informs us, that it benched in from the bottom to the top in a fpiral
form, and the platforms occafioned by the benching ferved as a ftaircafe, which was fufficiently broad
forhorfes and carts to turn upon it. The fpaces between each benching was 75 feet high, and con
tained manv ftately rooms, with arched roofs ; which is a further proof of their (kill in architefture.
And \vhen it is confidered that their bricks were 18 feet long, 14 wide, and 7^ thick, th.y muft have
pofleff^d fome knowledge of the meclianic powers, in order to move fuch ponderous ftones and raife
them fo high. About this tower was afterwards built the great city Babylon, the glory of the
Chaldeans.
t Jofephus indeed fays, " Every pillar was five cubits in heiglit ;" and he fpeaks alfo of five pillars
at the entrance of the tabernacle^ that were gilded, and Hood 011 bafes of bi afs.
I The
( 93 )
The pillars which Solomon eredled at the entrance of the temple were of
the following proportion, according to the language of the fcriptores ; — Their
height was eighteen cubits, or twentyfeven feet without their chapiters or
capitals; and their chapiters were five cubits; which in all makes thirtyfour
and an half feet in height. A line of twelve cubits did compafs either of them,
about, confequently their diameter was fix feet; and had thefe pillars been
one cubit higher, their proportion would have anfwered exaftly to the original:
Doric * Order,, whole height was equal to fix of its diameters..
Befides the likenefs or affinity between the Doric column and thofe fet up.
by Solomon,, will ftill appear more ftriking, if we. confider that the ancient
Doric had no plinth or bafe ; for there does not appear to have been any at the
foot cf Jachin and Boaz, otherwife I think they would have been, mentioned as
well as the chapiters. But thefe columns are faid to have fillets, whofe thick
nefs was four fingers, and they were made hollow. See Jer. Hi. 21.
Thefe fillets feem to anfwer well enough to the Doric necking at the top of
the fhaft. They were hollow, and of four fingers thlcknefs or projedlion,
which Is nearly the fame projeftlon as would be required in the necking of a
Doric column of the dimenfion of Jachin and Boaz.
There is another particular that may be mentioned which alfo bears fome
likenefs to the Doric, and that is the fize of the porch or entrance, on each,
fide of which thefe maffy pillars were placed.
This opening was twenty cubits in width, and forty in height, anfwering,
to the proportion of the Doric frontlfplece or door.
And laftly. — The lilywork on the chapiters, and the rows of pomegranates
round about the chapiters, were, in my opinion, as likely to have given
* For fome time after the firft invention of this order, the proportion of its diameter to the height
was as the length of a man's foot is to the height of his whole body, which at that time w:.s reckoned
to be oae fixth part ; but afterwards they added another diameter, and at length brought it to eight.
rife
( 94 )
life to the ancient Doric order, and more fo than the manner of building an
cient huts, by placing trunks of trees on each fide, by which the roof was
fupported.
Yet I will not fay but trunks of trees thus employed, might firfl: give ex
igence to the notion of fome kind of a pillar to be ufed in the firft buildings of
brick or ftone, while, at the fame time, I am inclined to think that columns
were never reduced to any order till the building of Solomon's temple by God's
appointment.
However it is not to be underftood as if the regular Doric order could
be exaftly copied from Solomon's pillars, but only fuch hints and propor
tions taken from them as ferved in after times to compofe the firfl order of
architefture.
Nor can it be thought that the firfl compofition of the Doric column had
thefe triglyphs and mutules which we now fee it has, till after it was reduced
to its proper form and chara£ler. It is therefore thought to have been more
fimple and maffy in its primitive flate ; fomething like the Tufcan order.
Some imagine, and not without ground, that the Tufcan, nearly as we have
it now, was the firfl flate of the Doric,
Vrtruvius fpeaks of a flate in which the Doric column was in before it
was reduced to order ; for, treating of the antiquity of the Doric, that it
was ufed in the temple of Juno, at Argos, he fays, that, " the fame order
was alfo ufed in the other cities of Achaia, before the laws of its fymmetry
were eflablifhed.^'
This indicates that it was in a more rude flate before it was employed in
that famous temple.
But if that temple, dedicated to Juno, was erefled in the days of Do
rus, the king of Argos, as Vitruvius intimates, it would be rather incredible
to think that the Doric order fhould be in exiflence in times fo long before
2 Solomon : ]
( 95 )
Solomon * : and, upon fiich a fuppofitlon, thofe who maintain that the firft
idea of the orders was derived fron:i Solomon's temple, would be grofsly mif
taken.
A certain author, after quoting Vitruvlus on the fubjeft, fays, " Such is
the account given by Vitruvius of the origin of improvements in the propor
tion of columns. Had improvements, however, exilled in fuch early times,
Homer t, who was greatly pofterior to them, would certainly have made
mention of fomething of the kind ; but in all his writings he gives us
no account of any thing like columns of jftone, but ufes a word which
would rather incline us to think, that his columns were nothing more than
bare poflsJ*
This account looks as if there had been neither ftone columns nor temples
till after Homer's days. For if the architefture among the Greeks in thole
days coniilled in bare pofts, we cannot fuppofe that thofe temples which they
dedicated to their gods were compofed of columns of marble, of other ftone,
otherwife he would not have left them unnoticed. It would rather feem
as if the Greeks had borrowed their frft notions of temples to worfhip
their gods in, and alfo their architedture to adorn them with,^ from that at
Jerufalem.
Agreeable to this view, the above quoted author fays : " It is remarkable
that improvements in archlte£hire did not take place in any nation till after,
or about,, the time that Jerufalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. The
grandeft buildings amongft the Aflyrians feem to have owed their exiftence to
this monarch ; and it can fcarcely be imagined that he would not endeavour to
imitate the archite£lure of Solomon's temple, to which, by his conqueft of
Jerufalem,. he had full accefs J."
* Dorus rmifl: have been, at lead, four hundred years before Solomon, if he reigned at Argos
before the expedition of the Argonauts.
+ Homer was born above nine hundred years before the Chriftian aera.
I According to Prideaux, Nebuchadnezzar took Jerufalem fix hundred and five years bcfwe
Chrift.
Upon
( 96 )
Upon the whole then, I thiak it will agree better to the above fads, if we
affirm that the Doric order had its name and improvements from the Dorians,
who occupied the country of Doris, a Grecian diftrift, of which Dorus had
■formerly been king.
The Ionic order fucceeded the Doric, according to antiquity, and was ?n
improvement from it. It had its name from Ion, the Grecian country or
diftridt where it was invented, and firft employed in the temple of Diana at
Ephefus. By the accounts we have of this temple, archite6i;ure muft have
arrived to a coufiderable degrfee of perfection in theie times. This temple at
Ephefus, the metropolis of Ion, was about four hundred and forty feet long,
and two hundred and thirty feet wide; was fupported by one hundred and
twentvfeven pillars of the above order, apd about fi:itytwo feet high. It
was built in marble, and decorated with the finell ornaments j and, as the
biflory fays, exhibited the moll perfect model of this order.
The Corinthian comes next in order, which has its name from Co inth,
a city or chief town in Achaia, a Grecian diftrid or territory. In this
city the Corinthian order had its origin. The account which Vitru
vius* gives of it is fbmewhat curious and entertaining ; 1 (hall therefore tran
fcribe it.
■" The third," fays he, '^ which is called Corinthian, is in imitation of the
delicacy of vireins ; for the limbs are formed more flender, and are more grace
ful in attire. The capital is reported to have been thus invented : — a Co
rinthian maid, being feized with a diforder, died ; after her interment, her
nurfe collected, and difpofed m a balket, the toys which pleafed her when
alive, carried it to the tomb, placed it on ihe top, and, that it might endure
the lon"^er in the open air, covered it with a tile. The balket chanced to be
iplaced over the root of an acanthus, which being thus deprefled in the middle,
* ^'itruvius was an ancient Roman arclilrcfl, who wrote a fyflem of archltedure, it is thought,
in the time of Titus, the eleventh Roman emperor, who reigned in the year 79, to whom he dedi
cates the woi'k.
the
( 91 )
the leaves and flalks iu the fpring feafoii iflued outward, and grew round the
fides of the balket ; and being prefTed by the weight at the angles of the tile,
were naade to convolve at the extremities, like volutes. At that time Calli
machus, who, for his ingenuity and excellence in the arts, was by the Athe
nians named Catatechnos *, happening to pafs by this tomb, took notice of
the bafket, and being pleafed with the delicacy of the foliage growing around
it, as well as the novelty of the form, made fome columns near Corinth ac
cording to this model, and from thence eftablifhed the fymmetry, and deter
mined the proportions, of the Corinthian order."
The Tufcan order is the fourth in point of antiquity, but in the arrange
ment of the five orders it is put firft, on account of its fimplicity and plain
nefs. It had its origin in Tufcany, a place remarkable in Italy, which was
firft inhabited by the ancient Lydians out of Alia. Thefe people firft built
temples of this order, and dedicated thent\ to their gods in their new planta
tions. Vitruvius calls it the ruftic order, which is confiftent enough with
what I formerly conjedured, namely, that this order was the firft ftate of the
Doric column in its moft antique form. And the circumftance of its being
brought from Afia by the ancient Lydians, helps to confirm it.
The Compofite is the laft. Its name denotes that it was compofed from
the other regular orders.
'O'
It is alfo called the Roman order, becaufe it was reduced to its proportional
ftandard in that country.
It does not appear to be fo ancient as the days of Vitruvius, as he makes no
mention of it. He fpeaks of various capitals that might be introduced on the
Corinthian column, but does not name them. *' There are," fays he, " alfo
other kinds of capitals, called by various names, which are difpofed on the fame
columns, and which have no proper fynimetry or relation to any order of co
lumns that can be named differently ; but they' are all derived and transferred
from the Corinthian f."
* The firft of artifts. f See Newton's Tianflation of Vitruvius.
N Thefe
( 98 )
Thefe words, and the liberty they convey in favour of the compofirion of
varieties of capitals to the Corinthian column, it may be prelumed, gave rife
to the compofitiou of this order, which, in any other refpedt but the capital,
is nearly the fame with the Corinthian. Some architects, however, do not
incline to fpeak well of it, becaufe it appears to have been picked and
culled from all the other orders, and is fometimes badly arranged, on ac
count of the liberty both taken and granted in this fpecies of architecSliire.
However, in my opinion, it forms a very beautiful appearance when rightly
managed.
The original inventor of the compofite order is thought to have been one
Serlio.
Having now faid as much on the antiquity and origin of the five orders, as
is neceflary to give a workman a proper view of the fubje£l, I (hall now pro
ceed to defcribe the proportions and charadler of each diftindt order, and like
wife explain the names of each moulding.
Of the Tufcan Order. See Plate VIIL
The Tufcan order is the moft fimple of any of the orders. It is alfo diftin
guifliable from the other, on account of its ftrong and maffive appearance. On
which account, in the figurative flyle, it has obtained the name of the ruftic
order ; and in conformity to this charader it is generally employed in farm
houfes, ftables, and other buildings in the like fituations. It is, however,
fometimes ufed in grander buildings, where ornaments are not required, but
where ftrength is the principal objed.
The proportion of the Tufcan column, with its pedeftal and entablature, is
as follows :
Divide
i 99 )
Divide the whole height, for the complete column, into five, as the figure
fliews. Take one of thefe parts for the pedeftal as at i, whence the line is di
reded that determines the height of the pedeftal. From this line divide the
whole height again into five equal parts, as the fecond upright fcale (hews.
Take one of thefe parts for the whole entablature, and the remaining four is
the height of the column, including its bafe and capital. Divide the height
affigned for the column into feven equal parts, as is (hewn on the third up
right fcale. Take one of thofe feven parts for the inferior or lower diameter of
the column, not including the projeftions of the bafe, but fimply confined to
what is commonly called the (liaft, or cylindrical part of the column. Take
half of the inferior diameter, and give it for the height of the bafe, and alfo
for the height of the capital, not including the aftragal at the neck. Proceed
next to draw a module, by which to determine the fmaller parts of the
column, with the heights and proje<5tions of its members, as fpecified by the
upright and horizontal numbers oppofite to each member on the large fcale.
Draw a right line at pleafure. Lay on this line a fpace equal to one di .
ameter. Divide it into fix equal parts, and draw perpendiculars from each
divifion indefinitely. Lay on five equal divifions on any of the perpendicular
lines, and draw parallels through each.
Draw then two oblique lines, meeting in a point at halfof thefirft divifion
10, which fpace will then be divided into ten, at the numbers i, 2, 3, 4,
5, &c. fo that any number of minutes up to fixty may be accurately taken
from this fcale.
I have alfo (hewn a module at the bottom of the larger pedeflal, which is
equal to two of the fmall modules, from which all the minutes are taken and
placed as before mentioned, as the Plate of itfelf will make fufficiently clear by
infpedion.
A module is confidered by fome as only half a diameter, but others extend
it to a whole diameter ; which lafl: I have adopted, as being the mofl: fimple
and entire, and therefore more eafily remembered by workmen.
N 2 Vitruvius
( I<^ )
Vitruvius ufes the large module, reckoning the proportions of the column
by the thicknefs of the lower diameter of its fhaft. And I do not fee but it
anfwers as nearly to the different parts of a column as the femidiameter does,
or as that of twenty minutes, which has been contrived by fome.
The projection of each member is alfo denoted by aliquot, or equal parts ;
and each part is equal to a minute taken from the fcale : fo that if the reader
fhould find any little inaccuracies in the aliquot parts, which it is almoft im
poffible to avoid in fuch fmall fcales, he may corredl thefe by the whole num
ber. And obferve, that the cornice of the pedeftal projedts iij minutes,
which is the whole fum of the projection of each member, denoted by 2, 4,
2, 2i, and which amount to 11^. The bafe of the pedeftal proje(5\s the fame.
Its fillet is two parts ; the ogee, or cymareda, feven and an half; and the
fquare two ; which is in all eleven and an half. The bafe of the column pro
jedts ten; the conge, or apophyge, four; and the torus fix. The upper
conge of the neck of the capital three, and its aftragal one and an half. The
capital, in all, projedts twelve minutes ; the firft fillet two, the ovalo (eveUy
the abacuo one before it, and the upper fillet two. The whole projc6lion of
the architrave is five, the upper facia one and an half, and its fillet proje(fts
three and an half. The whole cornice projeds fortyfive minutes, and its
height is equal to its projection.
Of the Diminution of Columns.
Some diminifh columns by a right line drawn from the inferior to the fu
perior diameter ; but this is very jejune and infipid, becaufe when columns are
finifhed ftridly in thTs mode, they appear too flender in the middle, and lole
that graceful effect which an ea(y curve line produces.
It appears that fome of the ancients dirniniflied the fhafts of their columns
by a curve hue one third from the bafe, as in Plate Vlll. whilft others of
them carried this point to an extreme, by drawing a regular curve line from
the
( 10, )
the inferior to the fuperior diameter, producing a diameter In the middle of the
fhaft larger than that at the bottom. This notion has been charged upon Vi
truvius, becaufe he fpeaks of " an augmentation that fliould be made in the
middle of columns;" but Mr.Newton, in a note in his book of Vitruvius,
has cleared him of this charge. See page 53. And Sir William Chambers
takes notice of an author who fuppofes the " addition mentioned by Vi
truvius to <i2;nifv nothing^ but the increafe towards the middle of the co
lumn, occafioned by changing the flraight line which at firft * was in ufe,
for a curve."
*' This fuppofition," fays Sir William, " is extremely juft, and founded
on what is obferved in the works of antiquity; where there is no inftance of
columns thicker in the middle than at the bottom, though all have the fwelling
hinted at by Vitruvius, all of them being terminated by curves."
The method that this gentleman recommends as mofl; proper for diminifh
ing columns, is by an inftrument which Nicomedes invented to defcribe the
firlt conchoid ; for this, being applied at the bottom of the fhaft, performs at
once both the fwelling and the diminution ; giving fuch a graceful form to the
column, that it is univerfally allowed to be the moft perfe£l pradice hitherto
difcovered.
This method has been adopted in the diminution of the Ionic, Compofite,
and Corinthian columns in Plate X, XI, and XII ; becaufe thefe are the moft
delicate orders.
But, in the Tufcan and Doric (hafts, I have followed the common method ;
becaufe thefe robuft columns will admit of more apparent, or more fudden,
diminution than the other three.
The moft common method is as follows. See Plate VIII.
* This means, before the orders of architedlure had received much improvement.
Divide
( I0» )
Divide the fliaft into three equal parts, and draw a diameter at the firfl: part.
On this diameter defcribe a femicircle, and divide the femidiameter into five
equal parts. From the fourth divifion raife a perpendicular line which deter
mines the upper diameter and cuts off a portion of the femicircle, which is to
be divided into four on the curve. Laftly, divide the upper two thirds of the
fhaft into four equal parts, anfwerablc to the four equal parts on the curve ;
and from each of thefe divifions, or parts, on the curve, draw right lines to
the correfponding divifions on the fhaft, by which four points will be found
through which the diminishing curve line is to pafs, and, if accurately drawn,
will appear Imooth. Obferve, this diminution brings the column, at its
fuperior diameter, to fortyeight minutes ; but in all the other orders there
are uniformly fifty minutes allowed.
Some architedts, however, contend for various degrees of diminution, ac
cording to the charadler of each column. They aflign to the Tufcan one
fourth, to the Doric one fifth, to the Ionic one fixth, to the Compofite and
Corinthian one feventh, of the inferior or largeft diameter.
This makes no difference, however, in the method of diminution above
taught ; for if the Tufcan be diminished one fourth, then divide a femidiameter
into four parts, and take one of thofe for the diminution on each fide, and
proceed as before ; fo alfo of the other.
I (hall now quote a few words from Sir William Chambers on this fubjeft,
by which the reader, if he pleafe, may form his judgment. He fays, " In
the remains of antiquity, the quantity of diminution is various ; but feldom
lefa than one eighth of the inferior diameter of the column, nor more than
one fixth of it. The laft of thefe is by Vitruvius efteemed the moft perfeft.
Vignola has employed it in four of his orders, as I have done in all of them,
there being no reafon for diminishing the Tufcan column more in proportion
to its diameter than any of the reft."
How
JYrjti a'.
T. SA^nUen Al^ .
T^Npud tu l^ Acf din4^i^. ^t T^hem&n 7?^c/' <^./7^/
yi^**. 'i.*^
( »03 )
Hoiv to dimlniPo any Column, from the inferior to the fuperior 'Diameter^ by means
of an Eiliptic Curve not exceeding in its S^vell the inferior Diameter,
Fig. I. Plate XIII. is Vignola's method of dimlnifhing a column, the prin
ciples of which 1 have taken from Sir William Chambers' Treatife on Archi
tedlure, but have here defcribed it in my own way, as follows.
Determine the height of the fliaft as at c d, and draw a line for its axis.
Next, draw ^ a at pleafure, and at right angles with the axis. Let b c h& half
the inferior, and n d half the fuperior diameter. Take b c, half the under dia
meter, and with the compafles place it from n, the extreme point of the
upper diameter, to any point where it falls on the axis of the column^ as at o.
From n draw a line through o, and proceed till it cut the bafe line ba zt a.
Draw a line at pleafure from b, the extreme point of the inferior diameter,
parallel with c d ; and divide this line into a number of equal parts, as 2, 4, 6,
8, &c. From a, the center, draw a ray or right line to each of thefe divifions,
which will pafs obliquely through the axis, in proportion to their diftance from
the inferior diameter be. Take then b c, half the diameter, and place it from
I to 2, from 3 to 4, and fo on of all the reft. Laftly, through each of thefe
points draw a curve line, and the diminution of one fide of the column will be
thus completed, as is (hewn by the dotted line on the right hand. To deter
mine the other fide of the (haft, nothing is wanted but to draw a fquare line
acrofs the fhaft from each point, and place the diftance2 a: to xy, and / 4 to
/ 9, and fo on of the reft.
Fig. 2 is Nicomedes' inftrument, which, as it is here defcribed, is intended
to perform the fame diminution as has been above explained by lines.
This inftrument is made in the manner of a fquare, with a ftay to keep it
firm, as at R ; ;^^ is a dovetail groove cut in the center of the upright piece,
as T ; bah its bafe, in which alfo there is a dovetail groove as at « ; / w is a
ruler,
( I04 )
ruler, or trammel, which moves by the dovetailpiece Y in the groove bp, by
which the diminution is performed; glj is a plain groove cut through the
trammel, and ^ is a center pin which guides the trammel as /' pafles from p
to b ; when / is at by it is evident that h will be at g the center pin, becaufe
hi is equal gb ; alfo^/ is equal oa in Fig. i. and found in the fame manner.
The interval, or fpace, between the center / and k at the end of the trammel,
is equal to the inferior diameter b m^ or bc^ Fig. i. As, therefore, the cen
ter / paffes to by the center k, in which a pencil is fixed, cuts all the oblique
linesyy tending to ^, in the fame points as at 2, 4, 6, 8, &c. of Fig. i. and at
the fame time draws a perfedl curve ; at leafl it is fo when the center is not
nearer to b, the bafe of the column, than g is ; and it cannot be nearer, ac
cording to the quantity of the diminution always affigned by archite6ls; but if
g be moved towards the bafe ^, in proportion thereto the curve at the top will
become too ftraight. This, however, is no reafonable objedion to the ufe of
this inftrument when applied to columns ; for certainly it muft ever be con
fidered an advantage to be able to draw a curve by an inftrument, which other
wife muft be drawn by the hand through certain points, which it is not ea(y
to do in the whole length of a column ; and, though it be not abfolutely per
fedt when ufed for any thing that requires much more diminution than a co
lumn, yet we affirm it to be without defedl in that cafe, and to exceed ar)y
other method yet publilhed.
Laftly, in order to make this inftrument anfwer for fliafts of various fizes,
the plain groove g h muft be lengthened each way to v and w at pleafure. The
upright pb^ and the bafe piece N a, muft alfo be proportionably lengthened ;
and if the center pin g be fixed in a moveable piece to Aide each way in the
oroove ?/, and fixed at any certain place by a fcrew, as may be required, then
it is evident that the inftrument may be fo conftrucled as to anfwer columns
of any^dimenfion.
Of the principal Farts of a Column^ and the Names of each Member.
The principal parts of an entire order are three; the pedeftal, ftiaft, and
entablature.
The
( ^05 )
The pedeftal is the lowermofl: part of aa order, comprehended between y
and F, fee Plate VIII. The column is the middle part of it, including the
whole fpace between the pedeftal and top of the capital. The entablature is
the uppermoft pr.rt of the whole, and contains every member between m, the
top of the capital, and a.
Thefe principal parts are again fubdivided as follows. The pedeflal con
tains the plinth F, dado B, and cornice A zy. The column includes a bale,
fhaft, and capital ; and the entablature, an architrave, freeze, and cornice.
Thus, in every entire order there are three principal parts, and each of thefe
parts are again fubdivided into three fmaller parts, which in all make nine ;
the origin of whofe names is as follows:
'O
F, the plinth, is from TrXivS^oj, pUnthos, a brick, or fiat fquare ftone, on
which columns, in their moft antique flate, are fuppofed to have ftood.
B, the dado, or dye, fo called becaufe it is of a cubic form.
A, z,y, the cornice, from the Latin coron'js, a crowning; becaufe the cor
nice is the finifhing, or crowning, of the pedeftal.
X, w, V, tTie bafe of the column, from /Sao*?, da/Is, a foundation or footing
for the column.
The fhaft is that long and ftraight part of a column comprehended between
the bafe and capital.
Some derive it from okxttJco, J^apto, to dig, in the manner of a well, round
and deep, whofe infide refembles the fhape of a pillar ; and fome from the
long part of an arrow or fhaft *".
The fliaft ot a mine is the round perpendicular paffage they make to come at the ore.
O ^, p, 0, ;;, w.
( ro6 ;
q,p,o,n,m, the capital, from Ke(p»X)j, kepbak; ox caput, the head, which
the capital is to the column.
/, k, i, the architrave, {o called hecaiife it is the chief fupport to the whole
entablature, from a^^voj, an/jos, chief or prhicipal ; and the Latin tral>Sf a
beam.
/j, the freeze, " from (pi^povy phibron, a border or fringe ; or which the an
cients ufcd to call t^upo^oq, becaufe it was ufually enriched with the figures of
animals."
From J to rt is called the cornice, which is the fame to the entire order as
the pedeftal cornice is to it. See A, Zjy.
Thefe fubdivifions of the entire order have each their particular members,
except the dado or freeze ; and on the proper arrangement of thefe members,
depends much of the beauty of the whole.
The names of thefe members are as follows :
a, the fillet, from the French word^/, thread.
b, the cymatium, or cymaredta, from KUfianovy kumation, a wave ; becaufe
this member refembles the fwelling and concavity of a wave.
f, The fillet.
d, the corona, or crown ; becaufe it is a principal member of the cornice,
and ferves as a (heltcr to the fmaller members of the entablature.
The hollow part appearing at the under fide of the corona, is termed the
drip.
e, the ovolo, or Latin ovum, which means an egg ; becaufe this member.
DO
in
( i°7 )
III the Ionic, Compofite, and Corinthian orders, is generally carved in the
fhape of eggs and darts.
g, the cavetto, from the Latin cavus, hollow.
/, the fillet, liftel, or fquare of the architrave.
i, the upper fafcia ; and /, the lower ditto.
niy the upper fillet of the capital.
n, the abacus, from a^u^f abax, a fhelf or table ; or, as fome fuppofc, a
tile on which the ancient Greek mathematicians flrewed dufl to draw their
2:eometrical fchemes on.
This word feems to have been introduced into archite£lure on the invention
of the Corinthian capital, which had its rife from an acanthus growing round
a bafltet with a tile laid over it, as has already been defcribed from Vitruvius.
Confequently
0, the ovolo, which is the fucceeding member, mufi: be confidered as the
bafket over which this tile was placed.
/>, the lower fillet of the capital ; and q, the freeze of ditto.
r, the aftragal, from ug^oiya.\o?, aflragalos, a bone of the heel ; or the cur
vature of the heel, which this member refembles.
J, the upper cinclure, which it is thought was anciently an iron hoop, or
ferule, to fecure the ends of the columns, when they were uicd without ca
pitals or bafes.
O 2 /, the
( io8 )
/, the upper conge or apopKyge, from onro(pvyvi, apopbu^c, eicape ; becaufc
that part of the columti appears to fly off.
u, the lower ditto ; and v^ the lower cinfture.
w, the torus, from tcjcj, toros, a cable, which this member refeniblcs,
X, the plinth of the bafe.
y, the fillet ; and z, the corona, as before.
A, the cymareverfa, or the cymatium inverted.
DE the bafe of the plinth, whofe members are named the fame as thofc'
of the like (hape already defcribed.
In every other column fimilar members have the fame name, and therefore
I fliall not repeat them over under the other columns. But as there are fome
niembers in the fucceeding orders which differ in charafter and (liape from
thole that have been mentioned already, I (hall here point them out, to
prevent future trouble, and to keep this part of the fubjed of architedure
to2;ether.
The Doric, Plate IX. for inftance, has a fcotia marked A, from (tkotiu,
/kotia, darknefs ; becaufe of the flrong fhadow which is produced by its own
concavity and the projedling aftragal above it.
m, the conic drops, fo called from their figure.
k, the triglyphs, from r^iyXvpog, trig/up/jos, three engravings. It is a com
pound of TPi, tri, three ; and yXv^pu^ ghipbo, to carve or engrave ; in con
formity to which derivation, the triglyph has two entire channels, and two
half ones, with three fpaces between. It is faid that the triglyphs peculiar to
this
/ r'//r { //uy
r
Tj'keraten DeUn.
t ^^^rf!//^
■r v';;. .
' 1
La \ :ri
r * A
ZZL
ti It Ji iitii
\ \ \\ \ V
7
3
[^ 33/
X.
' 3ii 3
/ti
., ^/,.,/./,
I'l'll'l
7
3!."»
fiM/^d or tif Are dhrar. iy Tf/uratm J>tc'tf'tpfi
y..i,~r„.j,^,^
( 109 )
this order were firfl: ufed in a temple at Delphos dedicated to Apollo, becaufe
his lyre was of this Ihape.
e,f,g, the mntule, from the 'L.AX'm mutuli, modillion j fo that, properly
fpeakine, the mutules are to the Doric the fame as the modillions are to the
Compofite and Corinthian orders.
In the Ionic order, Plate X. there are two members which differ from thofe
already mentioned, as o the volute, and D the dentils. The volute is fo called
from the Latin volvendo, to roll round, as on a ftafF*. Some call the volutes
the horns of the capital, becaufe they pretty much refemble the twifting of
rams horns.
The dentils are from denteUl, teeth, which they refemble ; and the flat
member on which thefe dentils are placed is termed dcntkulus.
The Compofite capital is adorned with acanthus leaves, and the Corinthian
with thofe of the olive.
Of the Charadier and general Proportions of the Dork Order.
See Plate IX.
The chara£ler of this order is confidered by architefts as grave and robuft.
Hence, in the figurative ftyle, it is termed the Herculean Order ', of which
order fome temples were formerly built, and dedicated to Hercules as well as
to Apollo.
It is generally ufcd in large and flrong buildings, as in the gates of cities,
* The term volume has the fame origin, becaufe anciently they formed books by fheets of written
parchment or bark rolled round a ftick.
and
( no )
and at the outfide of churches. And, as its entablature is of a very large pro
jedion, it is generally employed in fituations where ihelter is required.
The whole height of the entire order is divided into five equal parts ; one of
which is the height of the pedeftal. The column and entablature is divided
into five alio; four of thefe parts are affigned for the height of the column,
including the bafe and capital ; thefe four parts are again divided into eight
equal parts, one of which is given for the inferior diameter of the fhaft. The
entablature is two diameters in height, its cornice is fortyfive minutes, and
its projeclion is one module. The (haft fometimes is left plain, and fome
times it is fluted. The number of flutes is twenty or twentyfour, and the
depth and curvature of them are determined by drawing an arch from the
lummit of an equilateral triangle, whofe fides are equal to the breadth of the
flutes, as at o.
To diminish the flutes in proportion to the column, divide the upper two
thirds of the fliaft into four, and find the femicircles i, 2, 3, 4, 5, in the fame
manner as was taught in the Tufcan order. Then divide each of thefe femi
circles into ten or twelve, and draw lines from each point or flute perpen
dicular to the diameter, as 1,2, 3, 4. Take thefe fpaces on each diameter and
transfer them to their correfpondent diameters on the column, which will give
the diminution required at each for the flutes. Lafily, as the Doric flutes
have no fillets, all that remains is to draw a line from each point on the fe
veral diameters from one to the other, and the lines for the flutes will be thus
determined. And obferve, in all the orders a flute muft be in the center of a
column or pilafi;er, not a fillet.
The triglyphs are thirty minutes in breadth, fee Plate XII. and fixtytwo
in hei<^ht, including the conic drops, and the upper and lower fillets, with the
fmall fquare above the drops. The channels of the triglyphs form a fquare or
ricrht anole, and their breadth is determined by dividing the whole triglyph
into twelve equal parts, and affigning two of thefe parts for the channels, tv/o
tor the fpaces between them, and one for the half channel on each fide. The
conic drops at bottom are alfo equal to two of thofe parts ; and if two parts be
divided
f^r
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( ^'I )
divided itito three, one of thefe parts will be the breadth of the upper end of
tbiofe drops.
The metope, or fpace between each triglyph, is fortyfive minutes, or equal
to the height of the triglyph without the fillets. Thefe metopes are fometimes
adorned with ox fcuUs or pateras, whofe projeftions ought not to be more than
the triglyph itfelf.
The breadth of the mutules, without their caps, is equal to the triglyphs
without their fillets.
The proje£lion of the mutule is the fame ; and the foffits, or underfides of
the mutules, are fometimes ornamented with drops of the fame kind as thofe
of the triglyphs.
The foffits of the corona are alfo enriched with rofes in fquare, and in lo
zenge* compartments, cut out of the folid, including in their depth the whole
relief of the ornaments.
With refpe£l to the heights and projeflions of each member, thefe muft be
learned from the upright and horizontal fcales, and therefore it will be unnecef
fary to fay more.
Of the Chara&er and general Proportions of the Ionic Order.
See Plate X.
The Ionic is more (lender and graceful than the Doric. Its ornaments, in
my opinion, are truly elegant, being in a flyle of compofition between the
richnefsof the Corhithian and the plainnefs of the Tufcan order: for which
* In the figure of a rhomb. See Plate II. fig. 3.
reafon.
( 112 )
rcafon, in the figurative ftyle, it has been compared to a fedate matron, in
decent rather than rich attire.
This order, being of a grave cafl, is often employed in courts of juftice,
and in the infiJe of churches, and other places of that kind : in libraries and
colleges alfo, and in all places that belong to arts and letters.
The general proportions are as follow :
The height of the entire order is divided into five equal parts. One part is
oiven for the pedeftal, and the remaining four are divided into fix ; one of
which is afligned for the height of the entablature, and the remaining five
will be the height of the column, including the bafe and capital. The height
aflitrned for the column is then divided into nine, one of which is for the in
ferior diameter or module.
The cornice is fortyfour minutes high, and its projection is equal to its
height. The drip in the under fide of the corona is chamieled out one minute
deep within two of the front, and oiie minute before the cymareverfa.
The (haft of the column is fometimes fluted and fometimes plain. Twenty
or twentyfour is the number of tlutes allowed, and their fillets are one third of
the width. The depth of the flutes is determined by a femicircle whofe di
ameter is equal to the width of them.
How to defcrlbe the Ionic Volute.
See Plate XIII. Fig. 4.
Operation. — Draw the perpendicular A /, and make A s equal to fifteen mi
nutes. On the center s defcr.be a circle whole diameter fiiail be equal to
three and an half minutes. D.aw next a geometrical fquare, having its fides
equal
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Pul^^hed Of c/ieAct directr hy (r.Terry^^^^eh^ S 3^^'2
^.Bar^t^Jculf* .
( 113 )
equal to the radius of the circle, as 1, 2, 3, 4. From the angles 2, 3, draw a
right line to the center of the circle, as at s. Divide the fide of the fquare
1.4 into fix equal parts, as at 5, 9, 12, 8. From 5 draw the line 5.6 parallel
to 1.2; draw 6.7 parallel to 2.3, and 7.8 parallel to 3.4. In the same man
ner draw 9, 10, 11, 12, and twelve centers will be found, as at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12; by which every arch of the volute will be accurately
drawn, and each of them coincide with the other — thus: on the center 1 fix
one foot of the compalfes, and extend the other to A: with this opening de
fcribe the arch A B. On the center 2, with the compalfes extended to B, de
fcribe the arch B C. On the center 3, with the compalfes extended to C,
defcribe the arch C D. On the center 4, with the compalfes extended to D,
defcribe D E, and the volute will be turned once round. For the fecond time
round, begin at center 5, and extend the inftrument to E, and defcribe EG.
On the center 6, M'ith the compafles at G, defcribe G H. On the center 7,
with the compafles at H, defcribe H I. On the center 8, with the compalfes
at I, defcribe I K, and the volute will be turned twice round.
The third time round begins with center 9, from which extend the com
pafles to K, and defcribe KM. On the center 10, Avith the compafs foot at
M, defcribe M N. On the center 11, with the compafs foot at N, defcribe
N O. And lafl;ly, on the center 12, with the compafs foot at O, defcribe
O P, which will complete the volute three times round.
Obferve, that the whole volute is compofed of twelve quadrants of a circle,
drawn from twelve centers, and gradually contracted in by means of the dia
gonal lines in the eye, fee Fig. 3. Therefore, as there are three complete
turnings in the whole convolution, each of thefe turnings is made up of four
quadrants.
Hoto to graduate the Lift or Fillet of the Volute.
Make the breadth of the fillet at A equal to two minutes; or according
to fome, one and feven eighths, or one and two thirds. Conftrudl; a triangle,
P as
( IH )
as at Fig. 5, wliofe fides AP, V P, fliall be equal to the length of the ca
thetus, or upright line AP, Fig. 4. Make AV, Fig. 5, equal to half the
fide of the fquare iu the eye of the volute, Fig. 4. Draw then the line L S,
Fig. 5, at a diftance from A V, equal to the breadth of the fillet at A, Fig. 4.
Take the length L S from Fig. 5, and place it each way from S in the eye of
the volute, or as from V to S in the large eye, Fig. 3. V S is divided into three
equal parts, which are fhewn by the dotted lines; and where thefe dotted
lines interfe6l with the diagonal lines in the fquare, they will find twelve new
centers, which will defcribe the diminution of the lifl; or fillet by the fame
procefs that was ufed in drawing the exterior contour or outline of the volute
above explained.
For the other enrichments of tlie Ionic capital, fee the plan in Plate XII.
and obferve, that over every flute in tlie fliaft is placed an ove, or egg, iu
the ovolo.
Of the Characier and genej^al Proportloiis of the Compojite Order.
See Plate XI.
This order is generally placed last of the five, becaufe it was a compofitian
from them, and of the lateft invention. But, according to this reafoning, the
Doric fhould be firft in order, becaufe it was the moft ancient; however there
are two reafons which have induced me to place the Compofite as the fourth.
Firft, becaufe it is the fourth when orders are placed upon orders in large and
magnificent buildings, where it is obfervable that the more maflive and plain
columns are neareft the foundation, as fiftt the Tufcan, fecond the Doric,
third the Ionic, fourth the Compofite, and laft the Corinthian. Second, be
caufe it is the fourth in point of richnefs and delicacy, for as they decreafe in
ftrength they increafe in richnefs of ornaments; their elevation above the
ground is therefore regulated both by degrees of ftrength and richnefs of com
pofition. But to give a proper fan6tion to this little novelty in the arrange
ment
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C 115 )
ment of the orders, it may be proper to quote fome great man of this opinion.
Sir William Chambers* fays, " Moil authors give the laft place to the Com
pofite order, as being the laft invented, and a compound; which of courfe
ought to be preceded by all the fimples. I have followed Scamozzi's method;
his arrangement appearing to me the moft natural; for his orders fucceed
each other according to their degrees of ftrength, and in the progreffion that
muft abfolutely be obferved whenever they are employed together."
The proportions of the Compofite, and its enrichments and delicacy, being
nearly the fame Mith that of the Corinthian order, in the figurative ftyle it
may be properly enough termed one of the virginal orders, and was therefore
ufed in fome temples of the female deities.
It is, however, generally employed in triumphal arches, for as the Romans
compofed this from the Grascian orders, fo they made ufe of it in thofe fitua
tions to exprefs fymbolically their conquefts over thofe nations. I have, there
fore, in conformity to this, reprefented a trophy of war in the freeze, which
I think would have a good effect placed over the center of each column, with
other ornaments between them fuited to the charafler of this order.
The Compofite may alfo be employed in monuments of fignal events, and
in fuch buildings as are intended to perpetuate the memory of the great a6i;ions
of particular perfons.
The general proportions of this order are as follows.
The height of the entire order is divided into five, as ufual; one of which is
appropriated for the height of the pedeftal. The remaining four is for the
height of the column and entablature. Tiiefe four parts being again divided
into fix, the upper one is affigned for the height of the whole entablature, and
the remaining five of thefe parts are for the height of the column, including
* From whofe excellent Treatifc on Architcclure I have borrowed I'ome of the proportions
which are found in my orders, as also from Mr. Richardson's.
Fa the
( 116 )
the bafe and capital. The height of the column is divided into ten equal parts,
one of which is for the inferior diameter. The bafe is thirty minutes, Mith
out the upper aftragal; and the capital is feventy minutes high, adorned with
the acanthus leaves, and volutes drawn by the fame method as that of the Ionic.
The plan of the capital being drawn in the fame manner as that of the Co
rinthian, I fliall explain the particulars of it under that order.
The foftit of the corona is divided into fquare compartments, cut out of the
folid, decorated with rofes, &c. whofe relief muft not projedl more than the
borders which inclofe them. In rich compofitions the foffits of the modillions
are alfo ornamented, but their relief is not to exceed the horizontal fnrface,
otherwife it would greatly injure the effcft of the modillion, and render the
appearance of the profile of the entablature lefs pleafmg.
Of the Character and general Proportions of the Corinthian Order.
See Plate XII.
The Corinthian, or lafl order, is certainly the moft rich and graceful in its
appearance of any other. To fpeak in the figurative ftyle, it has all the deli
cacy of a female youth, and has therefore been termed the virginal column or
order; on which account it is employed in the apartments of young ladies:
but, for its richnefs and grandeur, it obtains a place in the palaces of kings,
and the moft fuperb buildings. It is alfo ufed in public fquares, and all places
of gaiety.
The general proportion of this order are as follows:
The whole height of the entire order is, as in all the others, divided into
five, and one is given for the pedeftal. The remaining four are then divided
into fix, and one part is affigned to the whole height of the entablature. The
four parts which are left include the height of the column, with its bafe
and
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( 117 )
and capital, and are divided into ten equal parts, one of which is given for the
inferior diameter of the fliaft. The bafe is thirty minutes high without the
upper aftragal, and the capital is feventy minutes clear of the necking. The
cornice is fortyeight minutes in height, and its projedion the fame.
The foffit of the corona is worked in fquare compartments, as in the Com
pofite; but the under fides of the modillions are ornamented with an olive leaf,
the fame as in the capital. The abacus of the capital is fometimcs fluted, and
fometimes plain. The volutes fometimes rife higher than the under tide of the
abacus, but the capital looks belt when they are bounded by the under furface
of the abacus.
The plan of the capital, and the pofition of the leaves as they appear on the
round furface of the capital, are thus determined — Let dll, in Fig. E. be
equal to the inferior diameter of the column: defcribe the arch H, g, zv, m, at
pleafure; then bifeft the arch at «, and draw do, the angular line of the
capital.
From the angular line place five minutes each way, as at m n and n u\
Take m a and place it from <? to B; then take the whole fpace w B in
the compaiit's, and defcribe an arch each way interfering at P. From the
center P defcribe the front of the abacus m t, and fo of all the other fides of
the capital.
Take half the fuperior diameter of the fiiaft, and Avith it defcribe the qua
drant ere; then extend the compaffes feven minutes further, and defcribe the
arch 7, which determines the projection of the firft row of leaves. Laftly,
extend the compalTes to fix minutes further, and defcribe the arch 6, ^hich
will determine the fecond row of leaves. Divide the quadrant ere into four
equal parts, aud draw the radii dc, d r, d e, which lines will determine the
fl;em of each leaf From the centers ee, draw femicircles, as they appear in
the plan.
From ere let fall perpendiculars, and the points 1, 2, 3, 4, will determine
the fituation of the leaves in the capital. Therefore take the diftances 1,.2,,
3, 4,
( 118 )
3, 4, from tlie plan E, and place them on the capital, as 1, 2, 3, A, each
way from the center; and from thefe raife perpendiculars, M'hich will be
the apparent place of the ftem of each leaf How the lea\es are formed
muft be evident by infpection, and therefore I fhall not enlarge further on the
fubjecl
How to draw the Scotia Mouldius:.
Fig. C is the fcotia, whofe height, without its fillets, muft be divided into
feven. On the fourth divifion draw a line 7' d parallel with the fillets. Take
the upper three parts in the compafles and draw a circle. Make de e(jual dn,
or four parts. From a, draw arp indefinitely, cutting the aforelaid circle at
J). Laftly, fix the compafs foot at o, and extending the other to p, defcribe
the arch/>«, and the fcotia will be compleated.
The cymare6la A is drawn from the fummits of equilateral triangles
thus: draw vw, and bifedl it at x. Extend the compaffes .z' tor, and turn
two arches at 3, and their interfeftion is the center for the convex part. In
the fame manner y is the center for the concave part, which completes the
moulding.
How the cvmainverfa B is drawn, muft; be evident by infpeftion; and
with rcfpcft to any other kind of moulding, they are either confidered as
quadrants, or as femicircles, or nearly fo; as the aflragals, torus, ovolo, conge,
and cavetto.
Obfervations on the Agreeinent of the Five Orders to each other.
The height of every entire order is divided into five equal parts; of which
one is given for the height of the pedeftal, and the remaining four are for the
column and entablature.
In
( 119 )
In the Tufcan and Doric orders thefe four parts are divided into five,
the uppermoft part of which is for the height of the entablature: and the
remaining four in the Tufcan are divided into feven, and one is given for
the diameter; and in the Doric into eight, and one is afligned for the inferior
diameter.
In the Ionic, Compofite, and the Corinthian orders, the four remaining
parts from the height of the pedeftal are divided into fix, the uppermoft of
which is for the height of the entablature of each order ; and the remaining
five, in the Ionic, are divided into nine, and one is for the inferior diameter;
but in the Compofite and Corinthian thefe five parts are divided into ten, and
one is afligned for the lower diameter of each column.
'»'
In every order the plinth of the pedeftal and its cornice are equal in
projeftion; that is, .one perpendicular line ferves to determine the proje6lion
of both.
In every order, without exception, the bafe of each column is thirty mi
nutes, or half a diameter, high; and, in the Tufcan, Doric, and Ionic, the
height of the capitals is the fame; but in the Compofite and Corinthian their
capitals are each of them feventy minutes.
In every order the projeftion of the bafe at the bottom of the fliaft is ten
Tninutes; or, which is the fame thing, the diameter of each lliaft being divided
into fix, one of them is fet forward for the projedion of the bafe.
In every order its quantity of dimunition may be the fame, which is ten
minutes; but in my examples the Tufcan and Doric are rather more.
Laftly, all the orders, except the Doric, have their cornices to project as
much as they rife; but in the Doric the cornice projects one quarter part
more than it rifes.
Thefe
( 120 )
Tlicfe remarks, if retained in the memory, may help to facilitate the
trouble which neceflarily attends in drawing the five orders. Befides, it is
fomctimes required of a workman to give fome anfwer to his employer re
fpetting the general proportions of the orders; and, if he is not acquainted
Avith as much of them as I have briefly laid down in the above obfcr\'ations,
he mull; of courfe look very foolifli in tlie eye of his querift, for he cannot
then have recourfe to his book. But further, a workman who has profeffedly
gone through the five orders, by drawing them under the direction of fome
mafter, cuts but a poor figure in a converfation on the fubjeft of architefture
and proportion, when perhaps, after all, he is unable to rccolle6l one fingle
particular refpecting them.
Of the general Proportions of Front ifpieces adapted to the Five Orders.
The Tufcan frontifpiece allows fix diameters from center to center of each
column or pilaftcr, as defcribed in Plate \. and page 82.
The Doric allows fix and a quarter, or one third. The Ionic fix and a half;
fome make it fcven and a quarter. The Compofite feven; fome allow feven
and a quarter. And the Corinthian feven diameters and thirtyfive minutes;
or, as fome have it, eight diameters.
Thefe different intercolumniations arc nearly proportioned to the ftrength
or delicacy of each order, fo that the aperture, or opening for the door of
each frontifpiece, is much the fame in all the orders. For though the
Tufcan order only allows fix diameters, yet fix of thefe are equal to fix and
an half diameters of the Doric column. And the Corinthian, though it
allows at leaft feven diameters for its intercolumniation, the opening for the
doorway will not, at that rate, be quite equal to fix diameters of the Tufcan
column.
The
( 12^ )
This fufficiently accounts for the different number of diameters affigned
by architeds for the doorways or intercolumns of the frontifpieces adapted to
each order.
The proportion of doors is generally in height twice their breadth ; but, in
fome cafes, a little more height is requifite.
The width of the door is divided into four equal parts ; one of which is for
the diameter of the column, or breadth of the pilafter. Half a diameter is
added to each fide of the column, for the impofl or ground which receives the
proje£lions of the plinth and capital.
Half a diameter is alfo allowed above the door to the underfide of the archi
trave, and one for the fubplinth, or the fquare part on which the bafe refls.
According to this proportion, from the top of the fubplinth to the top of the
column there will be feven diameters and an half j which will be within half a
diameter of the full fize of the Doric column, according to the order ; but if
there be a ftep up to the entrance of the door, this will incrcafe the column to
its full height, which is eight diameters.
To the height of the column mufl be added two diameters for the whole
entablature above the capital : and for every other particular refpeding the
mouldings, the reader muft have recourfe to the orders themfelves.
General DireBions for drawing the Five Orders in Indian Ink,
It is befl to procure wove paper, becaufe its fubflance will bear a better
fhade, and its quality gives a more handfome appearance to a drawing, than
the more common fort. The paper fhould be regularly damped, and pafted
round the edges, fo that when it dries it will become tight and even in its
furface.
Q;Z Proceed
( 172 )
Proceed then to draw a perpendicular line for the axis of the column, and
on this line place the feveral heights required. Through each of thefe heights
draw, by the pencil, lines at pleafure parallel to the bafe.
Next find the inferior diameter of the column, and afterwards the fuperior
one. From the extremities of the fuperior diameter draw perpendicular lines
upwards, and from the extreme points of the inferior diameter draw perpen
dicular lines downwards to the top of the pedeftal. From thefe lines place the
projedion of the bafe, and from the projedion of the bafe each way, draw two
other perpendicular lines down to the bafe of the plinth.
Thus far the drawing is prepared for laying on the proje£lions of the feveral
members which take their fpring from the above perpendicular lines, and
when the mouldings are all drawn by the pencil, the flrokes of the pencil
ihould be tendered or made fainter by the Indian rubber, fo that the ftrokes of
ink may be more clearly feen as they are drawn, and prevented from being too
ftrong, which if they are, the drawing is totally fpoiled.
If the drawing be on a large fcale, as thofe on the right in the plates, the
compafles may be fuccefsfully applied in drawing the curved members ; but if
they are fmall, like the finiflied and entire orders in thofe plates, they muft be
drawn by a fine pointed camel's hair pencil, guided by a ftcady hand.
The application of any kind of writing ink to the outlines of the drawing
muft always be avoided, becaufe it neither agrees with the nature or colour of
Indian ink. The writing ink not only makes an outline too harfh in appear
ance, but likewife deftroys the effeft of the Indian ink ; becaufe the water that
is mixed with the Indian extrads the quality of the writing ink, and of courfe
they blend together in one mafs, and the fhadow becomes partly blue and partly
black, which deftroys the harmony of the whole. Therefore mix good Indian
ink by rubbing it on a marble ftone, and let the ink fland a few hours, till the
grofler particles fettle to the bottom. Add a little water to a part of it, to
make a light fhade with ; and with this light kind mark the outlines of the
column, applying the hair pencil to the curved parts, and the brafs pen to thofe
which are Itraight.
After
After this procefs rub the drawing quite clean ; and obferve this as a ge
neral maxim, that the fainter the outhne the better, provided it can juft be
difcerned.
The next things to be confidered are Ught and fhadow, which are oppofite
in themfelves ; but if difconne£led, no good efFe£t can be produced in a draw
ing. Wherefore, where a flrong Ught is fuppofed, there mull: alfo be a ftrong
Ihadow agreeing with it ; and where the hght is weak, the fliadow is lefs dark
in proportion to it.
Rays of hght do not project (hadows contrary ways at the fame time.
Therefore the poiiit of hght muft be fixed in the mind at leaft, if not on the
paper, from whence the rays are diredled in parallel lines to the objedl, which
produce a fhadow on the contrary fide to that which the light comes from.
Proceed then to lay on a weak tint on that fide of the fhaft which is oppofite
the light ; and the breadth of this tint muft be proportioned according as the
light is fuppofed to come, either diredly on the front of the pidlure, or ob
liquely to it. If the hght comes on the front, the tint is narrow ; but if ob
liquely on the pidlure, the tint is broader, or comes farther on to the center of
the fhaft, in proportion to the degree of obliquity. After having laid on the
firft tint according to thefe principles, a fecond tint muft be applied in darker
Indian ink ; but the dark tint mufl not be carried full to the outline of the
dark fide, becaufe that would deflroy roundnefs ; for, in nature, all round or
cyhndrical bodies have a refleded light ; but this refledled light is not equal in
ftrength to the direft hght, wherefore the firfl or weak tint of Indian ink is
fuppofed to be equal in degree to the refleded light, confequently a fmall por
tion of the firfl tint is left on the edge of the fhaft, which is graduated or
foftened into the fecond tint, which is flrong, producing a mafs of fhade,
blending; itfelf in reofukr gradation with the firft tint towards the center of the
fliaft. After the fecond tint is perfectly dry, a third ftill flronger fliould be
applied, in order to complete a highfiniflieJ drawing; but care muft be taken
to lay it on about the center of the fecond tint, and not broad, but folid, fof
tened a little off at the edges, which will produce a fufhcient roundnefs, if
rightly managed.
Q^Z z If
( 174 )
If the (haft is reprefented as fluted, its fhading will yet require more ma
nagement; but the fame principles muft be obferved. In managing the flutes,
it will be proper to mark their boundaries firfi: with a nice brafs drawingpen,
filled with thin Indian ink, that it may diftribute and pafs eafily through the
pen, leaving a very faint line on the light fide, fcarcely to be feen ; but in
rulinsf the dark fide the ink mufl: be laid on fl:rons;er, that the outline of the
flutes may not be totally loft when the fhade is laid on. After the firft tint of
(hade is applied, it will be requifite then to touch in the dark fides of the flutes.
Thofe on the dark fide of the fhaft may be done by the hair pencil ; but if the
drawing is on a fmall fcale, the brafs pen will do much better on the light fide;
becaufe, by drawing parallel lines with that inftrument in imitation of graving
ftrokes, it will produce a fhade in the flute more confonant, and in better tone
with the light fide of the fhaft, than can be performed by the hair pencil.
The flutes on the dark fide of the fhaft muft not be all black, for their con
cavity will refleft a dim light oppofite to their dark fide, upon the fame prin
ciples by which light is refledled on convex furfaces. Laflly, when the flut
ings are thus handled, a fecond tint of Indian ink muft be laid on at the dark
fide, by which the flutes and fillets muft be made to harmonize, and appear in
one mafs of fhade, without deftroying their diftindlion. In general, the fecond
tint is ftrong enough for fluted fhafts, becaufe the outlines for the flutes con
tribute towards a fhade themfelves.
The mouldings muft next be confidered ; and as thefe are in a different po
fition from the fhaft, confequently the light muft ftrike them differently.
In the examples given, I have fuppofed the aperture, or point of light,
above the top of the column ; which is a fituation highly advantageous to the
drawing, becaufe, upon this principle, there will be a regular ftrong fhadow
under each covering member produdive of a good effedl.
Hence, in the Ionic, for inftance, the hollow, or upper part of the cyma
redla, has a ftrong fhade ; and the fwelling part is light in the center, bearing
a fhade downwards as it recedes back. The corona is alfo light, becaufe the
rays come full upon it ; but the cymareverfa, dentils, and ovolo, are all in
3 fhadov/.
( ^IS )
fhadow, on account of the large projeftion of the corona, which fcreens them
from the light. The left hand volute projefts a (hadovv on the (haft, and the
curved top of each flute does the fame. The lower ends of the flutes are lioht,
for the rays come full upon them ; but the upper part of the fcotia in the bafe
bears a flrong (hade, becaufe it is totally covered by the projedion of the upper
aftragal.
The cornice of the pedeftal is nearly all in (hadow ; but the bafe is nearly
all light, for there is nothing to prevent the rajs falling upon almoft ^wtxy
part of it.
Thefe obfervations, with the exercife of a little tafte and eood lenfe. wiH,
I prefume, enable the learner to accompli(h his attempt to fliade the five orders
in fuch a manner as will do him credit.
END OF THE FIRST PART.
PART
THE
CABINETMAKER
AND
UPHOLSTERER'S
DRAWINGBOOK.
IN FOUR PARTS.
Part I. Containing Ufeful Geometrical Lines, on Seven Copperplates, applied particularly to the Cabinet
and UphoUtery Branches. Alfo the Five Orders of Architedurc, on S x Plates; with feme Account
of their Antiquity and Charaitter; together with the Names of the feveral Mouldings, traced from their
Origin. Being the Second Edition, with Improvements.
Part II. The Elements of Linear Perfpeftive applied to the Art of reprei'enting various Kinds of Furniture ;
with Pradical Remarks on Shadows projedled by the Sun, confidered in different Situations to the
Pidture; the Whole illultrated Od Copperplates
Part III. A great Variety of Original Defigns, in Beds, Chairs, and every other Article of Houfehold
Furniture in the neweft and moll approved Style. Among which is a mod fuperb Englilh StateBed,
with Ornaments emblematic of the Britifh Government explained in Letterprels; together with a
Seftion and View of the Prince of Wales's Chinefe DrawingRoom, and other Articles of Importance
which cannot here be inferted.
Part IV. Ornaments adapted to the Cabinet and Chair Branches ; including a Variety of Chair Legs, Elbows,
and Splads, Borders, Centers, Tablets, and Legs for Pier Tables; alfo Bed Pillars, Window and
Bed Cornices ; Pediments, Tripod^ Candle, and FlowerPot Stands ; Girandoles, Glafs Frames,
Pilafters for Commodes and Bookcafes, Cornices at large, their Spring ftiewn, and the Manner of
contradling or enlarging them from any given Pattern.
THE WHOLE CONTAINING ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS.
By THOMAS SHERATON, Cabinetmaker.
Recommended by many Workmen of the firfl: Abilities in London, who have thcmfelves
infpefted the Work.
PART
LONDON:
PRINTED, BY APPOINTMENT OF THE AUTHOR, FOR G. TERRV, N° 54, PATERNOSTERROW.
1794
N. B. The Author bogs leave to obfcrve, thnt notwithrtanding this DrawingBook is principally dcfigned for Cjbinetmalcers and Upholfterers,
yet he is pcrfiiaded that it will be found of great ufe rr. many other branches that are any way concerned with drawing ; accordiirjily he can
affure the Public, that perfons of various other profeffions have already become Subfcribers, as Chairmakers, J.)iiiers, Smiths, Carvers, &c.
[ tintcrcD at stationers (^all. ]
THE
CABINETMAKER, AND UPHOLSTERER'S
D R A W I N G  B O O K.
PART 11.
ON PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE APPLIED TO THE ART OF REPRE
SENTING ALL KINDS OF FURNITURE IN DIFFERENT SITU
ATIONS t COMPREHENDING A REGULAR AND FAMILIAR
TREATISE ON THIS USEFUL SCIENCE, DIGESTED AGREEABLY
TO THE author's OWN EXPERIENCE IN THE ART FROM
SOME YEARS PRACTICE, AND FROM OBSERVATIONS ON THE
PRINCIPAL WRITERS ON THE SUBJECT; VIZ. DR. BROOK
TAYLOR, DR. PRIESTLEY, MALTON, KIRBY, NOBLE, AND
SOME OTHERS.
INTRODUCTION.
That the knowledge of perfpedtive is highly ufeful to Cabinet
malcers, Upholfterers, Chairmakers, Joiners, and other per
fons concerned with deiigning, cannot be difputed on good
grounds. And, though this is an indubitable pofition, yet
many in the above profeffions are not fufficiently, if at all, ac
quainted with it. This defedt, in their education or neglect in
their own apphcation, neceffarily fubjeds fuch to conliderable
.Z di fad vantages,
( 178 )
difad vantages, both with refpecSl to giving and receiving orders
A matter cannot pollibly convey to the workmen fo juft an idea
of a piece of furniture by a verbal defcription, as may be done
by a good fketch, proportioned according to the laws of per
fpe(5live, and fituated fo as to give the moft general and clear
view of the whole piece. Nor, on. the other hand, can a work
man fo well underftand the meaning of a drawing, and what it
is intended to reprefent, witluout fome knowledge of tlie art I
am pleading for ; and confequently his progrefs in executing
the work will be proportibnably retarded, and, perhaps, not fo
exaiftly finiflied at lalt. On thefe accounts it is a mafter's iii
tereft to know perfpective himfelf, and to have men about him
that underftand it. When this is the cafe, time is often gained,
ftufF fpared, and difgrace avoided; fince it is matter of fact, that
many alterations in pieces of work of every kind take place;
fometimes owing to bad fketches or drawings,, and fometimes
from want of underftanding a good defign when it is given to
work by. There are. fome mall^ers, indeed, v. ho will fcarcely
allow their foremen time to make any kind of fketch ; but, if I
may offer my opinion on this head; I mull fay that fuch a me
thod of carrying on bufinefs neither refledts honour on the
foreman, nor in the end turns out to any advantage to the
mafter; but, on the contrary, frequently a conHderable
lofs..
Belldes,
( 179 r
Befides, as it is the prefeiit mode to introduce much paint
ing in furniture, it is of great ufe to know perfpedlive, in order
to underftand when fuch painting has its proper effedt, and to
enable the director of work, whether mafter or foreman, to point
out fuch improprieties as may efcape the notice of the painter ;
and which, if entirely overlooked, might prove injurious to the
work, and ofFenfive to a cuftomer of tafte.
To thefe we may mention another advantage that oftert
arifes to a mafter from knowing this art; fince, by it, he may
often fix the judgment and mind of a gentleman or lady re
fped:ing the piece of furniture they wifh for, by producing
either a drawing that has been previoufly made, or by being
able, off hand, to furnifli their ideas with a good pencil fketch.
In fliort, a good perfpedlive drawing may be fent to a gentle
man or lady in the country, with almoft as much confidence of
fuccefs as if a model of the piece of work were fent.
Laftly, if the reader confider himfelf a gentleman, or as
pofTeflTed of a liberal education, and at the fame time entirely
unacquainted M'ith this fine art, it will carry in it an air of con
tradi(5tion ; becaufe perfpe(ftive is founded on geometrical and
optical reafoning, and has therefote always been confidered as a
branch of the mathematics and of a liberal education. Yet
it is my intention not to treat the fubjed mathematically,
, Z 2 becaufe
( i8o )
becaufe many have done it already in fiich a manner as far ex
ceeds any thing I can pretend to; and becaufe it would not fiiit
workmen, for whom the following treatife is intended. If,
however, any other above this fphere can reap any information
from it on account of its fimplicity, I lliall be happy to have
ferved them ; but if he be above receiving inilrui5lion through
that channel or medium which is only intended to convey the
knowledge of this art to workmen, the reader may confult fome
of thofe authors referred to in the title, where he will fee
problems, theorems, demonftrations, and corollaries enough to
fill his leifure hours w ith, and to carry the fcience to any length
he pleafes. However, to look into fome of thefe books would
greatly difcourage many workmen, and even fome others of a
higher clafs, who diflike the drudgery of perufing and com
paring an infinite number of references to a variety of fcliemes,
which are rather more calculated to fliew how far the fubjeifl
may be carried by mathematical fkill, than to inform the reader
of fuch principles as may be wanted in the practice of the art,
or to give him a tolerable view of the theory on which the
fcience is founded.
And it may be afligned as one reafon why the fabjetft of
perfpedtive is fo little known amongft workmen, that it has
been treated too mathematically. For, though geometry muft
afiift in Hating theories, and in making new and additional dif
X coverios
( i8i )
coveries of the principles of the art, yet we mull: not infer from
hence that a workman cannot learn the pradtice of the art with
out being acquainted with that fcience.
Malton fays the fame thing in the preface to his Treatife on
Perfpedtive. " Perhaps," he obferves, " the demonftrations of
the laft (meanmg the lafl theorem of his fourth fedtion) may
deter thofe who are not geometricians from examining it with
that attention it requires ; let fuch remember, that, in order to
pradlife perfpedtive, it is not abfolutely necelTary to be a geo
metrician, becaufe I pracStifed it long before 1 underftood geo
metry."
hi fine, I fliall only fay, that it has been my aim to put
into the hand of the ingenious workman fuch a view of the
fubjedt of perfpedtive, applied to a general variety of cafes,
as may enable him to get through with defigning any thing he
meets with in the courfe of his bufmefs : and if any thing more
than this be found in this treatife, the reader will fee more than
what is promifed ; which may probably incline him to ac
quiefce with the author's fentiment, that it is better to do more
than we fay, than fall Ihort of what we have promifed.
''^ section:
( iBa )
SECTION I.
Of the Principles on "dohich Perfpeciive is founded^ and the Defini
tions of thofe Terms neceffarily ufed on the fubje&, •
The principles on which the art is built are founded on the
nature of our fight, which invariably comprehends all objects
under fome angle of a lefs or greater degree, in proportion as
the obje<5t is at a greater or lefs diftance from the eye of the
fpedtator.
Hence let A. Fig. i. Plate XIV. be confidered the human
eye, which is nearly globular; and P the pupil*, or that ex
tremely fmall point of the eye into which the rays of light if
fuing from every part of illumined objects in rightlined direc
tions all conver^ge.
* The term pupil, in general, means a youth or minor under the tuition and manage
ment of a mafter or guardian ; but why it has been introduced into optics, and apphed to the
aperture or fmall opening of the eye which receives the light, is owing to the little image —
or pupUla, a puppet — which is reflefted in the eye, and feen by every one who looks fteadily
on it, which is no other than the fpeftator himfelf, whofe image in miniature is reflefted
on the cryftalline humour.
Thus
1}
B
7\Shfi,;
rtlp.
.\".'/.r. ///. /.
J^/f//it/f/a/v Jy*r//r.\'. .)' i
/^ArA.jr;
^ '^ 5
IT f

^^^
\\ \'''
w""""^
^^^^^ Tl
yAly 2.
\J
^^^^
__^^
~\ /A^ 1
^"^~>^
(
TShfia^,r, />^/
JPn/'/i/fu.f as t/it A^t i^itvrfs In' '' Trrrf. May 2^*J/rpi
f/far&n*' .V,a^
( i83 )
Thus the rays BP and DP, iflliing from the ferpentine
figure B D, are faid to converge, becaufe they unite in a point
at P, the pupil; and, after palling through the pupil and con
tinuing in their dire6l courie, they diverge or fpread open as at
nmrqv.t^ on that part of the eye called the retina*, by which
an object is formed fimilar to the originals B D, EC, FG, and in
magnitude according to their different diftances from, the eye t..
Therefore, as the firft object BD is neareft to the pupil P, the
points;/^ on the retina are moft extended, becaufe the angle
DPB, under which the object BD is feen, is conliderably larger
than thofe under which the objeds EC and FG are feen..
And again, as the fame object is removed back to EC, the
rays are lefs extended on the retina as at m v ; but if the obje(5l
be removed ftill further from the fight P to F G, the rays will,
ftill diverge lefs, and confequently the objedl painted on the re
tina will' be proportionably fmaller as at 7~q> And thus, by re
moving the obje<Sl F C ftill further and further from, the fight,,
it would be feen. ujicler a proportionably fmaller angle, until.
* Retina, from rcte, a net ; becaafc this part of the eye Is a fine expanded membrane,
fomewhat open like a net, and fpread over the bottom of the eye, on which are painted the
pidlures of all the objc6Vswc perceive.
t The refradlion of the rays of light occafior.ed by their pafTmg through the dirfcrent'
mediums or humours of the eye, has nothing to do with perfpedlive ; it belongs to optics
only, on which Fergufou's Le<Slurcs m.iy be confulted, and others on the fubjeiSV.
it
f i84 ),
it would at length vanifli into a point, and lofc its appear
ance.
That the rays of hght, by which we are made fenfible of
ohje6\s, make their way to the organs of fight in rightUned di
rections, is evident from a mofl fimple experiment: for, if the
bore of a tube or pipe be as much curved as is equal to the di
ameter of the bore, nothing can be feen through it ; or if one
objck!!: ftanding before another of equal magnitude on the fame
line, be viewed by a perfon ftanding on that line, the laft will
be hid, provided they both ftand upright. I fimply mean, if
the fliafts of two columns of equal diameters were placed up
right and a fpectator were ftanding upright on a line paffing
through the centers of each fliaft, the laft one could not be feen;
but if vifion, or the faculty of feeing, were performed by rays
of light in curved dirciflions, perhaps this would alter the cafe,
but not for the better, as I am certain that the conftrudtion of
our eye, and the way in which we, at prefent, difcover objeds,
are the perfedt produdions of Infinite Wifdoin
From what has been faid and referred to in the figure, I
prefume that the reader is not altogether ignorant of thefe two
things ; firft, that all objedls api>ear to the fpe(5tator proportion
ably lefs the further they are removed from the eye; and,
iecond, that the rays of light coming from every part of il
lumined
( iSs )
liimined obje6ls operate on the eye in rightlined direaions.
Thefe two propofitions being admitted as certain truths, two
very conliderable points in perfpecSlive will hereby be gained.
Firft, that in the reprefentations of obje<5ts originally of the fame
dimenfions, thofe which are furtheft from the front of the
pidlure mud be leaft, in proportion to the fuppofed or real dif
tance of the fpedator's eye from the obje6t : and fecond, that '
a right line from the top and bottom of the front objedts, ter
minating in a point on the horizon, will determine the heights
of all thofe back objeils which are originally of an equal height
with thofe on the front.
Hence, if a range of columns be reprefented on a pidure,
a rightline from the top and bottom of the firft column to fome
point in the pidlure, will determine the heights of all thofe be
hind. Experience will convince us of the truth of this : for if
we place ourfelves at a diftance from a ftraight row of columns
flanding a little to one fide, and looking attentively from the
firft to the laft column, we fliall then fee that the pillars will
appear to diminifti backward in the form of a trianole; or
in other words, the tops and bottoms of each column will feem
to tend to one point.
The fame may be obferved by ftanding clofe to a long brick *
* I particulaiife a brick wall merely on account of the joints being much clofer to
each other than thofe of flone; which circumftance makes the perfpedive diminution more
apparent to a learntr than in thr joints of ftone walls.
A a wall.
( 186 )
wall, and ranging the eye along the joints of the bricks ; we
fliall fee each joint feemingly terminating into one point. Thofe
joints below the eye will appear to rife up, and thofe above it
will feem to lower; and if the length of the wall were continued
as far as we could fee, the joints would apparently unite in one
point.
Thefe fimplc experiments cannot be accounted for upon
any other principle than that which I have already advanced on
the nature of vifion ; namely, that all objefts, as they recede
from the eye, are feen under a fmaller angle in proportion to
the diftance of the object from the eye. This propofition holds
good, not only as it relates to the heights of objeds, but alfo to
their breadth and thicknefs, for thefe are diminiflied or con
tradied by the fame rules, founded on the nature of our fight.
Nor are thefe remarks to be reltridled to fuch obje<5ts as ffcand
upright on the ground, for thofe which are horizontal in their
pofition, or which are lying in various fituations on the ground,
are all fubjed to the fame laws of diminution. But it muft
here be obferved, that the various pofitions of objects give birth
to moft of thofe imaginary planes which are introduced into
the fvibjeit of perfpeilive ; for in thefe planes all the variety
of obje<5ls that we can conceive of, are fuppofed to be lituated
fome in the groundplane, and others parallel to it, both above
and below the horizon ; fome in upright, and fome in oblique
or inclining planes. And this variety of planes Iliould be under
ftood
( 187 )
flood and carefully diflinguiflied by the learner, before he can
make any good progrefs in the art, or know what he is about,
when he begins to reprefent.
Thefe planes are again bounded by fo many right lines, of
which they are compofed ; and thefe lines have their names
anfwering to their intended ufe in the practice of perfpec
tive.
Since, therefore, planes, lines, and points, comprehend the
whole art of perfpe(5tive, it will be requifite to define thefe in
as clear a manner as poffible. The reader will, perhaps, ima
gine here, that I am drawing him into the lludy of geometry,
as an clTential requifite to the pracStice of perfpedtive, and there
by contradi6ling what I have already advanced in the preface.
If, indeed, to exercife our reafoning faculties, and to make ufe
of a little common fenfe, be termed the ftudy or knowledge of
geometry, I will aver that no man will ever learn perfpe<5live
without thefe. But this every one knows ; that many can ex
ercife both good fenfe and reafon who never faw nor heard of
Euclid.
Befides, if the reader has attended to the firft part of this
work, in which lines, fuperficies, and folids, have been touched
on in a general way, he cannot be confidered as totally ignorant
A a 2 of
( i88 )
of fome part of geometry which is ufeful to the knowledge of
perfpedlive; however, as I have faid nothing of planes and
their interfedtions, I fliall here explain them, fo far as they re
late to the fubjeil of perfpedlive.
Of the Nature of Planes relative to the Subjecl of Perfpe&ive.
A plane, ftritSlly fpeaking, is an even furface, neither con _
cave nor convex, but which will agree with a ftraight ruler or
line every where.
A plane, in theory, may be confidered indefinitely, or de
finitely. When it is fuppofed to be indefinite, it admits of no
bounding lines, but is imagined to be continued without limits.
When it is defined, its boundaries are limited by lines, as
AB, BO, OD, and DA. Fig. 2.
In perfpe(5live there are five planes principally in ufe, ac
cording to Dr. Brook Taylor's fyflem; but the various circum
ftances of obje(Sts in the pi<5lure frequently produce a variety of
others, which, however, are not termed the elementary planes,
as the above five may, but only accidental, depending on the
circumftances of objects.
0/
u 189 )
. .'ii:
Of ths Ground Plane.
In the order of thefe planes I fliall confider the ground
plane firft, being commonly a horizontal furface on which ori
ginal objects have, in general, their feats or foundations; as
1, 2, 3, 8, is the feat of the cafe of drawers on the ground plane
A B, DO, Fig. 2.
The Do6tor terms the ground plane the original plane,
*' By which," he fays, " we mean the plane wherein is fituated
any original point, line, or plain figure." I fliall, in general,
however, ufe the term ground plane, as being more fimple, ex
cept in cafes where no regard is paid to its being horizontal %
then, indeed, the term original plane muil be ufed, being more
comprehenflve, as it includes any pofition.
Of the Perfpediive Plane,
Second, the perfpe(Slive plane, otherwife called the plaue
of the pidture ; which, in general, is a plane perpendicular ta
that of the ground, as GR, H L.
This plane is to perfpecStive what the retina is to optics;
for the images of all original objects are delineated on. both.
The
( I90 )
The perfpeiSlive plane may be confidered as fome tranfparent
medium placed upright between the objedt we view and our
eye ; and as the rays of light coming from every point of illu
mined objects converge, in rightlined diredlions, to a point on
the pupil P, Fig. 2, a feftion of thofe rays, produced by this
tranfparent medium or perfpecftive plane, is the perfpedtive re
prelbntation of the original obje(ft, be it what it may.
Hence, let the learner place himfelf before a glafs window,
which is, proi)erly fpeaking, the perfped;ive plane to every ob
jetSt he looks at through it ; and as thofe objedls appear to him
on the window, fuch is their perfpeftive reprefentations on the
paper, board, or canvafs, we draw on. The appeaiance of ob
ie6ls on a window may be found by gumming the glafs, which
does not deftroy its tianfparency, but makes it capable of receiv
ing a mark ; and if the eye be kept perfe<5lly Iteady to one point
in the window, and with a pencil, the points or angles of a houfe,
for inftance, be marked as they appear on the glafs ; and when
this is done, if right lines be drawn to each point, thefe lines
Avill form the perfpe<5tive reprefentation of the houfe.
Thus the plane G R, M L, may be confidered a piece of
gummed glafs fixed upright on a table or ground A B, DO;
and at P is the fpe6lator's eye, viewing through the glafs the
original object i, 3, 5, 7. The right lines ifTuing from every
part of the objedl and converging at P, reprefent the rays of
light
( 191 )
light paffiiig through the tranfparent medium to the eye P.
Now, as the original objecSt is defcribed on the glafs by the di
rection of thefe rays, if the fpedtator, with his hand, mark the
points I, 3 — 5, 7, 4—6, and afterwards join the points by right
lines, this will be the exadl perfpedtive reprefentation of the
original objedt.
Simple experiments of this fort fliould be pradlifcd, as I am
perfuaded they are more calculated to teach the principles of the
art than long and tedious theories *.
Of the Horizontal Plane,
The horizontal plane, or plane of the horizon, is, in per
fpedlive, an imaginary plane palling through the eye of the
* An artift lately Inforined me, that a piece of ground gbfs, unpolifhed, and ofled over
with fweet oil, is the bed for this purpofe ; for the oil gives a degree of tranfparency to the
glafs that admits of objects being feen through it, and its artihcial roughnefs makes it eafy to
draw on. If a fquare of glafs of this fort be put in a flight frame of wood, fixed upright on a
plain board, and there be a fighthoIe made in a piece of wood fixed perpendicular to the
fquarc of glafs ; and if the fighthole be fixed from the glafs equal to the diftance P s, and to.
the height of the eye P N, then every thing which relates to Fig. 2, may be proved by ocular
demonfiiation, provided the learner ufe this little inft:rument according to the references
made to this figure in the diflSerent heads of this feftlon.
fpedlatoF,
( 192 )
ipcilator, and being perfe6lly parallel with the ground plane,
it cuts the vipright pidlure or perfpedlive plane at right angles.
Thus, in Fig. 2, Plate XIV. F H, L M, is the horizontal
plane, whofe perpendicular height from the ground plane
A B O D is the height of the eye at P ; hence P N is the perpen
dicular height of the eye, becaufe the line P N is perpendicular
to both thefe planes.
The horizontal plane F H, LM, being produced, it necef
farily cuts the perfpedive plane G H, L R, at right angles, and
the interie<5lion of thefe two even furfaces or planes with each
other being a right line as H L ; hence we have what is com
monly called the horizontal line H L ; or, more properly, the
vanifliing line of a plane parallel with its original. And as the
interfecflion of the horizontal w ith the perfpecftive plane pro
duces the vanifhing line H L, fo the interfedlion of the pi(Slure
with the ground plane produces the bafe or ground line GR.
All original obje6ls, as they appear to come into the plane
of the horizon, gradually vanifli into a point, and difappear.
Hence the application and ufe of the term horizon in perfpec
tive, which literally means the limits or boundaries of our
fight, from " 'c^t^a>, borizo^ I limit or bound." The further ob
je£ts are reprefented from the front of the picfture, or from the
ground
ground line G R, the nearer is their approach to this plane, arid
confequently their apparent magnitude will be proportionably
lefs, as has been already demonftrated in page 183. For if the
cafe of drawers, in Fig. 2. were removed conllderably further
from the perfpeftive plane G R H L, it is evident that the rays
I P, 3 P» 5 P» 7 P» ^c. would not fubtend * fo large an angle on
the plane of the picture as they do at prefent : it is alfomanifeft
that thefe rays will alfo rife higher on the pi6lure in proportion
as the cafe of drawers or original obje6l is removed back, confe
quently the image i, 3, 5, 7, of the drawers on the pidlure would
approach nearer to the horizontal plane, until at length the
image on the pi(Slnre would totallj^ vanifli at s, the center of the
i:)i<5ture and height of the eye.
To underftand this yet more clearly ; fiippofe the drawers
to be brought forward clofe to the pidure, then the foot i would
be at 10, and the foot 3 at 12, on the interfe6tion or ground line
GR, and the image of the original objedl would then appear as
large on the pidture as the original itfelf ; for then the point 5
on the drawers would be at a on the pidure, and the point 7 at
d ; but the whole image of the original, in this cafe, is lower on
the pidlure than before, and confequently forther from the ho
rizontal plane, which was to be fliewn.
* Yromfub and tendo, I ftrctch. The fubtenfeof an angle coinciJes witli the chord of
the arch. Thus the objeft B D, Fig. i, fubrends an angle of 60", for the rays B P D P cut
rhcarchin that proportion ; and therefore the objca BD is faid to be ktn under mi angle 60^
R b From
( 194 )
From what has been faid, it is obvious that the whole fpace
on the plane of the picture for delineating objeils, is compre
hended between the ground line GR and the horizontal or va
vifliing line H L. No objedl can with propriety have its feat on
the picture below the line GR, for this line is the interfedtion of
the ground plane with the plane of the pifture; and therefore,
to reprefent the cafe of drawers lower than at lo and 12 on the
ground line G R, ^yould lead us to fuppofe a new ground plane
below the firft, and a new horizon to fuit it, other wife the draw
ing would be unnatural and diiforted.
On the other hand, no original objedl can have its feat in
the perfpedtive plane higher than H L, for the line H L marks
out the interfeftion of the horizontal with the perfped:ive plane;
and as the plane of the horizon is generally the vanifliing plane
of all original objects fituated on the ground, their feats in the
pi6ture cannot be above the vanifliing line H L, without prc
ducing worfe efFedls than in the other cafe juft mentioned. Fcr
if the images of all original objects, however large, vanifli into a
point s in the vanifliing line H L, it would be prepofterous to
fee a tall obje<5t feated on this line, or above it.
Before I quit this head, it will be proper to obferve, that
the horizontal plane, on which I have feemingly laid fo much
ftrefs, does not poflefs any thing peculiar to itfelf, owing to
I its
( 195 )
its being confidered 'a plane, perfeftly level ; for all the various
poiltions of vanifliing planes make no rlifFerence in theory, pro
vided they are confidered as parallels to original planes. It is
the pofition that thefe planes have to each other that is to be
regarded. This was one principal difcovery which Dr. Brook
Taylor made in his new fyftem of perfpeftive, and which has
rendered his principles fo univerfal. In his book he fays, " He
makes no difference between the plane of the horizon and any
other plane whatfoever ; for fince planes, as planes, are aUke in
geometry, it is moft proper to confider them as fo, and to ex
plain their properties in general, leaving the artift himfelf to
apply them." Yet it may be obferved, that we have a natural
prejudice in favour of fomething peculiar to the horizontal va
nifliing plane; becaufe, in nature,, the laws of gravity fettle all
folid bodies in a horizontal pofition : this being the cafe, we are
accuftomed to view objeas in this form, and of courfe are re
quired to draw them fo ; therefore, in the praftice of perfpec
tive, the horizontal vanifliing plane is generally wanted ; but in
principle and theory, the relation that one plane has to another
is only to be regarded.
Bb2 Of
( 10 )
Of the Directing Plane.
The diiedling plane is imagined to be parallel with the
pidture, whatever pofition it is fuppofed to be in ; and its
diftance from the plane of the picture is equal to the diftance
of the eye of the fpe6lator ; therefore it is confidered as a plane
paffing through the eye, as the plane M F VU, Fig. 2. Hence if
any original line Z X be produced till it cut the direfling plane
MFVU, a line drawn from Y, where it interfedts, to P, the
place of the eye is termed the directing line of that original
lineZX.
And the reprefentation of any original line in the plane of
the pidture is always parallel with its diredling line in the di~
renting plane.
Of the Vertical Plane^
In perfpe<5live, the vertical plane is confidered as perpendi*
cular both to the ground plane and the plane of the pidlure ;
cofidfequently it cuts the other four at right angles. The plane
PjQN,
( 197 )
P J QN, Fig. 2, is thus termed geometrically, becaule it is in a
direilion perpendicular to the horizon ; but in perfpe6tive it
may be in any poiition, provided it be perpendicular to the
original' and perfpe6live planes, and at right angles with the
other.
The interfe(5lion of this plane with the pi(5ture HLGR pro
duces the perpendicular line j Q, termed the vertical line of the
pidlure ; and the vertical plane being continued till it cut the
diredting plane in the line FN, that line PN is the interfe(Slion
of the vertical with the diredting plane; and as sQ, the vertical
line of the picSture, is parallel with P N the interfedlion of the;
vertical with the diredling plane: PN is therefore the diredting
line of s Q, the vertical line of the pidlure.
Vertical planes have vertical vanifliing lines when the pic
ture is perpendicular to the ground plane ; in which cafe the
vertical line jQ is continued to a length above and below
the horizon H L, that will admit the neceflary vanifhing
pointSi.
Of
( 198 )
Of the VifiialFlam.
■ i
To thefe planes already defcribed may be added the radial,
or vifual planes.
A vifual or radial plane, is fuch as pafles through the eye,
and any original line whatever.
A plane may be continued by any three points. The three
points PXY are the interfedlions of three right lines ; and, ac
cording to geometrical reafoning, when three fuch lines meet
each other, >s the lines PX, X Y, and XYP, they are all in the
fame plane. This, among geometricians, is an axiom or felf
evident truth, and therefore needs no demonftration.
The continuation of the plane PC YX, which the triangle
Y P X is in, till it interfe<£l:s with the plane of the pidlure, is
therefore the vifual or radial plane of the original line ZX ; and
the line v i6, produced by the interfedtion of the vifual plane
with the plane of the picture, is termed the vifual line of the
original Z X. .
As I have already obferved and proved that the appear
ance of objeds on the retina is conveyed by rays of light flow
ing
{( '199 )
ing from every point of any objedl to the eye in rightlined di
reaions, fee page 184; let the right lines XP, ZP, beconfidered as
the rays of light coming from thfe original obje<5t Z X, and con
verging at P; but thefe rays are cut or interfedted by the plane
of the pidure G R H L at a; s, therefore the line x z is the pro
jeaion of the original objea Z X on the plane of the piaure ;
or, in other words, it is the perfpeaive reprefentation of the
original objea ZX: for the reprefentation x z of the original
line ZX is in the line v 16, which is the interfeaioix of the
vifual plane P C Y X with the plane of the piaure : and fince
the line PC is the parallel of the original line YX, where PC
cuts the plane of the piaure at <z;, proves that the line v 16 is
the true line of interfeaion produced by the vifual plane cutting
the plane of the piaure. Hence the line y 16 is, in perfpeaive,
termed the vifual line, from vi/ro, I fee; the lines PZ, PX,
are the rays of light by which vilion is performed, or by
which we perceive objeas, and as the interfeaion of thofe
rays is in the line v 16, fo this line v 16, drawn on the
piaure, is properly termed the vifual line of its original
ZX.
Of
( 200 )
Of the Lines in Per/peciive generated or produced by the foregoing
Planes.
I HAVE already fpokeii of thefe lines in the explanation of
the feveral planes to which they are related ; but it will alfo be
requifite to fum them np here, that the learner may have a
more clear view of them from what has been faid.
Firft. — The ground line GR, is a line produced by the in
terfe(5lion of the pidure or perfpecflive plane HLGR with the
original plane ABDO. It may alfo be fimply termed the in
terfecflion of the picture ; but fome choofe to call it the enter
ing line.
Second. — The vanifliing line H L, commonly called the
horizontal line, is produced by the interfecftion of the vanifliing
plane FHML with the plane of the pi(5lure HLGR.
Third. — The parallel of the eye F M, is a line produced by
the interfe6lion of the vanifhing plane with the diredling plane
U V F M ; and as this line is the interfedtion of a plane palling
through the eye always parallel to the pidure, confequently
FM
( 201 )
F M is always pai'allel to the vaiiifliing line H L, and of equal
height to it.
Fourth. — The directing line U V is the interietftion of any
original plane ABDO with the direcSling plane U VFM.
Fifth. — The vertical line Q s pafling through the center of
the picture s, is the interfedtion of the verticle or upright plane
P N J Q with the plane of the pidture ; and P N, the perpendi
cular height of the eye, is the iiiterfedtion of the vertical with
the directing plane.
Sixth. — The vifual line a; i6, is produced by the interfedtion
of the vifual plane P Y C X with the plane of the pidlure, and is
therefore the indefinite reprefentation of the original Z X.
Seventh. — The dire<5lor of an original line. If any original
Z X be produced till it cut the diredting plane U V F M, a line
P Y is termed the diredlor of that original line Z X.
Eighth. — The radial line *, or parallel of any original line
Z X. In whatever degree of obliquity the original line Z X in
terfedts the ground line G R, in the fame degree of inclination
* Radial, from px^in^, rabdcs, or radittSt a ray of light.
C c will
( 202 )
will the radial Vv cut the vanifliing line HL; for P i; is parallel
to the original line Z X.
Of PointSy in Perfpeciive^ produced by the Interfeciions of the
preceding Lines.
As the interfeflions of planes with each other generate or
produce lines, fo alfo lines meeting or cutting each other pro
duce points.
"Hence the following points in perfpedlive are produced by
the interfedtions of the lines M'hich we have now defined.
Firft, the point of fight, or the place of the eye ; P is that
point where the fpeftator's eye ought to be placed in viewing
the picture. Hence, if through the eye P a line perpendicular
to the original plane be produced till it cut the parallel of the
eye F M, their point of interfed:ion is the point of fight P.
Second, the center of the pidure. If from the point of
fight P a line be drawn perpendicular to the pidlure, and be
produced till it cut the vanilhing line H L, their interfe6tion
will be the point j, or that point termed the center of the pic
ture ;
{\903 )
tiiie ; and the cliilance bet^'een the point of light P, and s the
center of the picture, is called the diftance of the piclure ; and
the Hne itfelf which meafuies this diflance, may be termed the
dire<ft" radial.
 ^ * J if ■
Third, the vanifliing point. If from the point of ilght V,
a line be drawn parallel to any original Z X, and is prodnced
till it cut the vanifliing line HL, their point of interfe^Slion <i; is
the vanifliing point of the original line ZX; becaufe, if the
original line Z X were infinitely produced on the ground pian^
A EDO, its image ZX on the pi6lure would at length vanifli
or difappear to the eye P in the point v. The line which mea
fures the diftance between v and P, is the diftance of that vanifli
ing point V ; and the line itfelf may be termed the oblique radial,
becaufe its original Z X is oblique to the pid:ure.
Fourth, the point of interfecStion. If the original line Z X
be produced till it cut the ground line G R, that point i6 where
the line G R is cut, is called the point of interfedion : and if
the original line Z X be flill continued till it cut the direcff ing
line U V, the point Y, where they interfedt, is termed the dire61:
point of that original Z X.
Laftly, the point of ftation. If from the place of the
eye P, a line be drawn perpendicidar to the ground plane
C c 2 at
( 204 )
at N, that point N is the point of ftation, or foot of the fpec •
tator.
I fliall conckide this fedlion with advifing the reader to
make himfelf well acquainted with the preceding planes, lines,
and points, before he proceed further : which, if he do, it will
enable him to read the fubfequent pages more eafily, and often
prevent the trouble of referring to the plates. Add to this, it
will make him underftand more readily the problems and ope
rations of both this and other publications on the fubje(5t»
SECTION
( 205 )
S E C T I O N II.
^be Affinity and Agreement between Optical Laws and the Prin
ciples of Perfpe&ive demonjlrated — And alfo of the Ufe of the
three principal Elementary Planes in the Pra&ice of Draw
ing— Jhozvingy that all that is exhibited by the natural Pojitions
of thefe Planes in Fig. 1, may be corre^ly drazvn on any even
Surface without their Aid. — Of the various Pojitions of Lines
and Planes to the Picture., and of the Principles of Vanijhing
Points agreeing therewith^
Of the Affinity of Optical Laws zvith the Principles of Perfpe&ive.
In Sedtion I. page 183, it has been fhown that all objedis
appear proper tionably lefs as they are farther removed from
the eye ; and as the reader is now fuppofed to be acquainted
with the planes, lines, points, and terms, which have been ex
plained in the preceding fedtion, I fliall proceed to Ihovv that
the rules of perfpedlive agree with optical laws.
Thus
( 206 )
Thus: let G R, Fig. 4, be the ground line, and H L the ho
rizontal or vanifliing line, whofe height above the ground line
is equal to that of the eye of the fpe<ftator ; j is the center of the
picture, and s D the diftance of the fpe^lator's eye from the ob
]c6t3d. Draw dd perpendicular and equal to BD, Fig. i, and
as much to the right hand of j as D, in Fig. i, is to e. Then, in
Fig. 4, draw the vifual lines ds and l^ s; which lines are to deter
mine the heights of the two original objedts, EC, F G, in Fig. i.
Then take the fpaces D C, C G, from Fig. i, and transfer them
to Fig. 4, from a to a, and from a to n, on the ground line GR.
Draw the lines «, D, n D, cutting the vifual line ds in^^ r; and
lailly, from g and ^on the vifual sd, raifc perpendiculars to j ^;
then will g,f, c, e be the perfpedive reprefentations of G F and
C B in Fig. i.
The analogy between the two figures %vill appear as fol
lows. — In optics, P, in Fig. i, is the pupil, and P e the direct ra
dial or axis of the eye, and equal to the diftance of the firft
objed; D B from the eye. In perfpective, D, in Fig. 4, is the fame
as P in optics, Fig. i ; and in Fig. 4, J, the center of the pi6ture
in perfpedlive, is the fame as e in Fig. r. Therefore as P ^ in
optics is the diretll ray, and the diltance of the firft obj^<fk DB
from the pupil P, fo j D, Fig. 4, in pcrfjxjiflive, is the diftance
of the fpedlator's eye from the picture. In optics, if the fecond
obje6l C E is removed twice as far from the eye P as the firft
I object
C 207 )
objedl DB is, its image m v, on the retina, will be little more than
half the length ofthe image /;2 of the firflobjecft DB on the retina;
and, in perfpediive, Fig. 4, the reprefentation. c e of the fecond
obje6t C E, is exadlly half the length of the firft object D B, as
Fig. 4 demonftrates, and which coincides with Fig. i ; for obferve,
the rays of light P E, P C, coming from the fecond objedt to the
pupil P, cut D B, their fe(5lion, in the fame proportion as the
vifual lines sd^ sb^ of Fig. 4, cut the perpendicular c e. Hence
the fpace 2, 7, on D B, is equal to the reprefentation c e^ Fig. 4 ;
and in the fame manner the fpace i, 8, \vhere the rays of light
from FG cut the picture DB, is equal to^,/, Fig. 4, the repre
fentation of G F, Fig. I.
/
Laftly, the reprefentations g /, c e, in Fig. 4, approach to
the center j, in the fame proportion as their originals G F, C E,
in Fig. I, approach to e, the center of the imaginary plane
B D, which is fuppofed to cut the rays of light P C, P G, at 2, i ;
for the fpace D 2 and i on Fig. i, is the fame and equal tod, 2, i,
on Fig. 4; fo alfo \^ d, <?, Fig. 4, to D e. Fig. i. And hence it
may be concluded, that the rays PC, P G, are to their fecftion
D ^, Fig. I, as the vifual line d s is to its dividers or meafur
inglines D^, D «,, Fig. 4.
Before I conclude this head, it will be proper to obferve,
that notwitliftanding the general agreement between optical
laws
o
( 208 )
laws and the rules of perfpedtive, yet in one refpedl there is a
difference, for the perfpeclive reprefentation of any object
on a plane, is not the fame exactly with the appearance of
that object to the eye; and therefore in allufion to this differ
ence, I have, in the preceding page, already faid, " In optics, if
the fecond obje<ft C E is removed twice as far ft"om the eye P,
Fig. I, as the firft objecl; D B is, its image m v on the retina
will be little more than half the length of the image / n of
the firft objetfl DB; but the reprefentation 2,7, of CE on a
plane D B, which is the fe«ftion of the rays PC, PE, is only half
the iength of the firlt objeil DB, as the figure itfelf demon
ftrates." The reafon of this difference is owing to the eye being
a fphere, but a picture a level furface or plane ; for the rays
PC, P D, cut the arch or fphere K L at 6, 5, in a different pro
portion to what they do on the plane B D, as is plain ; becaufe
the fpace D 2, which is the reprefentation of the fpace DC on
the plane B D, is greater than the fpace 6, 5, on the fphere K L ;
which fpace 6, 5, is the appearance of the fpace D C to the eye ;
but the Tpace D 2 is its reprefentation on the pi6ture. This
difference, however, decreafes the further the obje<5t is removed
from the £ye, for then the rays do not cut the pidture fo ob
liquely ; confequently the reprefentation of the original objecSt
on the plane of the picture is more natural, becaufe it has more
of the appearance of that real objedt to the eye. Thus : if the
x)bje<5t EC be removed back to FG, the rays PG, PF, are lefs
6 oblique
( ao9 ) ■
oblique to the pitflure BD; and therefore the reprefentatioii
I, 8, on the pitSlure B D, is nearer to its true appearance o b on
the arch K L, than the reprefentation 2, 7, is to its true appear
ance 5, Ti, on that arch; but much more does this difference
appear between the firft obje6l B D and its real appearance y, 60,
on the arch K L, which yet would be confiderably more if P
were removed to Z. Hence the neceffity of chooling a proper
diftance for the reprefentations of obje6ls on a pi<fture, that their
appearance on the picture may be nearly the fame as the real
objedts have to the eye. This will be touched on in its proper
place.
The difference then between the reprefentation of obje(5ts
on a plane and their appearance to the eye, which is a circle,
is as the difference of the tangent of the arch, which compre
hends the angle under which the objedl is feen, is to the fub
tenfe of that angle. Thus: let D C be the objedt viewed atP,
then will 6, 5, on the arch KL, be the opening or fubtenfe of the
angle under which the objedt DC is feen, which meafures four
teen degrees ; and D 2, the reprefentation of DC on the plane BD,
is the tangent of that arch 6, 5, which comprehends the angle
under which D C, the obje<St, is feen.
D d From
( 210 )
From what has been faid on this fubjedl, it is evident that
a perfect piffture of objedls, as they appear to the human eye,
cannot be dehneated on a plane. It may be done on the
furface of a fphere, when the eye of the fpedlator is fup
pofed to be in its center; for then every part of the pic
ture would be equidiftant from the eye, and every ray of
light perpendicular to its own furface, as are the rays y P,
IT, P, &c. of the fphere K L. None of the rays, in this cafe,
could cut the pi6lure obliquely, and confequently no diftor
tion would appear. But though this be the cafe, yet it will
not afford any folid objection to the certainty of perfpe(5tive
rules adjufted to a plane; for, by the help of light and fha
dow applied in different degrees of ftrength to obje»5ls as
they are more or lefs remote from the eye, and by a judi
cious choice of the diftance, a pi(5ture may be drawn on an
even furface, fo as to deceive the eye, and produce in the
mind fimilar effects with the original or real obje(5ls.
0/
( 211 )
Of the Ufe of the three principal "^^ Elementary Planes in the Prac
tice of Drawing — alfo fhewing that every thing exhibited by
the natural Pofition of thefe Planes in Fig. 2, 7fiay be drawn on
an even Surface without their Aid.
It is not always underftood, even by thofe who have fome
general notions of perfpecStive, how it is that thefe planes anfwer
to a level furface, fuch as the paper we draw on ; but, until
there be fome conception of this, I will venture to fay that per
fpedlive can never be clearly comprehended. Therefore, that the
reader may have a clear view of this matter, I fliall refer him to
Fig. 5, Plate XV. in which are fliewn fimilar letters and nume
rals, correfponding with the limilar planes, lines, and points of
Fig. 2, as follows :
The plane GOBR, Fig. 5, is the original or ground plane
GO BR, Fig. 2; alfo the plane GHLR, Fig. 5, is the perfpec
* Elementary, " from the Latin elementum," the firft rudiments or principles of any
fcience. Hence, in perfpedtive, the ground plane, the plane of the pidture, and the vanifliing
plane, are confidereJ as the three chief elementary planes ; becaufe the firft principles of the
art niuft be derived from them. The vertical, direifling, and vifual planes, are alfo termed
elementary, as has been fliewn in the firft feflion, but not fo eflential in praflice.
D d 2 tive
( 212 )
tive plane denoted by the fimilar letters in Fig. 2; and the
plane FHLM, Fig. 5, is the vanifliing plane FHLM, Fig. 2.
If, in Fig. 2, a line be extended from P to s, from s to Q, and
from Q to U, that line will meafure the length of all the three
planes in Fig. 5, as from P to U. Thus the ground plane, the
perfpedtive plane, and vanifhing plane of Fig. 2, are fuppofed
to be ftretched out of their natural pofition till they become an
even fur face, as in Fig. 5. The line GR, in Fig. 5, is therefore
the interfedtion of the pidlurc with its original plane, as in Fig. 2 ;
and the line HL, Fig. 5, is the vanifhing hne produced by the
interfedtion of the vanifliing plane with the plane of the pic
ture, Fig. 2. The line FM, Fig. 5, is the parallel of the eye,
denoted by thefe letters in Fig. 2. And laftly, Q j. Fig. 5, is
the vertical line Qs, Fig. 2, which is produced to P, in Fig. 5 ; on
which is placed the diftance Pj of the fpedtator's eye from the
pidture, as P s, Fig. 2.
Thefe things being underftood, proceed to draw the plan
of the cafe of drawers on the ground plane GO BR. Thus:
from Fig. 2, take the fpace T, equal to the diftance which the
drawers are placed from the pidlure. Transfer this fpace to
Fig. 5, from Q to /, and draw the line i, 3, parallel to G R ; be
caufe I, 3, in Fig. 2, is parallel to the plane of the pidlure. Ex
tend
( 213 )
tend the compaffes from i to 3, and from T to w, of Fig. 2, for
the length and breadth of the drawers, and make the plan on
Fig. 5, the fame.
In Fig. 5 produce the line 8, 3, and 2, i, to G R, at the points
10 and 12, anfwerableto 10 and 12, Fig. 2. Draw then the vifuals
10, J, 12, J, Fig. 5, correfponding with 10, J, 12, s, Fig. 2, on the
plane of the pidture. Take then from Fig. 2, the perpendicular
height T y of the drawers, and place this from 10 to ^, and
from 12 to «, Fig. 5. Draw then the vifuals ds, as, anfwerable
to the fame letters in Fig. 2. Next, from the points i, 3, 8, 2,
draw lines tending to the point P, which will cut the vifual
lines at I, 3, in the fame manner as the rays i, P, 3, P_, cut the
vifuals 10, s, 12, s, at i, 3, Fig. 2.
In Fig. 5, from i, 3, raife the perpendiculars i, 5, 3, 7, cut
ting the vifuals ^, s, a, s, at 7, 5, in like manner as the
rays 5, P, 7, P» Fig 2, cut the points 5, 7, on the plane of
the piaure. Draw then from 7 to 5, Fig. 5, a line parallel to
I, 3, which will determine the height of the draMers; and for
the apparent breadth of the top, raife a perpendicular^, 6, from.
g, the point where the line 8, P, cuts the vifual 10, s, and the
point 6 will determine the apparent breadth of the drawers ; in
the fame manner as the rays P, 4, P, 6, cutting the vifuals ^, j, 3, s,
ati
( '214 )
at the points 6, 4, determine the reprefentation of the top of the
drawers 5, 7, 6,4, at the correfponding points on the plane of the
pidlure, Fig. 2.
By thefe operations it is nianifeft that the reprefenta
tion of the drawers in Fig. 5, where the planes are llretched out
till they become an even furfece, is the fame in all its parts as
the image or reprefentation of the cafe of drawers on the plane
of the pi(5lure Fig. 2, where all the planes are in their natural
pofitions. This would follow from a procefs of geometrical
reafoning ; but, perhaps, it would be too tedious to the reader,
and a deviation from the profeffed plan of this treatife ; and,
therefore, I Ihall only recommend to him, to apply the com
paffes to each reprefentation in the different figures, by which
he will perceive the equality of parts in both ; and, if to this be
added a little refle<5lion on the preceding operations, I have not
the leaft doubt of its being underftood.
Of
( "5 )
Of the various Pofitions of Lines and Planes to the PiSfure, and
to the Ground Plane — alfo of their Reprefentation on the Pic
ture agreeing therewith, and of their various Modes of Fa
nijhing.
The original line Z X, in fig. 2, is oblique to the picture,
and is therefore treated in a diverfe manner from the lines in
the cheft of drawers, which are all parallel and perpendicular
to the picture, or parallel to the ground plane and perpendi
cular to it..
Cafe I. — When any line i, 3, Fig. 2, is parallel to the pic
ture and to the ground line G R, its reprefentation is parallel
alfo. This is felfevident by infpeding the figure.
Cafe 2. — Lines in the aforefaid pofitions can have no va
nifhing line or point in the picture, becaufe if infinitely pro
duced would never cut it ; that is, the lines i, 3, and G R, Fig. 2,
would never meet in a point, however far produced, for lines
truly parallel can never cut each other.
Cafe 3. — The reprefentations of lines originally parallel to
each other and to the pidhire^ are parallel to one another
oni
( "6 )
on the picture. Thus : the lines i, 3, 5, 7, 4, 6, Fig. 2, arc all pa
rallel to each other and to the pi<ftme; therefore their repre
fentations i, 3, 5, 7, 4, 6, on the pi6:ure, are all parallel to one
another, as is felfevident by comparing thefe with their cor
relponding lines in Fig. 5.
Cafe 4. — If any original line 1,5, Fig. 2, be perpendicular
to the ground plane, its reprefentation will be peri>endicular to
the ground line G R ; wherefore the reprefentation of the ori
ginal 3, 7, or any other in the like pofition, fituated any where
on the grovuid plane, is perpendicular to the ground line G R.
Hence the correfpondent lines 3, 7, i, 5, Fig. 5, are drawn per
pendicular to G R, the ground line.
From the above theory it may be concluded, that the re
prefentation of a geometrical fquare or parallelogram *, is a ge
ometrical fquare or parallelogram, if it be fituated in a plane
parallel to the pi6lure. Hence IK, L M, Fig. 6, is the true re
prefentation of the original fquare AD, BC, which is in this
pofition.
Cafe 5. — All lines perpendicular to the pidlure, have their
yanifliing points in the center of the pidture.
* Sec its definition in page 44, and its figure Plate II.
6 The
( 217 )
The lines 5, 4, 7, 6, of the ends of the drawers, are perpen
dicular to the pi6ture H L G R ; confequently their reprefenta
tions 5, 4, 7, 6, on the pidliire, appear to terminate to a point
at s, the center of the picture. Wherefore, in reprefenting the
top of the cheft of drawers at Fig. 5, z^* « is made equal to the
length 5, 7, Fig. 2 ; and from ^ a, Fig. 5, lines are drawn to the
center j.
Hence the reprefentation of a geometrical fquare, fituated
in any plane perpendicular to the picture, is a trapezoid, as IK,
LM, Fig. 6; that is, two of its fides, IK, LM, are parallel, and
the other two, K L, I M, not fo .
In whatever pofition an original plane may be in with re
fpe<fl to the ground plane, if it be but perpendicular to the
pi6lure, the reprefentation of a geometrical fquare in that plane
will ftill be a trapezoid. If the planes be above or below the
horizon, its appearance will be of that figure. Thus, in Fig. 3,
a, by o^p, is the reprefentation of a fquare fituated in the ground
plane, which is certainly perpendicular to the pi6lure, if the
picture be perpendicular to the ground; as N17, a fedlionof the
picture, is upright to (7/^, one of the fides of the fquare : <:/isalfo
the reprefentation of a fquare, fituate in a plane raifed above the
* See its definition page 44, and its figure Plate II.
E e ground
( 2i8 )
ground i>lane, b\it parallel with it, and therefore perpendicular
to the pidlure in this cafe; alfo e f\% the reprefentation of the
fame fquare, lituate in the plane of the horizon, which is a
plane equal to the height of the eye, as the plane F M H L, Fig.
2. M'lierefore in this plane the fquare does not appear, for it
vanifhes into one right line, as e i. But if thicknefs be attri
buted to the fquare, as denoted by the double line, then, by the
help of fhadow, two of its fides may be feen, as ^ i, i, 2 ; but
obferve, both the fides are in one right line.
The fquares^' h, Ik, are in planes above the horizon, ele
vated nearly as much as the other two a b, c i, are below it;
their appearances are therefore trapezoids of nearly the fame
dimenlions. And it is alfo evident, fince all thefe fquares arc
fituate in planes perpendicular to the picture whether above or
below the horizon, they muft have their vanifliing point in the
center of the pidlure s ; and, as they are all parallel to the ground
l^lane, their common vanifhing line will be H L.
Cafe 6.— If a geometrical fquare be lituated in a plane in
clined in any angle to the ground plane, whether it be above or
below the horizon, provided the plane be confidered perpendicu
lar to the picture, its reprefentation will be, as before, a trapezoid;
and likewife its vanifliing point will be in the center of the pic
ture. Thus, in Fig. 8, No. 1, ADBC is the reprefentation of a
geometrical fquare in a plane A E P O, inclined to the ground
plane
( 219 )
plane equal to the angle n AD. Now it is evident, that the
fqiiare will incline to any angle, by fiippofing it to revolve on
its center A C in the arch unk; for the fide D B of the fquare
may be prefled to t ^ or o u^ or to any point in theie arches,
without altering its pofition to G R, the ground line or fe6lion
of the pi6ture ; therefore, wherever the fide of the fquare D B
is in thefe arches, it will ftill vanifli to s, the center of the pic
ture ; and its appearance will be a trapezoid : for u o, D B, .^ f,
are all parallel among themfelves, and to r s, which is perpen
dicular to the picture. For the fame reafons the other fquares
above the horizon, though inclined to the ground in different de
grees, and in different directions, have the fame vanifliing point.
Cafe 7. — All lines oblique to the pit^ture, but parallel to the
groimd plane, having their vanifliing points fomewhere in the
horizontal line H L, Fig. 2 ; but not in the center of the pidlure,
as in Cafe 6, when the line is perpendicular to the pidtiu^e.
Alfo if oblique lines are parallel to each other, they all have the
fame vanifliing point. The original line Z X, in Fig. 2, is ob
lique to the picture, and its vanifliing point is at v in the va
nifliing line H L, not at s, the center of the pi(fture; for a line
drawn from the eye P, and produced till it cut the pi<Sture at Vy
in a parallel direcftion to Z X, is the vanifliing point of that ori
ginal hne Z X. Wherefore, in Fig. 5, where the elementary
planes are ftretched out to an even furface, draw the original
Ee 2 ZX
( 220 )
Z X inclined to G R, in the angle which it is fuppofed to be in to
the pidlnre in Fig. 2. Produce X Z till it cut G R at 14 in Fig. 5 ;
then lay the diftance of the eye from the picture on the vertical
line at P, and from P draw P v parallel to Z X ; then will v be
the true vanifliing point to the line Z X, upon the fame prin
ciples that ^', in Fig. 2, is the vanifliing point to Z X in that
figure.
If a number of lines oblique to the pidlure be parallel to
each other, they will all have the fame vanifliing point ; for the
fame reafon as a number of lines perpendicular to the picTture
have but one vanifliing point in the center. Therefore, in Fig. 9,
Plate XVI. the geometrical fquare i, 2, 3, 4, having its fides ob
lique to the pi(5lure, the fides which are parallel to each other are
drawn to one vanifliing point. The fides db^c a^ are originally
parallel to each other, for they are the reprefentations of 2,3,1,4,
of the original fquare, wherefore they vanifli into one point at
V. In like manner, and for the fame reafon, the fides b a^dc^
vanifli at V. It is evident then, that the reprefentation of
a fquare, having its fides oblique to the picSlure, is a tra
pezium * ; that is, none of the fides are parallel to each
other.
* See its figure Plate II. and its definition page 45.
Cafe
C 221 )
Cafe 8. — When a fquare is fituated in a plane perpendicular
to the ground, but oblique to the pidture, only two of its fides
will vanifli to a point, as B C, A D, No. 2. The other fides, A B,
DC, can have no vanifiiing point; becaufe they are perpendi
cular to the ground, and parallel to the pi6lure. See Cafe 2, page
215. Its reprefentation is therefore a trapezoid. And becaufe the
fquare is not perpendicular to the picture, its vanifliing point
is not in the center s, but in fome other point v in the horizon,
according to the angle which the original fquare makes with
the pi6lure, or with its interfedtion. Thus MA/ is the angle
which the fquare A B, DC, makes with the interfedlion, or
ground line G R ; or, in other words, it is the original pofition
which the fquare ftands in to the pi6ture. Hence v d being
parallel to M A, it forms the fame angle to the vanifliing line
H L ; and being drawn in this dire(5lion from the place of the
eye d^ and produced till it cut H L at "u, confequently v is its
vanifliing point.
Cafe 9. — If a fquare be fituated in a plane inclined to the
ground plane, and its interfedtion with the pidture be parallel
to the interfedlion of the ground plane with the pidlure, as AF,
No. 3, then the vanifliing line of that plane wiU be parallel to
the ground line G R ; and two of its fides, A N, F O, may be
confidered as perpendicular to the picture ; but the other two
fides,
( 222 )
fides, A F, N O, are really parallel, and therefore have no vanifli
ing point in the vanifliing line H L. See Cafe 2, in page 215.
The fides A N, F O, are confidered perpendicular to the
picture ; becaufe, it is evident, that the fquare may be fuppofed
to revolve on the fide A F, and be preffed or moved to 8, 10 ;
which fhow the angles of the fame fquare in a plane ftri<5tly
perpendicular to the pi<Slure, and therefore its fides 11, 8, 12, io»
have their vanifhing point in the center j. See Cafe 4, in page
ai6. Wherefore, as the fquare may revolve on A F, as a table
top hinged at the front, and rifing to any angle from its frame,
its vanifhing point will rife on the verticle line s d, in proportion
to that angle. Hence S is the true vanifhing point of the
fquare A F, N O, making the angle F A 6 with the ground
plane.
Cafe 10. — If a fquare be fituated in a plane of the above
kind, having its fides oblique to the pidture, every thing will
be confidered the fame as in the foregoing cafe, only the fides
will vanifli to two points in the horizon ; neither of which can
be in the center j, nor in any part of the vertical line s d ; be
caufe the fide A B, Fig. 10, of the original fquare, is not per
pendicvilar to GR. But, as the interfedion of this inclined
plane with the pidlure is parallel with the ground plane, as in
7 Cafe
( 223 )
Cafe g, the vanifliing points will rife in a perpendicular direc
tion above the common vanifhing line H L, in proportion to
the angle which the inclined plane makes with the ground
plane.
Hence ^' t? on the new horizontal line h /, are placed per
pendicular to V V in the common horizon H L ; which points
V V would be the true vanifliing points of the original fquarc
A B, B C, were it reprefented upon the ordinary ground plane ;
or, in other words, if it were reprefented in a plane perpendi
cular to the pidiure, and parallel to the ground plane.
Cafe II. — If a fquare A DBG, Fig. ii, be fituated in a
plane oblique both to the ground plane and to the pi(Sture, its
vanifliing line will be in an angle to the common horizon H L,
in proportion, to the angle which the inclined plane makes with
the ground. For, as the original plane in this cafe is inclined
both to the ground and to the pidture, confequently its inter
fedtion with the pi(Sture will be oblique to the interfe6tion of
the ground plane with the picture. Cafe 9 has a horizontal
vanifliing line, though it fuppofes the original plane to be in
clined to the ground ; but as its interfetSlion is parallel to the
ground line, fo its vanifliing line is parallel alfo. In the cafe
before us, the original plane has an oblique interfedion with
the
( 224 )
the picture, and therefore its vanifhing hne is obUque to the
horizon alfo; which, perhaps, may be better iinderftood by
No. I, Ihowing the fame fqnare in the fame polition, confidered
as the top of a table viewed angleways, whofe top is fuppofed
to be rifing on its hinges at A C in the angle ii A K. Its vanifli
ing line is therefore v V, found by drawing M V, making an
angle with the horizontal line H L, equal to u A K, the angle
which the inclined plane makes with the ground. Or the va
nifhing line maybe found as in Fig. ii; by drawing t^M, cut
ting O OT, which is a line perpendicular to the horizon ; from
the meafuring point m, draw M V parallel to the horizon, cut
ting V P at V ; then will the line v V be the true vanifliing
line as before. The line A X is confidered as the interfe6lion of
the inclined plane, and is therefore drawn parallel to v V, the
vanifliing line ; for, in perfpedlive, it is a univerfal theorem,
according to Dr. Brook Taylor's fyftem, that the vanifliing line,
interfedtion, and dire6ting line of any original plane, are pa
rallel to each other ; alfo, " the vanifliing points of all lines in
any original plane, are in the vanifhing line of that plane." See
his Sixth and Seventh Theorems. Wherefore the line A X is
to f V the vanifliing line, the fame as the ground line GR is to
the horizontal line H L.
Thefe, and the other lines which I have hitherto palTed
over
( 225 )
over unnoticed in the various cafes, will be explained in the
different problems belonging to each particular cafe, and there
fore I deem it unneceffary to fay more on them at prefent.
.,., SECTION III.
Qqntaining Problems in Ferfpeciive^ folved according to the pre
^i feeding Principles and Cafes — applied to the Methods of drawing
\s\reuiangular Superficies and Solids in different Pojitions to the
■ Pi&ure. — Alfo^ how to draw Vifual Lines ^ tending to vanifhing
Points^ out of the Pi&ure ; and how to reduce the Point of Dif
tance to any Proportion^ fo as to bring it within the Limits of
the Pi&ure.
In the methods of inftrudlion generally made ufe of by
moft of thofe who have written on this fubjedt, it is common
for them to begin with finding the reprefentations of points
and lines, proceeding afterwards to fuperficies and folids.
To me, however, it appears an unneceffary prolixity, ef
pecially it would be fo to the perfons for whom this treatife is
chiefly intended. For to go through all the problems neceffary
for points and lines as they may be differently fituated to the
ground plane and pidure, and alfo to fhow how thefe lines are
to be meafured off according to any given length, would take
Ff up
( 226 )
up as many plates and pages of letterprefs as would be fufli
cient to explain the fuperficies of figures of which thefe lines
are the boundaries.
Befides, it is prefumed that the general readers of this
work will underftand the various pofitions of lines, and how to
meafure them off, according to their given lengths, better when
they are connefled with fome figure, than when thefe fame
lines are confidered abftra<Stedly. And, in general, it may be faid,
that when perfons fet about drawing, it is not to reprefent a
line or a point nakedly, but to draw the perfpe6tive appearance
of fome figure bounded by lines and points ; which, when
performed, muft of courfe include every thing requifite to the
reprefenting or meafuring of a bare line. Therefore, in finding
the reprefentation of a geometrical fquare, for inftance, the
problem for this will teach us both how to find the points of its
angles, and at the fame time how to reprefent and meafure a
line equal to the fides of the given fquare, or any other figure
of that nature. For thefe reafons I omit points and lines, and
proceed to the firft problem, which is
Prob.
V/'// /'^ 
.i't///(//fS /// i////tnv// Jt'sz/rt'.
J'!<itr IS.
r.Sheraeon Z>f/
Fui/i/iied ur r/if Arc directs /r G T^rry J/rii' ^. z^«
./.Bijr/rffS'*i//>
( 227 )
Prob. I. Fig. 7. Plate XV.
To reprefent a Geometrical Square lying on the Ground^ having
tzvo of its Sides parallel to the Figure, and the other two per
pendicular to it.
Operation. — Draw the ground line GR, and draw HL
for the vanifhing line, whofe height from the ground line is
fuppofed to be equal to the height of the fpe6lator's eye. Make
s the center, or that point in the picture which is directly op
polite to the eye when the pidture is viewed. Make d the dif
tance of the eye from the picture, anfwering to Pj, in Fig. 2,
Plate XIV. In this manner the paper or canvafs we draw on is
prepared for delineating objedts in the above lituation.
The next thing to be confidered, is the feat of the object in
the pi6ture ; that is, how far the fquare, for inftance, is to be
placed to the right or left of the center j, or whether it is to be
dire6tly under the center, and how far removed back from the
pi6ture. Thefe being fixed on, lay down C A equal to the fide
of the fquare to be reprefented, and draw the lines C J", A j,
termed vifual lines. Determine then how far the fquare is to be
removed from the pidlure, which in this example is equal i 2.
F f 2 Draw
( 228 )
Draw from 2 a line to the point of diftance d, cutting the vifu
als Cj, A J, at B and A. Laftly, from thefe points of interfec
tion at B and A, draw the hnes AC, B I, parallel to G R, the
ground line, and the reprefentation will be completed as re
quired.
Obfervations. — The fides C B, A I, of the fquare, are per
pendicular to the pidlure, and therefore, by Cafe 5, page 216,
they muft vanilh in j, the center of the pi6lvire. The fides C A,
B I, are confequently parallel to G R, the interfedtion of the pic
ture or ground line ; wherefore, by Cafe r, page 215, they are
the reprefentations of original lines parallel to the picture ; and
being parallel, they can have no vanifliing point.
Prob. II. Fig. 7. Plate XV.
To find the Reprefentation of a Square perpendicular to the Ground^
and alfo to the Fi&ure.
The picture being already prepared in the foregoing
problem, the ground line and vanifhing line remain the fame ;
alfo the point of diftance and the center s are the fame. And it
fhould be obferved, that G R is the ground line, and H L the
horizontal line in every example. Alfo s denotes the center of
the
( 229 )
the pidlure, and d the diftance ; therefore, in future, the expla
nation of thefe may be omitted, and we may proceed as
follows :
Operation. — Draw the perpendicular A D equal to the fides
of the original fquare, and draw the vifuals D j, A j. Then, on
the ground line G R, lay on a fpace from i to C equal to the
diflance of the fquare from the front of the pidlure. Make C N
equal A D, and draw C tf, N ^, cutting the vifual A J" in I and M.
Laftly, from I and M raife perpendiculars to K L, and the fquare
will be reprefented as required.
Obfervations. — The fides IK, M L, are perpendicular to the
ground; wherefore, according to Cafe 4, page 216, they are the
reprefentations of lines originally perpendicular, as AD; and
being perpendicular to the groimd, confequently they are pa
rallel to the pi(fture, and therefore can have no vanifhing point.
But the fides KL, IM, are perpendicular to the picture; there
fore they vanifh to s^ the center.
Prob.
( 230 )
Prob. III. Fig. 6. Plate XV.
To reprejent a Square Jlanding upright on the Ground^ but parallel
to the Pidiure.
The grovind line and horizontal line, &:c. remaining as in
the preceding problem, proceed to the operation. Draw ADBC
a geometrical fquare on the ground line. Draw the vifuals A j",
Dj, Bj, Cj; then lay on a fpace AN on the ground line equal
to the diftance which the fquare is fuppofed to be from the
picture. Draw N J cutting the vifual A j in I. From I draw
I M parallel to A C. Draw I K, L M, perpendicular to A D, C B.
And, laftly, draw K L parallel to D B ; then will the fquare I K,
LM, be the reprefentation of the original fquare ADBC, as
propofed.
Obfervations. — The vifual rays Aj, Dj, Bj, Cj, form a
pyramid *, whofe bafe is a geometrical fquare ADBC, and
whofe vertex is J", the center of the picture. If this pyramid
have a fedtion parallel to its bafe, it muft be evident to every
one, that the fecStion will produce a geometrical fquare. The
* Sec its definition page 9^, and its figure Plate VI.
reprefentation
( 231 )
reprefentation I K L M is a parallel fedlion of the pyramid of
rays iffuing from each angle of the original fquare ADBC, and
therefore IKLM, the fedlion, is a geometrical fquare. See the
conclufion drawn from Cafe 4, page 216, in which we fay, —
^' That the reprefentation of a geometrical fquare or parallelo
gram is a geometrical fquare or parallelogram, if it be fituated
in a plane parallel to the pi(5lure."
Prob. IV. Fig. 8. Plate XV.
To reprefent a Square fituated in a Plane inclined to the Ground^
and perpendicular to the Figure.
A OPE may reprefent the inclined plane, which is merely
to affift the imagination, or to convey what is to be underftood
by the fquare ADBC, No. i. being in a plane inclined to the
ground.
Operation. — On GR, the ground line, draw the femicircle
u n k^ whofe radius muft be equal to the lide of the original
fquare. Draw nh perpendicular to the ground line; then make
« A D equal to the angle of inclination which the original fquare
has to the ground. Draw then, as before, the vifuals A j, D j,
to the center s. Let d, near L, on the common horizontal line
7 HL,
( 232 )
H L, be the diftance as in common; draw the line tid cutting
thevifual Une A j in C. From C draw CB parallel to AD, then
will A D C B be the reprelentation of a geometrical fquare, Situ
ated in a plane inclined to the ground, in an angle of twenty
three degrees.
Method fecond. — Let G i, R i, be the interfe<5lion of the in
clined plane with the pidlure ; or, in other words, let it be con
sidered as a new ground line, and turn the plate till this line
come into the fame fituation with the eye as the old ground
line GR appeared to be in when the plate was upright. This
will make every thing in this fecond method appear quite plain,
I prefume, and will fhow that it is as ,eafy to reprefent a fquare
in a plane inclined in any degree to the groiuid, if it be per
pendicular to the pi6lure, as it is to reprefent one lying on the
ground, having two of its fides perpendicular to the picture.
The plate being placed to the eye as above inentioned, draw a
new horizontal line b /, //, parallel with G i, R i, paffing
through the center s. Make s d on this new horizontal line
equal s don the old one H L. From D lay down the fide of the
fquare D A, and draw the vifuals A s and D s. From A draw
A d, cutting the vifual D j in B. Make B C parallel to A D, and
the reprefentation will be as before. In No. 2 the fame fquare
is inclined to the other hand ; but the operation is ftill the fame,
when the new ground line G 2, R 2, is drawn, and when a new
horizon
( 233 )
horizon, h^, lo., is drawn parallel to it, paffing through the
center j, d near b 2 will then be its diftance, or d near li will do,
for they are both the fame to the fquare No. 2 ; fince both the
diagonals of the fquare, if produced, will tend to each point of
diftance, as is evident from infpe<Slion. The fquares No. 3 and
No. 4 are reprefented above the horizon ; but as they are con
fidered in planes perpendicular to the pi6ture, this makes no
difference in their reprefentations, for their perpendicular fides
vanilh in j, the center, and the operation is the fame above as
below the horizon in all refpe(5ls. As I have marked the ground
lines and vanifhing lines to each fquare, diftinguifliing them by
the fame numeral that the fquares are marked with, I think it
imneceflary to go through the operations, as it wpuld only be
repeating what has been faid on thofe below the horizon. See
Cafe 6, on Fig. 8, No. i, in page 219.
Obfervations. — From what has been faid on Fig. 8, it is evi
dent that the foregoing problem may be applied to ufefid pui*
pofes in reprefenting different pieces of furniture ; and that
which has been frequently done at random, for want of know
ing better, may be done with great eafe and accuracy. For
inftance, the rifing defks of the library table, Plate XXX, are
reprefented by this problem. The two femicircles fliew that
the delk, raifed to any pitch, will ftill be within thefe arches,
G g which
( 234 )
which are the boundaries of the defk, as it paffes round on its
hinges.
Prob. V. Fig. 9. Plate XVI.
To reprefent a Square fituated in a Plane inclined to the Groundy
and to the Figure, when the Interfeclion of the inclining Plane
is parallel to the Ground Lin.e\ or when its Interfe&ion is in the
Interfe^i9n of the Ground Plane with the Pi&ure.
In this cafe the common ground line G R is the interfec
tion of the inclined plane with the pidlure ; and a line, S P,
produced parallel to G R will be the vanifhing line of this
plane.
Operation. — Let H L, the common horizon, be drawn as
ufual ; and let s be the center of the pidture. From j to jf) is
the diftance of the eye from the picture. Take in the com
paffes, A F, equal to the fide of the fquare, and with it fweep
the arch q r from p ; then from r to ^, on the arch q r, lay on
the degree of inclination which the original plane has to the
ground ; and draw p q produced till it cut the vertical line sd'xvi
S ; then will S be the vanilhing point of the fquare in the in
6 dining
X'.'/i/ . /V,
Sgnnrrx n/ iNi:/i//i',l /i/u/ir.s
F/r//r^ J^j.
T.r/umAu /?r,
/lM///,;f ti.ir/ie.lif(/irfrn />v /r. TfiTi/. .'/<ir if"jjin
( 235 )
dining plane, for the fame reafon as s is of the fquare ii, 12,
10, 8, on the level ground. Make SP equal to sp, and P will be
the point of diftance to the inclined plan''. Draw the vifuals
A S, F S, and from A draw A P, cutting the vifual F S in O.
Laftly, draw O N parallel to A F, and the reprefentation of the
fquare will be found as propofed. See Cafe 9, page 221.
Obfervations. — The vifuals A S, F S, may be cut by another
method to the fame effedt. Thus : draw the line 5 6 parallel to
Sp, and take the fide of the original fquare and place it from A
to 5. Draw from 5 a line to p, the diftance on H L, and it will
cut at N, as before. The truth of this will appear by com
paring No. I with No. 3. At No. i draw G R for a ground line,
and perpendicular to it draw A j, a fe6tion of the pidture. Lay
on, from A to s, No. i, the height of the common horizon ;
that is, from A to j on the perpendicular line AB s, Fig. 9.
From s, the center of the pidlure at No. i, draw sp equal s p
the diftance at Fig. 9. Make A N, the inclined plane, of equal
angle to g p r, the angle which the original plane makes with
the ground. From A to N, No. i, lay on A F equal to fide of
the fquare No. 3. Lay the fame from A to G, No. i. Laftly,
draw Gp, N/), cutting the picture at n and 8. Take, in the com
paiTes, the fpace from A to «.at No. i, and lay it from 9 to N at
No. 3, and it will be feen that they are equal. In the fame
manner take A 8 at No. i, and lay it from 9 to 8 at No. 3, and
Gg 2 it
( 236 )
it will be found that they are ecjiial. This fully (lenionftiates
the truth of the reprefentatioii of the fquare A F, N O ; for, be
yond all difpute, ;?, at No. i, fhows how much the fquare on
the inclined plane rifes on the pi6ture ; and 8, at No. i, as cer
tainly fliows how much the fame fquare lying on the level
ground rifes ; and fince they both coincide with their repre
fentations at No. 3, there can remain no doubt but S is the true
vanifliing point, and P the true point of diftance.
N. B. This problem is of ufe to reprefent any table top
hinged at the front, and rifing by a horfe behind to any
pitch.
Prob. VI. Fig. 9. Plate XVI.
To find the Reprefent at ion of a Square lying on the Ground^ having
its Sides oblique to the Pidiure.
Operation. — Draw the plan of the fquare propofed, as i,
a, 3, 4, in any angle to the ground line G R, as may be required.
Produce the fide i 4 till it cut the ground line at k. Alfo pro
duce the fide i, 1 till it cut at i 4. Let s be the center of the
pi6ture as ufual, and draw s d perpendicular to H L. Let d be
the diftance of the eye from the pidlure. From d^ draw dN pa
rallel
( 237 )
rallel to i, 2, one of the fides of the fquare. From d., draw dv at
right angles to ^V, then will Vu be the true vanifliing points
of the fides of the fquare ; for the line f/ V is parallel to the fide
I 2, and dv \% parallel to 1,4; wherefore vN are the true va
nifliing points. Hence, from i 4, and from 3, draw right lines
to V, and from k and 3 draw lines to v ; and where thefe lines
cut each other at 4 b^ a, c, will be the reprefentation of the ori
ginal fquare 1, 2, 3, 4, as required.
Method fecond. — To draw the fame fquare without the
trouble of a ground plane.
Operation. — Every thing remaining as before, extend the
compafles from v to d, and lay v d to m on the horizon ; then
will m be the meafuring point to the vifuals 3, v, k, v. Make
d 13 on the ground line equal to the fide of the fquare. From
13 draw a line to m, cutting the vifual ^v 2it b. From b draw
b V, cutting at a, as by the firfl method.
The angle of the original fquare being brought into the
pi6ture at 3, a line from 3 to V finds the other fide dc^ without
any further trouble.
Obfervations, — The truth of this problem will appear from
what has been faid in Cafe 7, p. 219, which I would advife the
reader
( 238 )
reader to examine. And I would further remark, that if vifual
rays be drawn from each angle of the original fquare i, 2, 3, 4,
to the vertical line s d, they will cut at d, a, c, as in the preced
ing methods. The rays from Z X to P, in Plate XIV. Fig. 2,
are the fame to the original Z X, as the rays id, ^d, are to the
fide of the fquare 1,4, in the figure before us. For c a, in this
figure, is the reprefentation of i, 4 — and z, x, on the pi(Slure in
Fig. 2, Plate XIV. is the reprefentation of Z X.
Prob. VII. Fig. 9. Plate XVI.
7b Jind the Reprefentation of a Square fuppofed to be Jituated in
a Plane perpendicular to the Ground^ but oblique to the
Fi&ure,
For this problem, the picture being completely prepared
as for the preceding one, the operation will be extremely con
cife, as follows :
Operation. — Raife a perpendicular line A B, No. 2. On the
perpendicular A B lay the fide of the fquare from A to B. From
B and A draw vifual lines to v, the vanifliing point ; found as
before. From A, lay down the fide of the fquare to / ; and from
/ draw im, cutting the vifual line A v in D. Lafl:ly, draw D C
parallel
( 239 )
parallel to AB, and the reprefentation will be found as required.
See remarks in Cafe 8, page 221.
Prob. VIII. Fig. 10. Plate XVI.
To find the Reprefentation of a Square having its Sides oblique to
the Fi&ure^ fuppofed to be in a Plane inclined to the Ground^ as
in Problem V.
Observations. — This problem differs in no refpedl from
the fifth, except what relates to the fqiiares reprefented in thefe
inclined planes. In the fifth problem, the fquare in that in
clined plane, having two of its fides parallel to the pidlure, the
others of courfe vanifh in S, perpendicular to j, the center of
the pidture. In this problem the fquare reprefented in the in
clined plane has its fides oblique to the pi6lure, and therefore
they vanifli to two points in fome new vanifliing line, h /, pa
rallel to the common one H L ; becaufe the interfedtion of the
inclined plane is parallel to the ground line.
Operation.— Draw, as ufual, G R the ground line, and
H L the horizon. Let s be the center, and d the dillance
of the pidture. Draw A B, one fide of the original fquare ;
make
( 24° )
make d V parallel to A B, the fule of the fqiiare ; and
draw J, V L, at right angles with ^V, then will V, V L, be
tlic vanilhing points of the fquare 4, /), 5, 6, on the level
ground. MakeA^M equal V i^, and LVw equal LV^; then
will 111 and M be the meafuring points of the vifuals tending to
V, V L. Thus far the pidlure is prepared only to rcprefent the
fquare on the level ground ; therefore we muft proceed to find
the vanifliing line, points, and meafuring points, of the inclined
plane, thus : — Draw perpendiculars at pleafure from V, and VL.
From M tlraw M i', in an angle to V M equal to the angle which
the inclined plane makes with the ground. Through v draw
h I parallel to H L, cutting the perpendiculars V ^' at v ; then
will 1? i; be the vanifliing points fought. Make v n equal v M,
and n will be the meafuring point fought. Draw then the vi
fuals 4 V and 4 ^' /. Make 4, 0, 4, r, equal to the fides of the ori
ginal fquare B A. From draw ;z, cutting at i; and from r
draw r/, cutting at 3. From 3 draw 3 1;, and from i draw ivl^
interfedting at 2 ; then will i, 2, 3,4, be the reprefentation of the
fquare propofed.
Obfervations.— The line /B pafles through the diagonal of
the original fquare, whofe fide is A B. Draw from d^ the difiance,
a line parallel to B /, cutting at g on the common horizon. From
4 draw a line to g, and it will pafs through the diagonal of the
fquare
J /6./'/ Z
S<fuaris i/i
we///?/"// p/tines .
JPlaff ly.
_ J
5
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y
7
1\' A^
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\ /I ' \ / ' \ y^
\ / / ' If ' \ y^
/A '/'^ \>r\ ^^
<f/^
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/ / \ / '^ K^''''^^ .Py — ^
^^^^ \
/y\ / '
H
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9^' ~^
y^y^^
^
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"^^ id
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1 / ^,,,'^ ^^
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1 i''X " ~^~^~^^
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^^;^ M^m
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 #
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TSIieralonnel.
J^li/7t£ti aj the Act </ireots, by (r. Terry. Mav rj!''t^^2
J.Barhw Scu^.
■( 241 )
fquare 4/>, 5, 6, lying on the level ground. Draw from g, a per
pendicular to g on the new horizon b L From 4 draw a line to
the uppermoft g^ and the line will pafs through the diagonal of
the fquare reprefented on the inclined plane ; which is a clear
demonftration of the truth of the whole.
The truth of the method may be proved, alfo, by drawing
a line from A to D, the diftance laid on from the new hori
zon bl\ for the line cuts the vifual at i, as in the other
method.
Prob. IX. Fig. ii. Plate XVII.
I'o find the Reprefentation of a Square^ fituated in a Plane oblique
both to the Ground and to the Pi&ure.. ^
This figure may, to the workman, appear intricate and
perplexed ; but he ought not to be difcouraged at the fight
of an afTemblage of lines, till, after having made a reafon
able attempt to underfland them, he finds , it not eafily at
tained. But it is to be noticed, that there are feveral more
lines than what are abfolutely neceiTary for reprefenting the
fquare fimply confidered ; becaufe I have fliown clilFerent me
thods to efFedt the fame thing; and becaUfe the' whole procefs
is fhown from firfl to laft, that the reader might have a clear
H h underftanding
( 242 )
iinderftanding of a problem really ufeful, but rarely known
amongft workmen, and even not amongft painters.
Operation. — Draw G R, the ground line, and II L, the ho
rizon, as iifual ; and make s the center of the piiSlure. Draw
s d perpendicular to H L ; and let d be the diftance of the pic
ture. Make the angle dv s equal to the angle which the fquare
in the inclined plane makes Avith the pidture; and draw fi?P at
right angles x.o dv\ and make v m owWL. equal v d. Draw at
pleafure mMo perpendicular to the horizon. Make vM to in
cline in an angle equal to that which the original plane makes
with the ground. Draw M, V x parallel to the horizon ; and from
V .v, draw V x, i;, which will be the vanifliing line of the inclined
plane. From the center j, draw s S, dx perpendicular to the va
nifliing line y, V x. From s, draw a line to d j, parallel to t; S
Y X. Extend the compafTes from S to d i, and make S, d x,
equal to S, fi? i ; then will Sydx he the dillance of the picture for
the inclined plane. Make V x,»2 2, equal V x, dx, and m z will
be the meafuring point.
The pidlure being thus prepared for delineating the fquare,
draw from A, the vifual A ^^ ; and from A, the vifual A, V .r.
Draw AX parallel to the vanifliing line t;, SV,a;. Lay on, from
A to Wf a fpace equal to the fide of the fquare ; and from w,
draw w, m 2, cutting at D. From D, draw a line to i', for the fide
I of
( 243 )
of the fqnare D B. Make alfo A N equal to the fide of the
fquare ; and draw N m^ cutting at G ; and laftly, draw G V a",
cutting at B ; and the fquare will be completed as required.
Method fecond. — From A, fweep the arch /^K, whofe radius
is equal to the fide of the fquare to be reprefented. Draw A u
equal to the angle of the inclined plane with the ground ; and
from Zif, draw u t parallel to the ground line ; from t draw a vi
fual to P ; and from u, draw u M, cutting at D ; from A draw a
line through the interfedtion of uM with f P, and produce this
line till it find the vanifliing point V.r in the perpendicular PV.
From D draw a line to v, as before ; and laftly, from G, found
as before, draw G V .r, cutting at B, and the fquare will be
completed, as in the other method.
Obfervations. — If the original plane irfciined to the ground
in an angle of fortyfive degrees, the vifual line of the fide of
the fquare A D would pafs through the diagonal of the fquare
A, /^, n, 8, and tend to the upper V, the vanifliing point in that
cafe ; and V v would then be the vanifliing line, S would be the
center of the picture, m the meafurmg point, and <f 3 its diftance,
and v^dSyQ, would be the angle of the inclined jDlane, which is
the diagonal of a fquare v,d3^Q,7;2. It is evident then, that
the true reprefentation of a fquare in any inclination, wduld
H h 2 defcribe
C 244 ),
defcribe a quadrant of a circle, whofe radius would be the fide
of the fquare reprefented, as the figure fliows.
N. B. No. I is the fame problem, diverted of all lines but
fuch as are abfolutely necefTary to its reprefentation ; which, it
is prefumed, will be readily underftood by infpedtion, after what
has been faid on Fig. 11. See page 224.
Prob. X. Fig. 12. Plate XVIII.
To reprefent a Floor of Squares parallel to the FiHiire.
G R is the ground line, and H L the horizon.
Let s be the center, and d the dillance of the, pidure.
Let it now be required to reprefent thirtylix fquares.
Operation. — Lay A D, the fide of the original fquare, fix
times on the ground line G R, contained between A i*, as the
figure fhows. Draw from each divifion on the ground line
vifuals to 5 ; and from h^ draw a line to d^ the diftance ;
which line will cut each vifual in i^k^l^p^q^r. Through the
feveral
^A^."/7 /"^■■''
^h/'fs &/yysms.
J^/aAf J,9
T Sl<rrali,iil)<:l
UrM/Zicr/ c^.r t/i, Acf r/lWr^s [fV t?.T,rrv. Jjf7/F I'i . 1/^92
( 245 )
feveral points of interfedilion marked by thefe letters, draw
lines parallel to G R, the ground line, and there will be pror
duced the number of fquares required. But if it be neceflary to
fill up the picture with thefe fquares, and there be no room for
laying A D on the ground line beyond >6, then continue the laft
parallel line r o a b c the whole extent of the pi6ture ; and take
a equal to the fide of the fquare, and repeat it a, b^ c, as may be
neceflary. From i, draw s b, produced forward to the ground
line. In the fame manner draw s c forward, and fo on re
peatedly. Then, laftly, draw parallel lines from the former
fquares, by which means the pidture will be filled up to the
fides.
Obfervations. — The diagonal line hd pafles through the
oppofite angles of the large fquare A, r, a^ b, which includes
all the other ; and a line through the oppofite angles of
any of the fmall fquares, will alfo tend to the fame point of
diftance d.
6/
( 246 )
ti
Of the Reprejentation of Rectangular Solids in different Pofitioni
to the Pi&ure.
Prob.XI. Fig. 12. Plate XVIII.
To reprefent a Row of Cubes ^ or a Prifm^ parallel to the PiHure.
Operation. — The ground line, horizon, &c. remaining
the fame as for the floor of fquares, draw A, B, C, D, a geome
trical fquare, equal to one fide of the cube. Draw the vifuals
A J, B J", C J", D J. From D, draw D o', cutting at i. Draw 1,2,
parallel to the ground line, cutting T> s at 2. From 2 raile a
perpendicular, cutting C J in 5 ; from i raife a perpendicular to
4, cutting Bj in 4. Laftly, from 4 draw a line to 5, parallel to
the ground line, or to BC; and the reprefentation of the firft
cube will be completed. Next, from 2 draw 2^, cutting at 3;
draw 3, 8, cutting D j in 8 ; from 8 draw 8^, and it will find the
bafe of the fecond cube ; and repeating every thing as in the firft
cube, any number of them may be drawn till they vanifli in
the point s.
Obfervations. — If a number of cubes, or prifms, are to be
reprefented in various places on the picture, it will be done
with
( 247 )
with the moft eafe, fiift, to reprefent a floor of fquares equal to
the fide of the cubes, or bafe of the prifms. Thus, for in
flance, the prifm r is eafily delineated on the back part of the
picture, by raifing a perpendicular M N equal to the oi iginal
height of the prifm. Draw N J", and from any fquare where
it is to ftand, raife perpendiculars cutting Nj at r. From r
draw a line parallel to the ground line, which will complete
the prifm. In like manner the cube ki may be reprefented any
where.
Laftly, we may fee, in the reprefentation of a cube, that it
confifls of three different cafes of geometrical fquares ; that is,
A,D, 1, 2, is the reprefentation of a fquare lying on the ground ;
and 1,4,5,2, is the reprefentation of a fquare perpendicular to
the ground, and parallel to the picture: and D,C, 5, 2, is a fquare
reprefented both perpendicular to the ground and to the pic
ture. The other three fides of the cube are refpedlively parallel
to thofe we have mentioned, and therefore are the fame in all
refpedls.
Prob.
( 248 )
Prob. XII. Fig. 13. Plate XVIII.
To reprefent tivo Rozvs of Cubes oblique to the Pi&ure.
Operation. — GR is the ground line, and HL the hori
zon. Let s be the center of the pidlure, and s d the diftance.
From d^ draw d V, cutting H L in V, and parallel to that fide of
the original cube ; whofe reprefentation is A B C g. Draw
dv 2X right angles with ^V, cutting at v\ then will v be the
vanifhing point of the right hand fide of the fquare. Make
VM equal V^, and vm equal vd\ then will M m be the mea
furing points. From A, the angle of the firft cube, draw the
vifual A V. Draw alfo A V. Make A B equal to the fide of the
cvibe, and from B draw B V, B i;. Next, \3c^ A B to 7, and from
7 draw a line to the meafuring point m^ cutting at a. Lay A B
to c ; and from c draw c M, cutting at g ; from g and a raife
perpendiculars to C and D ; from D draw a line to V, and from
C to V, which will complete the reprefentation of the firft
cube.
The fpace between the cubes being confidered equal to the
fide of the fquare, repeat A 7 each way on the ground line, as
often as there is room, as at 8, 9 — d, e,f. From each of thefe
divifions
( 849 ,)
clivilions draw lines to their refpecStive meafuring points in M,
cutting Kv'xwb and in 2, and AV in hik. Raife perpendicvilars
from b and 2, cutting the upper vifuals. Do the fame from the
other points h i k, and proceed in all refpedls as with the firft
cube, and there will be two more produced.
. Obfervation^.— If it. were required to veprefpnt fwo ^di
jtional cubes to each row, it is eyicjent that we mu^ h^ve recoyrfe
to fome expedient for this pu.rppfe ; bec^iufe Jhere :i§ not ropnii
beyond 9 and /to I9.7 on: any more divifions. Thecefbre from a
produce a line parallel to the ground hne, and from /^ do the
fame. And obfervie, that a line from 8 to w, and. from e to M,
(PUt thefe parallel lines at « and i, ; Ejitend the compafles from i
to 2, and repeat this at 5, 4, g, 6^ and from thefe diyifions draw
lines to m, and they will cut the vifual Av ia the fame points
in which it would have been cut if thefe lines had been drawn
from the original divifions on the ground line. Laftly, a line
from ^ to M will cut thjn left hand parallel gt/?;; repeat nk zt
pqr^ and proceed as before. By this method, which is quite
(imple, it is evident we m^y draw as many cubes as we pleafe,
by adding parallel lines to the ground line.
ii Of
( 250 )
Of drawing Vtjual Lines tending to Vanijhing Points out of
the Pi&iire.
In the pra(Slice of drawing it is frequently found, by expe
rience, that if we make ufe of a fhort diftance, the figure we
reprefent will appear diftorted and unnatural ; and w hen we,
to avoid this, make ufe of a long diftance, it will perhaps ex
ceed the paper or picfture we draw on : alfo, in the reprefenta
tion of objedls obliquely fituated to the pidlure, their vanilhing
points not being in the center, it often follows, as the confe
quence of choofing a long diftance, that the vanifhing points
far exceed the limits of the pidlure. To alleviate thefe difficul
ties, we propofe the following problem.
Prob. XIII. Fig. 14. Plate XVIII.
'To reprefent two upright Prifms obliquely Jituated^ whofe Difianee
and Vanijhing Points exceed the Limits of the Pi&ure.
Let the double line on each fide of Fig. 14 be confidered
as the boundaries of the pi^ure. Draw, as ufual, the ground
line G R, and the vanifhing line H L, and make s the center of
6 the
( 251 )
the pidlure. Let sdhe confidered as only half the diftance, be
caiife there is no more fpace on the picture above d. From
the point d^ draw a right line each way, at a diftance from
J, equal s d, forming a right angle ; becaufe the fides of the
prifms are originally perpendicular to each other. Make v m
equal v d; then would m be the true meafuring point, provided
sd were the whole diftance of the picture ; and in this cafe vv
would be the vanifliing points of the fides of the prifms ; but
fince sdis only half the real diftance, take in the compafles j m,
and repeat that fpace to M, and make sM^s M, equal, then will
M M be the true meafuring points to the whole diftance. Pro
duce the vertical line ds to A, cutting the ground line at A.
Divide s d into any number of equal parts, as i, 2, 3, 4, and, for
the fake of accuracy, fubdivide thefe as in the figure. Lay on
the fame divifions downwards from s to A.
The next thing to be confidered, is to draw a line perpen
dicular to the horizon, of fuch a proportion to s d, at any given
diftance from j, the center, according to the boundaries of the
picture, that when a line is drawn from d, touching the top of
the faid perpendicular, it would exa6tly tend to the true vanifliing
point, were it produced to the horizontal line. We fliall fuppofe
then, that a perpendicvilar line is drawn from the point v, which
is exadlly half the diftance from j the center, to V the vanilhing
I i 2 point
( 352 )
point out of the pi£lure. Make then the faid perpendicular line
*> 4, half the length of sd\ then a line pafhng from t/ to 4 would,
if produced, terminate at V, the true vanifliing point. Divide
<y,4 in the fame manner as sd^ iand downwards from <y to ^ lay
6n. the fame divifions ; for v 3 is half the length of s A* Laftly,
rnake the other fcale on the left in the fame proportion, then
will the picture be properly prepared for delineating the pro
pofed prifms.
Operation. — From A draw a linfe to 3, which will be the
•vilbal fdf the bottoms i>f the prifms, for A 3 produced would
tend to V. Make A c equal to the diftance which the prifm is
fuppofed to be from the pidlure ; then, from c, draw a line to
Mj Cutting at p ; from /> lay a ruler dctx)fs the two fcale lines,
and move the ruler backward and forward till its edge coincide
with />, and any correfpondent divifion on each fcale. The ruler
being thus fixed, draw a line p b^ cutting tlie fcale line j A in
the fecond divifion, an<l the fcale line 1^ 3 to the left in the
fame divifion ; then would p b produced terminate in a point on
the horizon equally diftant from i as V is. Make A a equal to
the left fide of the prifm, and draw a M, cutting at b. Make
€ e equal A a ; and from c draw a line to M, cutting at h. From
the points p^ b, h, raife perpendiculars at pleafure.
Confider
( 253 )
Conlider now the height of the prifm, which we fnppofe
to be A B; from B place the edge of the ruler, and move it till it
be at fimilar divifions on each fcale line, as before. The ruler
being in this pofition, draw a line cutting the perpendicular/) D
at D ; and from D, place the ruler till it coincide with fimilar
divifions on each fcale line on the left, which will complete the
reprefentation of the firft prifm ; and for the fecond, proceed
in the fame way, obferving that, as there is not room on the
ground line G R for repeating the fide of the prifm c e, the
fcale line, or new ground line h i k, muft be found, as in the
preceding problem, by drawing through b a line parallel to the
old ground line, cutting at g^ then muft the fpace h g be laid
to / and ^, from which lines being direcfled to M, they will cut
at lo.
Obfervations. — In Problem XXI. page 71, Plate II. Fig. 15,
the geometrical principle is explamed, upon which this method
of drawing vifuals to points out of the picture is founded.
We there fay, in page 72, *' In whatever proportion the
extreme line E P is divided, into the fame proportion will the
hypothenufe line EO be divided." Agreeably to which, we
may obferve in the perfpe6tive problem before us, that, in
whatever proportion the diftance s d is divided, a line being
drawn from the faid divifion parallel to the horizon, will cut
5 the
( 254 )
tlie vifual dY in that fame proportion. The Hne s d being di
vided into two equal parts, a hne from 2, parallel to the hori
zon, will cut at 4, which divides the vifual d V into two equal
parts ; and a line from the point 4, perpendicular to the hori
zon, will divide s V in the fame manner. Hence it is evident,
that a s d^ V 4, be divided into the fame number of equal parts,
a line drawn throvigh any two correfpondent divifions, will tend
to V, the vanifhing point. It is alfo evident, by the fame mode of
reafoning, that if the half diftance s d were prodiiced to twice its
prefent length, which woiUd then be the whole diftance, a line
from ^ to V would be equal to the fpace from V to M, on the
left the true meafuring point, in the fame manner as di) mea
fures V in^ which is only half that fpace.
Of reducing the Point of Difiance, fo as to bring it within the
Limits of the PiHure.
In making defigns on a large fcale, it is very common for
the point of diftance to exceed the bounds of the paper or board
we draw on : to avoid the inconvenience of which, let the fol
lowing problem be attended to.
Prob.
C 255 )
PROB.XIV. Fig. 15. Plate XVIII.
To find the Reprefentation of a Number of Squares when the Dif
tance is out of the Limits of the Picture.
The double lines which include the fquares, are the boun
daries of the paper, board, or picture we draw on.
Operation. — Let s be the center, and let sdhe fuppofed half
the length of the point of diftance. Make then a fcale on the
ground line, whofe equal parts fhall be equal to half the fide of
the fquares to be reprefented, as 3, 4, 5. Lay on from 3 to 4
half the fide of the fquare A, and from 4 draw a line to d^ half
the diftance, which will cut the vifual 3 J in the fame point as
it would have been cut if d had been twice its prefent diftance
from J, and the whole fide of the fquare had been laid on the
ground line, as at 5 ; for it is evident, that a line from 5 through
/ would terminate in a point on the horizon twice the diftance
of sd. From 4 lay on 5, 6, equal 3, 4, and drawing lines to d,
Ave fhall have the fquares B C. Here the learner muft obferve
another difficulty arifing ; for the ground line of the picture is
filled up at 6, and we are fvippofed to want the reprefentation
of three more fquares ; and as the point 6 is near the extremities
of
( 256 )
of the pidlure or board we draw on, there can be no opportunity
to lay on the fides of the fquare any further; we muft again
therefore reduce the length of the point of diftance to />, which
is only one fourth of the whole diftance ; in proportion to
which we muft alfo reduce the fcale on the ground line to one
fourth of the fide of the fquare, as i, 2; or, which is the fame
thing, divide the fpace 5, 6, into two equal parts, and from 6, 0, 5
draw lines to h^ and three more fquares will be cut off on the
vifual line 3, j, as is evident from the figure.
Obfervations. — The truth of the reprefentation of the three
laft fquares will appear, if the whole fpace between 3 and 6 be
placed from 6 to 9. Draw then from 9 a line to </, which will
cut the vifual in the fame points as before, when a line was
drawn from 6 to h.
The advantage of this problem is very much experienced in
the reprefentation of long ranges of buildings, fuch as the in
ternal views of ftreets ; in which cafe it is impoflible to find room
on the ground line for the full meafurement of each front, not
even when we have a very large board to draw on. I remember
to have been very much embanafl^ed myfelf in drawing th^
view of a long ftreet, till I was informed of the above methods.
SECTION
,0^
y "25.pi 2
Pclvocnal ficjiires .
noit/a
Tllxial,,, M
/'Mlj/,J a.r lA^X/ Jr^/. A t:7hr, [u^^il^tft.
( 257 )
SECTION IV.
Of the reprefentations of Polygonal and Curvilinear Figures — con
taining fome further Remarks on the Difference between the Re
prefentation of ObjeBs on a Plane^ and their real Appearance to
the Eye. — Of long and Jhort Dijlances, and the Reprefentation of
<i Row of Columns and PilaJierSy parallel to the Pi&ure ; to
gether with fome Obfervations on the "Theory of Circular
Obje&s.
Of Polygonal Figures,
Lines in three different pofitions to the pi(5lure, will re
prefent any polygon in any lituation whatever *.
A pentagon may have one fide parallel to the picSlure ; and
if fo, the other four will be oblique to it ; or it may be placed
fo as to have all its fides oblique.
* See the definition in page 49, and the various kinds of polygons in Plate II.
K k A hexagon
( 258 )
A hexagon may be fo placed as to have two fides parallel,
and the other four oblique, as Fig. i6, Plate XIX. or it may have
all its fides oblique.
An odtagon may have two fides parallel to the pi6ture,
confequently there will alfo be two perpendicular to it, and
the remaining four will be each of them oblique, as Fig. i8,
Plate XIX. The odtagon in this fituation, therefore, introduces
all the variety of pofitions of lines that can exift in a picture,
when the figure is fuppofed to be on the ground plane, or per
pendicular to the picture ; and fince the theory of lines parallel,
perpendicular, and oblique to the ground line, &zc. has already
been confidered and applied to pra<Stice in the preceding fedtion,
in the reprefentation of geometrical fquares and of cubes, no
thing is requifite here, but to apply the fame principles to the
reprefentation of polygonal figures.
The moft ufeful of thefe are the hexagon and odtagon;
which, for brevity's fake, I fhall confine myfelf to, taking, it
for granted that, after the learner is acquainted with thefe, he
will be able to delineate any othei, from a pentagon to a duo
decagon, as it may be found requifite.
Prob.
( 259 )
Prob. XV. Fig. i6. Plate XIX.
To reprefent a Hexagon having Two of its Sides parallel to
the PiBure.
Operation. — Draw the ground line and horizon, and make
J the center of the pi6ture, and d the diftance. Throvigh d, draw
a line at pleafure parallel to the horizon. From d defcribe a fe
micircle, in which may be infcribed half a hexagon, as i, 2, 3.
From £/, through each angle of the hexagon, produce a line till
it cut the horizontal line in V "y ; then will V i; be the vanifliing
points of the four fides of the hexagon, which are oblique to
the piaure. Draw the vifuals F <y, B "u, and B V, F V, and make
B D and FA each equal F B, the fide of the given hexagon. Draw
A V, cutting the vifuals at i K ; and draw^ D i\ cutting at O N.
Laftly, draw K N parallel to F B, and the reprefentation will be
completed as required.
Obfervations.— It is evident that a hexagon is compofed of
fix equilateral triangles. The reprefentation contains fix tri
angles alfo ; and if a right line be drawn through each oppofite
angle, as from F N, &c. they will all interfedt in the center ^,
in the fame manner as the lines from each oppofite angle on the
K k 2 plan
( 260 )
plan of the hexagon Y interfe6l each other in the true center,
from which a circle may be defcribed that will touch each
angle.
Prob. XVI. Fig. 17. Plate XIX.
To find the Reprefentation of a hexangular Prifm^ or Box, having
two Sides parallel to the Figure, as before.
This problem may be folved by another method, which
will help to confirm the truth of the laft method.
Operation. — Draw the plan Y, and produce its fides up to
the ground line at g,f b, c. Find the vanifliing points v V as in
the preceding problem. Draw the vifuals g^^f V, and bv, cv,
which will interfecSt each other at a, e, t. Through e the cen
ter, correfponding with e on the plan, draw h u parallel to 7, r,
on the plan. From v, draw v h, produced to ; and from V,
draw V z/, produced to n. Laftly, from n draw ;z 0, which
will complete the bottom of the box. Or it may be done by
drawing the vifuals 8 V, 7 V, when the other vifuals are drawn,
as the figure itfelf fufficiently indicates. From each angle of
the bottom perpendiculars muft be raifed, and produced at
pleafure. Next, draw gp perpendicular to the ground line, and
make
( 26i )
make gp equal to the height of the box ; and draw p V, and
produce n, o to /; and from / draw i k^ and from k draw a line
parallel to the ground line, which will cut the aforefaid per
pendiculars drawn from o, ;z, at i, 6. The perpendiculars from
h, a, were cut by /> V at 2, 3. Draw 6 V, and i V, cutting the
perpendiculars from u and / at 5, 4 ; from 5 draw 5 v^ and from
4 draw 4, 3, and the outlines of the box will then be com
pleted.
To fliew the infide, and the thicknefs of the edges of the
box, proceed thus : — produce from the plan, x w, and from iv
draw a line to V, cutting / ; from its interfedtion in / 0, raife a
perpendicular to /■ i ; and from its fedtion on k i, draw a line to
V ; and where this line cuts the diagonal 2, 5, a line muft be
drawn from v, the vanifliing point, to 9, the point of inter
fetftion, and produced till it cut the diagonal i, 4, at i ; and from
where it cuts this diagonal, draw a parallel to 1,6; and from
where it cuts at 6, draw a line to V ; and from where this line
cuts at 5, draw a line to ^', cutting 4; and from where it cuts
at 4, draw a line to the other interfedtion at 3, and the edges of
each angle will be finiflied.
Obfervations. — ^The hexagon in this figure is nearly the
fame in its plan as the other in Fig. 16 ; but as it is removed
back from the pidlure, its appearance is more eafy and natural
than
( 262 )
than that. The hexagon in Fig. i6 has one fide, F B, in the
pidlure, therefore F B is the full length of the fide of the ori
ginal hexagon, and the contradtions of the other fides appear
more fudden, and therefore more unnatural ; but its repre
fentation is equally true. The hexagon may, however, be re
prefented by this method as far back as we pleafe, by repeated
ly laying F B, the fide of the hexagon, on the ground line, as
from D to E, and drawing E v, by which means we have
another hexagon i, 2, 3, 4, K, Z, whofe appearance is perfedtly
natural.
PROB. XVII. Fig. 18. Plate XIX.
To Jind the Reprejentation of an Ociagon, having two Sides
parallel to the Pi&ure.
Operation. — Draw GR, the ground line, and HL as in
common ; and make j" d the diftance of the pidlure, and s the
center. Draw half the plan of the odlagon at A, as follows. —
Make b g equal to half the breadth of the plan ; and from c
fweep the arch b^ /, e. Bife£t the arch in /. From / draw / c,
cutting at p^ and^^ will be half the fide of the o6lagon. Lay
on bp to b I, and a line from /> to i is one fide of the odagon.
7 Produce
( 263 )
Produce each fide of the 0(5tagoii up to the ground line ; and
from the points/, 8, i, b^ draw vifuals to j". From 8 draw a hne
to 4 cutting at 7 ; from i draw a hne to d alfo, cutting at 6.
From 7 and 6 draw hues parallel to the ground line, cutting at
2, 3. Draw fdy paffing through the diagonal of the fquare in
which the odtagon is infcribed. Draw 4, 5, parallel to the ground
line. Laftly, draw the fides i, 2, — 3, 4 — 4, 5 — 5, 6, and 7, 8 ;
which completes the reprefentation.
Prob. XVIII. Fig. 19, Plate XIX.
To find the Reprefentation of an o&angular Prifm^ or BoXy
having all its Sides oblique to the Picture.
Operation. — Draw the ground line and horizon, and let
figure A be half the plan of the odlagon. Let s be the center,
and d the diftance of the pi<Sture. Produce n e, n p^ to the
ground line ; and draw g perpendicular to e. From b, g, i, R,
draw vifuals to s ; and from R draw R d; by which a fquare
will be reprefented in which the odtagon may be infcribed.
Draw the other diagonal of the fquare, which will cut the
vifual g J in 8 ; the other diagonal R dy cuts the vifual g s in 6.
From
( 264 )
From 6 draw a parallel to 4, cutting the diagonal at 4; and from
8 draw a parallel to 2, cutting the diagonal at 2 ; through the
center of the fquare draw a parallel, cutting at 7 and 3. Laftly,
draw right lines to each point, and the bottom of the box will
be completed.
Draw A F parallel to G R, and at a diftance from G R
equal to the height of the box. Then reprefent another
fquare A, F, G, D, and draw the diagonal each way. Then
from 8 raife a perpendicular to 10, cutting the diagonal A D
at 10. In the fame manner, and to the fame effecft, raife a
perpendicular from 6 to 11, from 5 to 13, from 4 to 14, from 3
to 15, from 2 to 16, from i to 0, and laftly, from 7 to 12.
Draw then, as before, right lines to each point, and the whole
reprefentation of the box will be finiflied, except fliewing the
infide and the edges of the box : having defcribed how this is to
be done in Problem XVI, I need not here repeat it ; only it will
be neceftary to obferve, that as the fides of the oilagon are
drawn by this method without vanifliing points, thefe points
muft be found by producing the fides of the odtagon till they
cvTt the horizontal line H L, in the fame way as the fide 15, 14,
is produced to v, which will be the vanifhing point required for
drawing the infide line to, as the figure fliews.
Some
( ^65 )
Some further Remarks on the Difference between the Reprefenta
tion of ObjeBs on a Plane^ and their Appearance to the Eye,
We have already, in page 210, obferved, that a perfedl
pi(Slure of objedls, as they appear to the eye, cannot be deline
ated on a plane ; we may conceive it to be done on the furface
of a fphere, if the fpedator's eye be in its center. But this is
only a fuppofition ; for, in reality, there can be no ftri^l rules
given for drawing perfpedlive lines on a fpherical furface. A
painter, in delineating objedls on the infide of a large dome,
may make ufe of flraight lines, and the rules of perfpe6live, as
applied to a plane ; but he does this, becaufe he perceives that
the dome being exceedingly large, and the objedt but fmall, the
fpace which the faid objedt occupies on the dome is nearly a
level furface; and therefore common perfpe6live comes near
enough to the truth for drawing that fingle object.
But if the objed: be large, and the dome fmall, nothing of
this fort can be applied.
Mr. Kirby has, indeed, propofed a method to draw per
fpedive reprefentations upon vaulted roofs and domes ; and, for
L 1 any
( 266 )
any thing I know, it is as good a method as can be adopted ; yet
it cannot be called perfedt, much lefs a fyftem of linear per
fpe<5tive applicable to fpherical furfaces *.
But the ordinary rules of perfpedlive applied to a plane is a
perfedt fyftem, as it relates to the reprefentation of objecSts ac
cording to their real appearance on a tranfparent plane inter
pofed between the eye and the original figure of any thing :
for the tranfparent plane, in this cafe, is a feflion of the rays of
light coming from the obje£l to the eye ; which fe<5tion is there
fore an infallible and moft perfe6l perfpecftive reprefentation of
the original figure on a plane ; but it is not fo perfecSt to the
eye, becaufe the eye is globular.
Perfpedlive then, as it refpe<5ts the appearance of objefts on
a plane, is perfe<St, and its rules are ftridlly mathematical ; but
as it refpe<5ls the appearance of thofe objedts to the eye, it is a
deception, and is therefore liable to defedts and imperfections,
as every other deceptive art is, owing to various circumftances de
pending on the management of the artift. Thefe diftindtions have
not been fufficiently attended to by fome, which has therefore
been the occafion of fome difputes on this fubjedt not well founded.
* As this fubjedt is foreign to my purpofe, and not likely to be of ufe to thofe perfons
1 wi(h to ferve in this work, 1 ftiall not enter upon it ; but if the reader choofe, he may
confult the third fedlion, page 74, of the above gentleman's book.
8 Hence
( 267 )
Hence it has been faid, by a certain writer, that a row of
cohimns, or cylinders, cannot be reprefented parallel to the
pi<5ture, without producing a clumfy and bad effedt, if they be
drawn according to the flri6t rules of perfpedtive ; for then
thofe columns which are furtheft from the center will be the
largeft, which ought rather to be the fmalleft, according to their
appearance to the eye. But this depends on circumftances, and
is not a fufficient reafon for charging the rules of perfpedlive
with fallity, or even a defeat, unlefs the laws of this art ob
liged us always to choofe a very fliort diftance ; and that, when
we view a picture, we muft ncceflarily hold our nofe clofe to it,
before we can be a judge of the merit of perfpedlive.
From pretty much the fame principles another gentleman,
who writes on this fubje(5l, gives us an inftance of the imper
feftions of perfpedlive, by reprefenting a geometrical fquare,
with a very fliort diftance, which occafions the fquare to look
too long one way, which he therefore terms a falfe reprefenta
tion, though he has obferved the ftridt rules of perfpedtive.
Yet I will venture to fay, having made the experiment, that if
this gentleman had placed his eye perpendicular to the center of
the pidlure, and at a diftance from it equal to that by which he
drew the fquare, he would not have difcerned any bad effe£t
even in that which he calls a falfe reprefentation. But that the
learner may have a proper view of this fubje(a, I fliall firft re
L 1 2 prefent
( 268 )
prefent a row of columns as they appear to the eye ; ancl, fecond
ly, reprefent the fame row as they appear on a plane, by which
the learner will fee the difference between Mr. Kirby and Mr. Mal
ton's opinions on the fubjed;. And, thirdly, w^e fliall lliow the
aforefaid row of columns on a plane, having the advantage of a
long diftance, which, in this cafe, is recommended both by
Malton and Noble ; the eifeil of which being a proof that we
may abide by the ftridl rules of perfpe<5live in delineating a row
of columns, or any other cylindrical objedt, and that more
pleafant to the eye than when they are reprefented according
to Mr. Kirby's opinion and definition of perfpecStive, which is,
" to draw the reprefentations of objects as they appear to the
eye." See page 94 of his Treatife on Perfpedlive.
Firft, to dehneate a row of columns according to Mr. Kirby's
definition.
Of the Reprefent at ion of a Range of equidiflant Columns parallel
to the Pi&ure.
First, Let I, K, L, M, Plate XX. Fig. 20, be confidered as a
horizontal fedtion of the four columns A, B, C, D ; and let the
arch 1,2,3,4, ^c. be the fedion of a fpherical picflure, and d
the diltance of the eye from the pidure, then will s be its cen
ter.
jL(/mr/ist/ifi / Co litmus
J'l^t^.2<:>.
r.'y,r^„y, //,/
S^U^/^f^.
/itfi/t/?t^^/ >z.''r/,'Ac( .Jtfff.t ^> <^.7lfry . J?e<'''2if ^^^2 .
( 269 )
ter. Draw from the apparent diameters of each column vif\ial
lines to d\ and where thefe rays cut the arch at i, 2, 3, 4, &c.
will be the reprefentation of the diameters of the four columns
as they appear to the eye. Thefe diameters and their inter
columns, or fpaces between, muft now be transferred to a level
plane or picture, as in No. i. Draw a hne AB, and take 1,2,
from Fig. 20, and place it at i, 2, No. 1 ; then take 2, 3 from
Fig. 20, and place it to 2, 3, No. i, and fo of all the others.
Draw perpendiculars from each number, and flnifli them, as
exhibited in the figure, and they will be the reprefentations of
the four columns A, B, C, D, as they appear to the eye.
Secondly, We fliall now reprefent the fame columns as they
appear on a plane, having the fame center and diftance as
before. Draw the line PP, Fig. 20, parallel to the four columns,
which will be the fedtion of the picture ; and fince the vifual
rays from each column were drawn before, the reprefentations
of the apparent diameters of the faid columns on a plane will
be at ab^c e,fg, h i. Transfer thefe diameters and their inter
columns to No. 2, as the figure fhews ; then will A, B, C, D, be
the appearance of the four original columns at Fig. 20, on the
plane of the pi(Slure, according to the ftrid; rules of per
Ijpedlive..
Now
( 270 )
Now the queflion is, Which of thefe reprefentations are
moft alike to the originals in Fig. 20 ? If the reader will place
his eye perpendicular over A, the center column in each repre
fentation, and look through his hand at a diftance equal dSy
Fig. 20, 1 believe he will be able to determine for himfelf ; never
thelefs it may be proper to offer fome remarks by way of aflift
ing his inquiries. And, firft.
We may obferve that the whole fpace which includes the
columns at No. 2, is confiderably nearer the length of the ori
ginals at Fig. 20, than the fpace which No. i includes. The
intercolumns are nearer alike at No. 2 than they are at No. i.
And, laftly, if we look fteadily through our hand as above di
rected, we fliall find that, at No. 2, the apparent thicknefs of
the column D will be greatly reduced, and that of C will be
alfo reduced, and both in proportion to their diftance from the
center, fo that there will not be much difference in the thicknefs
of each. But if we look in the fame manner at No. i, we fhall
find the reprefentation appear worfe, for D C will appear fmaller
than they are reprefented. The reafon is obvious, for the rays
of light by which vifion is performed, being confiderably ob
lique at the column D and C, the optic angles which they fub
tend are much lefs than thofe fubtended by A and B, as Fig. 20
clearly demonftrates; for the rays G d^Hd^ are more oblique to
the
( ^71 )
the pidure PP than the rays N«', Od; therefore we fee that the
arch 7, 8 is lefs than the arch 5, 6, and fo of the reft in pro
portion.
The figure alfo demonftrates, that when thefe vifual rays
are cut by a plane P P, parallel to the original columns, the ef
fecSl is reverfed ; for then the reprefentative diameters will in
creafe as they decline from the center j, yet the optic angles
under which they are feen remain the fame as before, when
the vifual rays were cut by a fpherical pi<Slure at i, 2 —
3,4, &c.
Hence it is evident, that the diameter d /, viewed by an eye
at d, would not appear larger than the diameter 7, 8 on the arch»
Wherefore the true reprefentations of the original range of co
lumns as they would appear on a tranfparent plane, interpofed
between the fpe6tator's eye and the faid original columns, are
at No. 2, not at No. i, for that is their reprefentation on a fphere,
as they appear to the eye, anfwering to Mr. Kirby's definition of
perfpedtive, though this is not what he means to recommend in
practice ; for he fays, page 97, " that they" (meaning a range of
cquidiftant columns) " fhould be fo reprefented as not to offend
" the eye of a common obferver ;" by which he means they
fhould be drawn of one thicknefs, and at equal diftances. How
far the reprefentation at No. i, which is according to his defini
tion.
( 272 )
tion, will agree to this, I will leave to the judgment of the
reader, and fhall proceed to Ihew how thefe columns may be
reprefented, according to the ftridl; rules of perfpedtive, fo as to
appear of one thicknefs, and at equal diftances.
We have hitherto fuppofed the eye of the fpedator at ^,
viewing the original columns A, B, C, D, Fig. 20, in which fitu
ation the vifual ray H dy from the fartheft column D, and the
eye's axis d j, form an angle of fiftyfour degrees ; and fince s i
is but half the pidture, the whole would be feen under an
angle of one hundred and eight degrees, which is far too great
for viewing any picture ; for the eye at d cannot take in a
fpace twice the length of j /, without being ftrained and
twifted.
To convince the learner of the truth of this, let him take a
pair of compafles and extend them from d to j, and placing one
foot on the column A, at No. 2, let the other foot keep his right
eye from A, exa6tly at the diftance of their opening, equal ds.
Obferve, the compafs foot muft nearly touch the right eye, or
the experiment will not be fo ftriking. The eye beiflg thus placed,
experience will teach him that he cannot fee the column D at
No. 1 without twilling his eye ; and at the fame time he will
fee, as we faid before, that the columns will be nearly equal in
thicknefs. But if the eye d, at Fig. 22, be removed back to E,
the
( 273 )
the whole pi6lure will be feen with eafe, for it will only fub
tend an angle of fortyeight degrees ; and at this diftance, the
vifual rays being not fo oblique to the picture as before, they
will cut it nearly at equal diftances from each other, as is de
noted by the afterifms ■'•■ *, where the dotted rays cut PP. The
good effedl produced on the pidure P P, by choofing E for the
diftance, is clearly demonftrated by Fig. 21, which exhibits the
fame row of columns drawn by the diftance E.
Thus: — Mak.es d, Fig. 21, half the fpace of Ex, Fig. 20;
becaufe there is not room for the whole diftance on the
plate. From s draw sA perpendicular to H L. Draw GR
as a groimd line, and proceed as before to lay on the
fpaces marked by the afterifms * *, Fig. 20, on the line
P P. Draw then the vifuals from A, B, D, C, as the figure
Ihews. From i, Fig. 23, draw a line to 4 cutting A j in 2.
Through 2 draw a line parallel to G R, cutting the vifuals ; by
which will be reprefented four geometrical fquares, in which
the bafes of each column will be infcribed. Laftly, from the
circles contained in each fquare, draw the fliafts, and finifli
them as in the figure. Now let the reader place his eye per
pendicular over s, and at a diftance from s equal twice sd; then
1 am perfuaded he will fay, that a common obferver would
pronounce the columns of equal thicknefs, and their inter
columns cquidiftant, although they are reprefented according
M m to
( 274 )
to the Ih i(ftcft rules of perfpe<flive ; which Mr. Kirby thinks we
miirt not abitle by in this cafe.
Before I conchide this head, it may be proper to take
fome notice of the reprefentation of a row of equidiftant pi
lallcrs.
A little reflection will make it evident, that the reprefenta
tion of a row of pilafters parallel to the picture, are not fubjed:
to thofe awkward appearances which columns are, owing to a
Ihort diftance. For,
Let the dark line 9, 10, on the column D, Fig. 20, be a pi
lafter, equal in width to 13, 14, on the column A. Draw the
vifuals 9, 10, to^, cutting the picture PP at 11, 12; then will
the fpace 11, 12 be equal a b, cut by the rays from the pilafter 13,
14; for as the pilafter 9, 10 is to 13, 14, fo will 11, 12, ^Z*, their
reprefentations, be to each other. The fame reafoning fliows
us why columns increafe in thicknefs as they decline from the
center of the pidture, if we obferve where the vifual rays,
drawn from their apparent diameters, cut the line pafling
through their centers, as tv, kl\ wherefore, as /^/ is to 13, 14,
fo is h i, the reprefentation of the column D, to a d, the repre
fentation of A. And hence it is evident, that in the reprefenta
tions of buildings whofe fronts are parallel to the pidure, their
doors
( 275 )
do^rs and windows will be to each other as their originals are ;
that is, if the windows and fpaces between them be equal in
width, their reprefentations will be equal alfo ; and, as Mr.
Martin obferves, " all plane furfaces whatever, placed in a front
wall or plane, will have in their perfpedlives no change of
figure at all ; a fquare, a parallelogram, a triangle, a pentagon,
a circle, an elliplis. Sec. will be all the fame figures on the per
fpe(5tive plane, and perfeftly fimilar to the originals ; and this
will hold good in every part of fuch a plane in front, as well
above and below the horizon, as on each fide the eye •^'."
Of the proper Choice of the Diflance of the Pi&ure^ proportioned
to the Height of the Horizon^ and the Nature of the Obje& to he
reprefented.
From what has now been hinted refpecSling long and Ihort
diftances, the learner will naturally wifh to know fome fixed
principle about it, and what is the general rule for choofing a
diftance.
To give him all the fatis faction I can on this fubjed, I fliall
propofe the following remarks.
* See his Principles of the Genuine Theory of Peifpeilivc, page 51.
M m 2 There
( 276 )
There is a certain diflance fliorter than which the eye can
not eafily fee a pidlure ; and therefore if an objeA be delineated
by fuch a diftance, it will appear unnatural.
In Plate XIV. Fig. i, let B D be the length of the pidture,
and Z the place of the fpeflator's eye, and e the center of the
pidture, then will Z <? be the diftance of the pidture ; but as Z <?
is very little more than half the length of the pidture B D,
therefore the angle under which the whole pidture would be
feen at Z, is almoft ninety degrees.
This is an angle which the eye cannot eafily take in, be
caufc the ray Z B is in a ftate too diverging to the pupil of the
eye, and therefore the fpedtator muft twift and ftrain his eye,
before he could fee the whole extent B D.
The optical reafon of this is as folio w^s ;
Produce the vifual rays LP, KP. Now, it is evident, from
the fcale on the arch, that thefe rays fubtend an angle of more
than ninety degrees. Therefore fince, according to optical laws,
rays will not unite in a point on the retina at a greater obliquity
than an angle of fortyfive degrees, confequently the points K L
will not appear to the eye. This is probable enough from the
figure
( 277 )
figure of the eye, for the image s of K, and o of L, are too far for
ward in the eye to be feen ; but by turning the eyes a Httle to
wards K or L, it is evident they will become vifible ; for then P^,
the axis of the eye, will perhaps be turned to 20 ; or, on the
other hand, at 40 ; confequently the angle of obliquity 20, P K,
being confiderably lefs than fortyfive degrees, the pencil of rays
from the point K will unite in a point on the retina, and fo be
come vifible.
A fimple experiment will convince the reader of the truth
of this. Take a lath two feet long, and at the center fix a wire
in a perpendicular direction, about thirteen inches long, or we
fliall fay twelve inches, for then a thread ftretched from the
wire to each end of the lath would form an angle of 90 ; that is/
the threads will be perpendicular to each other. The end of
the wire being held clofe to the eye, the experimenter mull
look along each thread at once, and try if he can fee them
diftindtly at each end of the lath at the fame glance, without
flraining his eyes. If he continue to do fo a few minutes, the
pain which this gives will be a fufficient proof that the eye
cannot ealily take in an angle of 90 ; and that therefore twelve
or thirteen inches is far too fhort a diftance for a pidure two
feet long.
Therefore,
( 278 )
Therefore, in Fig. i, if the eye be removed to P, the
angle which tlie rays DP, BP make with the picture BD is
confiderably lefs, and hence the eye at P will more eafily
take in D B, the whole extent of the pidture ; becaufe the rays
D P, B P do not diverge fo much at the pupil as before. If,
therefore, the aforefaid wire be lengthened in the proportion of
P <? to B D, which will be as twentyone inches are to twenty
four, the whole length of the lath ; and if threads be fixed as
before, reprefenting the vifual rays D P, B P, the eye P, placed
at the end of the wire, will eafily fee at one glance both the
threads BD.
This experiment, therefore, induces me to conclude that
a pidure which is filled the whole length with obje(Sls on
the front, fliould never be drawn by a diftance fliorter than the
perpendicular of an equilateral triangle, whofe fides are equal
to the whole length of the pidlure. The angle B, P, D, is equi
lateral, and P ^ is its perpendicular ; and that I take to be the
fliorteft diftance that fliould be ufed in this cafe. And I will
venture to affirm, from experience, that any perfon who has
never once thought on this fubje6t, when viewing a picture
two feet long, will not ftand lefs than twentyone inches from
it when he wants to fee the efFec5l of the whole ; but if he would
examine minutely fome particular part feparately, he will na
8 tvu'ally
( 279 )
rurally approach nearer to the picture, in proportion to the iize
of the part thus examined. Whence, I alfo conclude, if nature
is to be a guide in matters of delineation and painting, that the
diftance of the pi(5ture fliould be as 21 is to 24, fo is the proper
diftance to the fpace which the front objects occupy on the
pi6ture. For, fuppofing a pidture two feet long to have only
two or three regular objects on the front, occupying not more
than two thirds of the whole length, which is lixteen inches,
it would not be neceiTary in this cafe to make the diftance
twentyone inches. A diftance of fourteen or fifteen inches
would then be fufficient, and produce a more agreeable efFe<fl
in the appearance of the regular objecSts, both in front and
back, than when drawn by a much longer diflance. For, if
front objedts are too much forefhortened by a long diftance,
thofe on the back ground will be much more fo, and appear too
tall for their thicknefs ; and the whole pidture will want depth,
efpecially if it be an internal view of a ftreet, a long room, or
any thing of this nature, where the eye is fuppofed to be pretty
near the firft objedt.
I fhall now apply the foregoing principles to a few pradlical
cafes, by which the learner will fee the efFedl of long and fhort
diftances, and how to choofe them on particular occafions.
How
( 280 )
How to choofe a D'l/lance, when the whole Length of the Figure is
filled with Obje&s on the Front.
Let /) r, o t^ Fig. 22, Plate XX. be the lines which mark
out the length of the pidlure filled with fquares on the front.
Extend the compaffes from ^; to ^; on the horizon, and
fweep the arch i; D, D y ; then will their interfeftion D be the
proper diilance in this cafe, and s will be the center. Make s V
each way equal s D, and V will be the working diftance, as the
figure fliows.
The fquares C, K, N, O, drawn by the diftance s V, are per
fedlly natural. But the fquares E,P,Q,R, drawn by Ji;, are not
fo ; becaufe the diftance is vaftly too fliort ; for the eye at d
views the pidlure in an angle of ninety degrees, which, as we
have already fliewn, is far too great, and therefore the repre
fentation of the fquares are unnatural to a common obferver.
But if the reader place his eye perpendicular to j, and at a dif
tance from s equal s d, he will find that the unnatural length
of the fquares, from front to back, will be greatly diminiflied in
appearance.
On
( 28l )
On the other hand, it is equally neceffary to avoid choofmg
a diftance too long ; the efFedt of which is feen at the fquares F,
where they appear too narrow from front to back ; for the dif
tance at z forms, with the whole length of the pidture, an angle
only of 48 degrees ; which fliould not be admitted, except in
particular cafes, as in the reprefentation of a row of columns
parallel to the pi<5lure in Fig. 20, where the eye at E is in the
fame angle with the pi6lure twice PP, as at z^ Fig. 22.
How to choofe a DiJIance^ when the Qbje&s are drawn by a large
Scale^ fituated not far from the Center of the Pi&ure.
Let P /, Fig. 22, ftill be confidered the whole length of the
pi(5lure ; and let M be the reprefentation of a fquare, on a much
larger fcale than that at C ; and let its fituation at M be much
nearer to F, the center fquare. From j", the center, extend the
compaffes to ^, the extreme point of the pi6ture, and fweep the
arch /, c, b^ then will c or ^ be a proper diftance in a cafe of this
kind ; for the fqnare M, drawn by the diftance c, appears perfedlly
natural, which would be too long were it drawn by V, the former
diftance, as appears by the diagonal drawn from 10 to V, cut
ting the vifual 9, s at a. This by no means contradidts what
has been advanced in page 178 ; where we fay, that " a picture
filled with obje«5ts on the front, fhould never be drawn by a
N n diftance
( 282 )
cUftance fliorter than the perpendicular of an equilateral tri
angle, whofe fides are equal to the whole length of the piflure.'*
For, let the line 9 be now confidered the bounds of the picture
and it will be evident, by drawing a line from b to ^, that the
diftance s b'vi, greater to the pi(5lure at 9, than j D is to the pic
ture at /, other wife b g would be parallel to D v.
Another advantage may be obferved in this method, if we
confider that a very high horizon will produce as much dif
tortion in a pi6lure as too lliort a diftance. Therefore if we
fuppofe the horizon to be made higher by the fpace / /, the dif
tance will then be s /, in the fame proportion to it as j c is
to s t.
r
How to choofe a Di/lance, when a Piece of Furniture, not very long,
is reprefented by itfelf on the Center of the Front of the FiBure.
If a fingle objed:, or piece of furniture, be reprefented by
itfelf on the center of the ground line, an equilateral triangle
being drawn, whofe fides are equal to the length of the piece of
furniture, the perpendicular of this triangle added to the height
of the horizon, will be a very agreeable diftance in fuch a cafe.
Thus, at the fquare F, fuppofed to be the plan of a piece of
furniture reprefented on the center of the ground line, extend
the compafles from 10 to at, and fweep the arches, to form an
equilateral
( 283 )
equilateral triangle, whofe perpendicular will be at w; then
will s w be the diftance propofed in this cafe. Ikit if the piece
of furniture be of an extraordinary length in front, in propor
tion to its breadth from back to front, then it will be beft to
adopt the preceding method ; for if we fuppofe the piece of
furniture to extend from 7 to 9, then a perpendicular of an
equilateral triangle of that dimenfion added to the whole height
of the horizon, would forefhorten too much. Of thefe things I
am perfuaded the reader will be convinced, if he make the ex
periment as the cafes are here ftated.
Of the Reprefentations of circular and curvilinear Figures^
both plain and folid\ together with fome Remarks on their
Theory.
The manner in which fome painters and defigners treat
circular objects, would lead one to fuppofe that there is no cer
tain theory on which to build the pradlice of drawing objedls of
that kind.
Sometimes we may fee a calk, if not fliewing both ends, yet
the end on which it ftands is reprefented by a curve confider
ably more flat than that by which its top is fhewn; than
which nothing can be more abfurd, for the very reverfe is the
truth.
N n 2 We
( 284 )
We may alfo fee, in fome cabinet defigns, the bottom of a
round fronted chefl of drawers, or commode, reprefented by
the fame curve as that which reprefents the top part ; which,
though not fo ridiculous as the above, is far from being fcientific
or according to the rules of perfpeilive. That the learner may
avoid thefe miftak.es, and have a proper conception of this mat
ter, we fliall propofe the following fhort theory.
Cafe I. — If an original circle be fituated in a plane parallel
to the pi(5ture, its reprefentation will be a circle.
Thus : — Let A, B, O, D, Plate XIX. Fig. 20, be an original
plane parallel to the pidlure H, I, K, in which is fituated a circle
a, b^ d^ e, whofe reprefentation on that pidture is required.
The vifual rays from each diameter of the original circle
tending to the eye E, are cut by the pidlure or plane of projec
tion H, I, K, in a parallel direcSlion to the original plane A, B,
O, D. Wherefore we have the diameter 4, 2 drawn perpendi
cular to a d, its original. Alfo we have the diameter i, 3 parallel
to its original d e; confequently the diameters i, 3 — 4, 2, are the
reprefentations of their originals ad^b e. C is the center of the:
original circle, and a line from C to E bifedls the triangle b^ E, e%
confequently c is the reprefentation of the center C. Laftly, the
radii or femidiameters c i, c 2, c 3, c 4, are equal and limilar to their
originals,
( 285 )
originals, and therefore any one of them, as c i, will defcribe the
circle i, 2, 3, 4, which will be the true reprefentation required.
The truth of this may alfo be proved, by conlidering the vi
fual rays 6 E, d E, 8cc. as the fides of a cone whofe vertex is at
the eye E, and whofe bafe is the original circle a, b^ d^ e, and its
axis C c. Now it is evident, that if a cone have a fe(5lion parallel
to its bafe, the curved boundary of that fe6lion is a circle, in
like manner as a pyramid, whofe bafe is a geometrical fquare,.
produces a geometrical fquare, if its fedlion be parallel to its
bafe. See page 230. Plate XV. Fig. 6v
By the above theory we fliall eafily judge how to proceed in
the reprefentation of arches, when they reft on pillars or piers
parallel to the pidlure. And it fliould be obferved, that in
whatever fituation the original arch or circle may be in with
refped: to the center of the picture, if they be parallel to
the pidlure, their reprefentations will be limilar to their ori
ginals '•■.
Cafe 2. — If an original circle be lituated in a plane not pa
rallel to the pidure; that is, if it be the reprefentation of a cir
cular obje<5l lying on the ground, or in any plane parallel
* The reader may, if he pleafe, confult Dr. Brook Taylor's fecond corollary of
theorem foutih, p. i6»
1 with
( 286 )
with it, its reprei'entation on the picture will be an ellipfis.
The reader who has previoufly made this fuhje(5t his ftudy, may
afk what I mean by the term ellipfis in this place ? fince fome have
difputed whether the reprefentation of a circle in the above cafe
be a regular ellipfis, or a curve of fome other fpecies of the conic
fedlions. Mr. Noble has difcuffed this point in oppofition to the
Critical Reviewers, who had cenfured Mr. Ware in his tranflation
of Sirigatti's perfpedlive, becaufe the tranflator had defined the
reprefentation of an original circle fituated in a plane not pa
rallel to the pidlure, to be a regular ellipfis. hi oppofition to
which definition of Mr. Ware's, the Critical Reviewers for July
1756, page 509, make the following obfervations.
" In regard to his regular ellipfis for the reprefentation of a
circle, it appears, from the very nature of perfpe6live, that the
fore part of a circle will appear more round than the back part,
which being further removed from the eye, cannot appear to
have the fame degree of curvature ; and confequently the whole
figure, if drawn, mufl: be very far from having the form of
fuch an ellipfis as is to be made by a tranfverfe and conjugate
diameter."
Mr. Noble, in oppofition to the above remarks, attempts to
prove that the reprefentation in queftion muft be a regular el
lipfis ; but his arguments are fo abHrufe, that if they were
founded
( 287 )
founded in truth they would not be convincing to the ordinary
reader, and therefore I fliall not trouble him with them, but
proceed to offer a remark or two in confirmation of thofe made
by the Reviewers, which I think eafily underftood. Let A, B,
C, D, Plate XXI. Fig. 23, be the reprefentation of a geometrical
fquare in which an o6tagon and circle may be infcribed. The
circle, truly reprefented, will touch every fide of both the fquare
and oaagon, as fliewn by the figure. Now, I cannot fee by
what mode of reafoning we can prove that the ellipfis is
regular any more than we can prove that the ocflagon is re
gular, becaufe it is the reprefentation of one that is fo; but,
perhaps, to ufe Mr. Noble's words, " we are ignorant of thofe
few geometrical praecognitae which alone can render us ca
pable of convidlion on this point :" and this may be the rea
fon why I have confidered Mr. Noble's arguments fo ab
ftrufe ■•••'. At the fame time I do not think the Reviewers were
ignorant of thofe few firft principles of geometry, nor even
wanted their recolIe6lion, when they animadverted on Mr. Ware.
They jultly fay, " that the fore part of a circle will appear
more round than the back part," which muft be evident to
every one, by obferving that the whole curve on this fide of the
diameter g c, is what they mean by the fore part of the circle,
* The reader, if he choofc, may fee the arguments in Noble's Linear Pcrfjiecflive,
page 14a, . .'>Ii' .
and;
( 288 )
and all beyond ^ c is confi Jered the back part of it. We may alfo
obferve, that the curves contained in the quarter parts of the
elliplis are not one of them fimilar to another. How then can
we pronounce it a regvilar elHpfis ? When we fpeak of the per
fpedtive appearan^e of any original obje(ft, do we not denomi
nate it by the figure which it alTumes upon a plane, and not
as it appears to the eye? where then is the good fenfe or
propriety of calling that a regular ellipfis which is no way
regular? One would think Mr. Nobfe had forgotten the dif
tincftion which he fo properly maintains in other parts of
his book, namely, between the appearance of objedts to the eye,
and their reprefentation on a plane ; for if we ftand at a diftance
from the top of a round table, it will appear to the eye a re
gular ellipfis ; but if the top be reprefented on a pidture accord
ing to that diftance, it will be an irregular ellipfis, and its irre
gularity will be in proportion to the fliortnefs of the diftance of
the pidture. But fuppofe we were to confider b d the tranfverfe
diameter, and confequently b f the conjugate, yet there is a
manifeft difference between the two femiellipfes. Nor is it
poflTible to draw a tranfverfe diameter in fuch a direcflion, as
that, when the two femiellipfes are turned down on each other,
they would coincide. Yet it muft be obferved, that if the re
prefentation were drawn in the center, and by a long diftance,
it would, in this cafe, approach fo near a regular ellipfis as the
difference could not be eafily difcerned.
From
yi.ij^i 3
Circu/a.r ci: fur viJif tear I^inunw
/■/ ^1
"trry Se
Rif/iAl/ as l/lrAct dirtrlr fy <7. Tcfr^.^^lm 4//'</i
( 289 )
From what has heen faid, the learner muft obferve then,
that when he proceeds to draw the reprefentation of an original
circle, he muft not think of applying the compaffes or trammel
to draw it by; but a number of points muft be found, through
which the path of the ellipfis muft be directed by a hand fupe
rior to his who only can draw an ellipfis by a tranimel or com
paffes.
Of the Reprefentations of circular and curvilinear Figures, both
plain undfolid.
Prob. XIX. Fig. 23. Plate XXI.
To reprefent a Circle lying on the Ground Plane, or when it is
Jituated in any Plane parallel to the Horizon.
Operation. — Let H L be the horizon, and G R the ground
line, s is the center of the pitflure, and d its diftance. Make s v
equal j d, and draw dV at right angles to dv, then will vVhe
the vanifliing points to four fides of the o6lagon. Make V M
equal V d. Likewife make v m equal v d, and M m will be the
true meafuring points. Draw a half plan of an o6lagon, as was
fliewn in Problem XVII, and Fig. 18. Make A D equal to the
diameter of the given circle. Draw the vifuals 2 V, i f , inde
O o finitely.
( 290 )
finitely. Make 2 P, i / equal a q, the fide of the oftagon ; and
draw from / and p meafuring lines to their refpedtive points
M m, cutting at 3 and 8. From 3 and 8 drawn 3 J, 8 j. Take the
fpace I D, and lay it from D to 10, and from A to 12. From
12 drawn a line to V, cutting at 7, 6. From 10 to v do the fame,
cutting at 4, 5. Laftly, draw 5, 6 parallel to i, 2, and the
o6tagon in which the given circle is to he infcribed is com
pleted.
Method fecond. — In this method, which is very fimple, we
proceed without regard to any of thofe lines ufed in the firft
method, which was more fcientific, and according to Dr. Brook
Taylor's fyftem. The ground plane F is fuppofed to remain as
before. Let A, B, C, D, be the reprefentation of a geometrical
fquare, found by the diagonals paffing to each vanilliing point,
confequently S will be the center. Through S draw g c, and
draw a s, from which we have four points, ij,£, e, c, of the in
tended circle. Draw a line from 2 to V, and from 10 to v, cut
ting the diagonals at /^, d, whence we have two more points.
From the points If and d draw parallel lines, cutting the dia
gonals in the points b f, adding other two; which in all
make eight points, fufficient for the reprefentation of the given
circle.
N. B. A quarter plan F is fufficient for this method.
Method
( 291 )
Method third. — Draw the quarter plane of the circle to be
reprefented, contained in the fquare A, E, a O, Draw the dia
gonal O A ; and from the point n, where the diagonal cuts the
arch E a, raife a perpendicular to /. Reprefent a fquare as before,
drawing its diagonals each way. From t draw a vifual to s, cut
ting the diagonals in the points b f. Laftly, from the points b
and /draw parallels to the other diagonals, cutting at b and dy
by which method there will be eight points gained as before.
This laft method being fo fimple, and totally divefted of
every thing that can any way perplex the learner, it has been
adopted in the following problems, and in moll of the repre
fentations in this book. There are, however, various other
methods of efFedling the fame thing, which might prove more
pleafing to men of fcience, but which would not be fo advan
tageous to the workman, nor even to the artift, with whom fa
cility and difpatch are principal objedls.
Prob. XX. Fig. 24. Plate XXI.
To reprefent a Circle fittiated in a "Plane perpendicular to the
Ground Plane.
Operation.— Let the line R be the ground line, and L the
horizon, s is the center of the pidure, and s d, on the vertical
line, the diftance. Draw half the original circle B, «, C. Draw
O o 2 the
( 293 )
the diagonals o D, o A ; from A and D reprcfcnt a geometrical
Iquare, by drawing a line from A to d, cutting at F. From
I, 2, draw parallels to 3, 9; and from 3,9, dire6t vifuals to the
center j, and the diagonals of the fquare will be cut at 8, 5, 6, jy
forming four points, by which the reprefentation of the circle
may be corredtly drawn.
Prob. XXI. Fig. 25. Plate XXI.
To reprefent a Cylinder erect on the Ground Plane.
After what has been faid on the preceding problem, it is
fcarcely neceffary to fay any thing on this ; and therefore I fhall
only obferve, that having drawn the bafe of the cylinder by
the fame method as in the laft, proceed to raife perpendiculars
from A, B, D, C ; and from a draw a b parallel to A B, at a dif
tance from A B equal to the original length of the cylinder.
From a b reprefent another fquare, as a^ b^ c, q. Draw its dia
gonals and diameters. From the point 4 raife a perpendicular
till it cut the diagonal b c. From the point 7 raife one till it cut
the diagonal a q. Do the fame at the points 6 and 5, and eight
points will be found at the top correfponding with thofe on the
bafe, by which the cylinder may be completed.
Prob.
( 293 )
Prob. XXII. Fig. 26. Plate XXI.
Tojindtbe Reprefentation of a Cylinder lying on the Ground^ ivhofe
Sides are oblique to the Ficlure.
Operation. — Draw the ground line and horizon as iifual;
and let s be the center, and d the diftance of the pi<5liire. Make
J V equal j d^ and from cTdraw 6? V at right angles to v d, then
will v\ hQ the vanifliing points of the ends and fides of the
cylinder. Make a half plan of the bafe of the cylinder at <?, d,
c, d^ as in the preceding cafes. Draw C A perpendicular to the
ground line, and equal to the diameter of the cylinder. Draw
the vifuals C v, Av, and C V, A V. Make C F equal C A, and
C S equal to the given length of the cylinder. Draw F ;;^, S M,
cutting at D and 3. Draw D B perpendicular to the ground
line, and we have a fquare in which the end of the cylinder is
to be infcribed. In like manner reprefent a fquare at the other
end, as i, 2, 3, 4 ; and having drawn the diagonals and diameters
of both fquares, draw parallel lines from 5, 6 to ef. From e
and /dire6t vifuals to V, cutting ^ and /& ; from e, f, £\ l>^ draw
vifuals to 1;, which will cut the diagonals of each fquare in
four points, by which each end of the cylinder may be com
pleted.
N.B.
( 294 )
N. B. A circle or cylinder may be reprefented without
drawing a plan, by dividing the given diameter c a into feven
equal parts, one of which will cut the diagonals as before, at
leaft near enough for pradlice.
Prob. XXIII. Fig. 27. Plate XXI,
Tojind the Reprefentation of afemiellipfis^ wbofe tranfverfe Dia
meter is parallel to the Figure.
Operation. — Draw the ground line and horizon as in
common, and let s be the center, and d the diftance of the pic
ture. Make then a plan of the femiellipfis, whofe tranfverfe
diameter is D G, parallel to R, the ground line. Draw A B, in
cluding half the conjugate diameter. Draw the diagonals O B,
O A, cutting the elHpfis at P and N. Divide A D at K, and
draw E F. From E, P, N, F, O, raife perpendiculars to the ground
line at 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and from each of thefe draw vifuals to s.
Make 3, 2, i, each refpe<Stively equal A, K, D ; and from i, 2, 3,
draw lines to d^ the diftance, cutting at a^ ^, b. From a^ X, ^,
draw parallel lines to g^lyC\ and laftly, drawn a^og, then will
the feveral vifuals be cut at the points requifite for defcribing
the elliptic curve, as the dotted points in the figure fhow.
Prob.
( 295 )
Prob. XXIV. Fig. 28. Plate XXL
^0 find the Reprefentation of an elliptic Segment inverfely.
Suppose A, B, C, D, to be the fhelf of any table, Sec. hol
lowed in front in the figure of an elliptic fegment, A, i, 2, 3,4, D.
Having drawn one fide A, i, 2, 3, 4, of the given fegment at plea
fure, divide the curve into four equal parts, and from i, 2, 3, 4,
raife perpendicular to a, b, c,/; then, to make the other fide of
the curve fimilar to that already drawn, lay on the feveral divi
fions/, c, b, a, to the right hand, and from thefe let fall perpen
diculars at pleafure ; then, from i, 2, 3, draw parallel lines, cut
ting the correfponding perpendiculars on the right hand, by
which the other half of the fegment may be accurately drawn.
The plan being thus prepared, draw vifual lines to j, the cen
ter, and make r/the diftance. At a fix one foot of the com
paffes, and extend the other to i, and with it fweep the firft
arch ; and in like manner fweep the arches 2, 3, 4. From the
feveral points where thofe arches cut the line A D, direa lines
to the diftance, cutting the feveral vifuals at the points i, 2, 3, 4.
Laftly, from i draw a parallel to 7, from 2 draw one to 6, and
from 3 draw one to 5 ; thus will feven points be found through
which the path of the reprefented curve muft pafs.
SECTION
( 296 )
SECTION V.
Tlje Application of the preceding Problems to the Pracliceof Draw
ing the Reprefentation of Pieces of Archite&iirey ajid particu
larly various Pieces of Furniture in different Pofitions to the
Pi&ure.
The preceding problems, and the various figures referred
to, muft be confidered as only laying the foundation for the re
prefentation of more compound objedls, confifting both of
right and curvilinear parts. It becomes neceflary, therefore, to
fliew the moll eafy application of thefe problems in a variety of
examples, that the whole may appear pra6lical and ufeful, and
that we may alfo fee the real effecSt of that art which we have
hitherto laboured to underftand. Nor do I think that perfpec
tive could well be applied in many cafes without fuch ex
amples. Befides, the ufefulnefs of having a few proper ex
amples always ready to turn to, muft be of confequence to thofe
who but feldom reprefent things in perfpecftive ; in which cafe
the rules and methods will frequently efcape the memory, and
make it neceflary to have recourfe to the book ; and for the
fake of more readily finding the explanation of each example,
the page of letterprefs where the explanation begins, is en
graved on the copperplate, it being a pra(Stice fometimes
1 to
J%i/e'^'2
V Sh^^ti/hn. c/i^/ .
Jh^m^ «.i /^ A^ iSre^Kp %y /^ T.rri/ ~ J?^^ ^4 '^ '^^^^2 .
Marlatv ^u/p .
C 297 )
to look at the plates firft for an example of what we intend
drawing.
Example I. Fig. 29. Plate XXIL
Haw to reprefent a receding and returning Flight of Steps wbofe
Rifers are parallel to the Pi&ure.
Let H L be the horizontal line, s the center, and d the dif
tance of the pi6lure; GR is the ground line. Make AB on the
ground line equal to the original length of the fleps, and draw
A E perpendicular to the ground, and make the fpaces A F, F N,
N O, and O E, equal the original height of the rifers. Draw
vifuals from each of thefe divifions tending to s. Draw F T'
parallel to A B, and from B and T draw lines to s. Next, lay on'
the ground line the breadth of the ftep^ from. B to <? ; and from'
a draw a line to a' the diftance, cutting at k\ raife a perpendicu
lar from k^ cutting at n ; and from n draw a parallel to />. Thert
from p raife a perpendicular to q, cutting the vifual N j at 7 ~
draw a parallel to r, and from r a vifual to s. Then from a to
b lay the breadth of the fecond Itep, and draw a line to d, cut
ting at m ; raife a perpendicular from m to u^ and draw a line
from u to J, and a parallel from u to. w, cutting the vifual C x at?
w. Laftly, lay on from b to e the breadth of the half fpace,
and>from e draw a hne to d, cutting at 5, and raife a perpendi
i Pp GulajE
( 298 )
ciilar to a:, and from .v a parallel; which will complete the firft
flight.
The returning ftep leading to the fecond flight is next to
be confidered.
For this, draw the perpendicular j', 7, 8, 9, 10, at a diftance
from A equal to the width of the returning fteps; draw the line
6, 7, parallel to Y A, and at 6 there is an allowance made for the
bearing of the ftep ; alfo at Z there is an allowance for the other
half fpace to reft on. Draw the vifuals R s and E s; and how
to complete the reft of the fteps muft be evident from the
figure. The returning flight comes forward until it is in the
fame plane with A B, the firft rifer; therefore, after having
placed the original height of the rifers at 8, 9, 10, and drawn
from thefe divifions vifuals to s, it remains only to lay on the
bearing of the fteps at i, 2, tending to the diftance, and cutting
at 3, 4. Thefe being traced along the fteps, as fliewn by the
dotted lines, till they cut the vifuals 7 s, Rs; how to perform
the other part will appear obvious. N. B. The laft ftep of the
returning flight 10, 12, does not all come into the plate, other
wife its length would be equal A B, the original length of the
ftep. Thefe fteps might have alfo been reprefented oblique to
the pidture ; but as I have not plateroom for fo many examples,
the learner, muft try if. he can do it himfelf, by refledling on
what
C 299 )
what has already been faid and done on objecfls in oblique lltu^
atlons ; but if he fail in his attempt, he may confiilt Mr. Mafc
ton's complete treatife, in its pradtical part.
Example II. Fig. 30. Plate XXIL
Hqw to reprefent a Tufcan Pedejlal and Bafe parallel to the
Pi&ure.
Draw A fir ft, the profile of the pedeftal and bafe, which i&
taken from the large module of the Tufcan order in Plate VIII.
Let H L be the horizon, and make j the center, and j d only
half the diftance of the picture, for want of room on the plate
Make G R the ground line, and on it, from B to C, lay a fpace
equal to the length of the original pHnth. Draw from thefe
lines to s. Next, confider how far the pedeftal is to be repre
fented from the picture, which in this example is equal twice
CD; becaufe the whole diftance is equal twice s d. Therefore
from D draw a line to d, cutting at F. Make DE equal halt
BC, cutting at I. Draw FK and lO parallel to BC, by which
a fquare will be reprefented equal to the phnth. Proceed now
to reprefent the projedtion of the ©gee or bafe of the plinth.
For this, take i, half the original projedion of the plinth,
and place it from B to 2. From 2 draw a line to S, cutting at 3;
and from 3. draw one to d, the diftance, cutting 4. Draw next
P P 2. the
( 300 )
the diagonals KI, FO. From 4 draw a parallel line, cutting
the diagonals at 8, 5, and from 5 draw a line to s, cutting at 6;
then will be projected each miter of the plinth, and alfo the fize
of the dado will be determined at the fame time. Therefore
from 8, 5, and 6, raife perpendiculars at pleafure, which will
ferve both for the angles of the dado and the plinth of the bafe.
•From draw a line to j", which will cut the parallel produced
from 8 at 5, and will give an internal miter at 5, K ; raife per
pendiculars from 5, K at pleafure. From c and 12 on the pro
file, draw lines to s, cutting the perpendiculars raifed from 5, K
at/, m, which will give the correfpondent miter to 5, K. Draw
the projecting diagonals of each moulding on the profile, as 9
10, II, 12, and draw ad; from all which points in the mould
ings draw vifuals to j, which will feverally cut the aforefaid
perpendiculars at 7,/', n, m^ r. Draw then the line m n^p 7, which
Avill be the diagonal lines of the internal miters. Now draw
parallels fvompq, which will cut the perpendiculars at 13, 14,
17. From 14, 17, draw vifuals to j, which will cut at 15,16;
and it is evident that by thefe the three miter lines will be cor
rectly determined From each angle of the mouldings on the
profile draw lines to s, and afterwards obferve how the profiles
are cut by each projecting diagonal, to which make every per
fpeCVive miter agree. For inftance, draw a line from v, the
point where the diagonal cuts the upper fquare of the ogee, till
it cut the miter line at / ; from / raife a perpendicular fliewn by
the
( 301 )
the dotted line, which will form the fquare on that miter, from
which the fame fquare muft be traced round the dado, as is
evident from the figure, hi the fame manner muft the upper
moulding be managed; which, after what has been faid, it
would be a dull and tedious repetition to go through a defcrip
tion of it. And I am perfuaded, that if the learner cannot com
prehend it from what has already been faid and done on the
figure, he would fail of attaining it after all that I could fay on
it. It remains now to confider the bafe, with a part of the fliaft
of the column : and this will admit but of very little defcription,
w^hen we fuppofe the learner already acquainted with repre
fenting fqiiares and circles, of which the bafe is compofed ; and
if he be not, he muft turn back to thefe, for it is impoffible to
draw a figure to lliew all thefe, without confounding the whole.
The principal thing to be obferved in this matter is, firft, after
having drawn s, the plinth on which the bafe refts, on it a cir
cle muft be reprefented for the bottom of the torus, fomewhat
lefs than the plinth, determinable from the profile ; after which
the projediori of the torus muft be found, by drawing the lines
b^g^ tv, to J, cutting a parallel from the phnth L at /, X, b. Take
half k I and place it from x to sr, and a line from z to c/, cutting
the vifual x j, will find the projedion of the torus, as the dotted
upright line fiiews. Upon this torus mull: be reprefented a
fquare, fo much lefs as the projedlion of the torus ; in this
fquare a circle muft be reprefented to guide the top of the
torus,
( 302 )
torus, and having already drawn one for its bottom, by thefe it
may he completed. Next find the height of the fillet above the
torus, which is done by drawing vifuals from the points above
at; and by a fteady hand and good eye the fillet may eafil)' be
drawn, by following the upper part of the torus. Laftly, to
find the projeilion of the conge or hollow ; take half k I and
place it from z toy, and diredt a line to d, as before, cutting at
th€ fecond upright dotted line ; how the reft is performed is
only to repeat what was neceflary in reprefenting the other
parts of the bafe, and therefore it is needlefs to fay more,
except to obferve the neceflity of taking care in drawmg the
curve lines, fo that tl\e torus may feem to reft eafy on its
plinth, and not appear ta ftart fuddenly up, as is commonly the
eafe in fuch reprefentations, when they are drawn by perfons
who only underftand perfpe6tive, but are deftitute of tafte in
drawing.
Example III. Fig. 31, Plate XXIIT.
How to reprefent a iufcan Entablature and Capital parallel tQ>
the Figure.
In the preceding example, the pedeftal, bafe, and part of
the fhaft, are all under the horizon, confeqnently the returns
of each moulding feem to rife up; but in the example before
USj
:v"2if./>/ 1
Tiisca/i JUnbib/ahae S:c
/'/a/e i^3.
TSfi^raJi^n /}£/,
^awUw f .tify ,
AiS/hcJ aj tfit Acf Jif;,/s /••■ ff. 7bn:   J)t4ir2ff^i/^2
( 303 )
us, every part is above the horizon, and therefore each return
ing member appears to dcfcend. Hence this horizontal line is
in a reverfe fitnation to the other, being iinder the objcdt as the
hne H L, and that which we formerly ftyled the ground line,:
whereon was laid each original meafurcmcnt, is now at S P,
properly termed a fedtion of the picliure, on which thcfe mufk
be placed. Therefore having drawn Y, the profde of the en
tablature, taken as before from Plate VIII. lay on A B the full
extent of the cornice, and from AB draw vifuals toj; divide
A B at E, and draw another vifual to s. Confider then how (ar
the entablature is to be reprefented from the pidurc, which in
this example is equal twice EF, becaufc we have only ufcd
half the full diftance. Draw then a line from F to d, cutting
at G ; through G draw a parallel, cutting at I K, which will
then be the front edge of the greatcft projecting part of the
cornice. And fince the line from F to ^ is in a direilion only
to half the diftance, it will cut the vifual A D, tending to j, in
the fame point as it would be cut if a line from K was direfted
to a diftance twice s cl; therefore a parallel line from D to C
will reprefent a fquare equal to the whole projcdlion of the cor
nice. It is neceflary for the learner to be clear in this, other
wife he will not know what he is about, nor underftand the
fucceeding directions. Having then found this fquare, draw
the diagonals K D, IC, which diagonals muft neceffarily give the
I proper
( 304 )
proper diredion to each miter at the top of the cornice. Take
then, from Plate MIL half the upper diameter of the column^
and place it each way from E at IM N. Draw from M N vafuals
to J, which will cut the aforefaid diagonals at i, 2, and 3, de
termining the feat of the cornice, and the other mouldings.
Let fall perpendiculars from the points i, 2, 3. Proceed now ta
draw lines from each moulding in the profile to s the center ;^
and alfo from Q draw one to the center. Produce the parallel
from I to 4, cutting the line Q. From 4 let fall a perpendi
cular, then will the vifual line O from the bottom of the cornice
be cut at U. From U draw a parallel, cutting the perpendiculars
from I, 2, at 6, 7 ; from 7 draw a vifual to the center j, cutting
the perpendicular from 3 at 8. Draw the projecting diagonal
O 9 of the profile, and ftrictly obferve how it cuts each moidd
ing. Draw alfo U 10 of the internal mrter. In like manner
draw 6, 10, 7, 12, and 8, 13. Now from the internal miter, as at
e, a, b^ c, draw parallels, cutting the other i:>rojc6ling diagonals
round the cornice, in the fame proportion as that of the profile.
Every other particular muft be obvious from infpeilion, after
what has been faid already on the pedeftal;
It now remains to find the reprefentations of the architrave
and capital. To do this, take the projedions /, ^, i>, from the
profile, and place them from Q at /, ^, /, and from thefe direds:
lines
( 305 )
lines to s, cutting the miter line near 4, as fpecified by the
points. From each of thefe points let fall perpendiculars to
their refpedlive vifuals already drawn ; that is, from the point
neareft 4 let fall a i>erpendicurar to m, from the next point kt
fell one to 0, and from the laft point let fall one tO' n, which;
will find: the internal miter. From each of thefe miters dra\r
parallels at pleafure, as fliewn by the figure. Laftly, thefe pa
rallels mull be cut, in order to determine the projedion of each
miter in the reprefentation, which is eafily done, by the fame
method ufed in' the internal miter : thus, from M N lay on'
each way /, ^, /, the fame as /, ^, /, near Q, and direft vifual lines
to each miter line at i, 2, 3. From each of thefe points let fall
perpendiculars as before to their refpeaive parallels, and each
miter will be found, as is evident from the figure. With re
fpea to the circular mouldings in the capital, thefe muft be
drawn by firft finding the fquares in which they may be in
fcribed, and then ufing that freedom of hand and good tafte,
which are the befl: and only guides that can be ufed in thefe
cafes. And here the learner lliould be put in mind, that the
example before us not only fiiews how to reprefent the Tufcan
entablature, but alfo how to draw broken mouldings parallel to
the piaure, or how to reprelent a cornice round the infide of a
room. For if the dotted lines drawn from the internal miter
were made good and fliaded, and if thofe returning to the pro
file were alfo (haded, the efFea would then be feen.
Q % .1 ihould
( 3o6 )
I fhoiild have been glad to have affifted the learner in the
reprefentations of the other four orders, but he mufl be fenfible
that it would be impoffible for me either to find room or time
for fuch an arduous talk in a work like this, which calls for
place and attention to fo many different articles. It is my opi
nion, however, that if the learner thoroughly acquaint himfelf
with the reprefentation of the Tufcan order, he will not be at
much lofs how to draw the other, except in the capitals of the
three laft orders when they are oblique to the pi6lure. But
thefe will rarely, if ever, be wanted by thofe for whom this
work is intended. However, if they fliould, I will refer the
reader to Mr. Malton's work, as the bell I know of, for their af
fiilance in this matter.
Example IV. Fig. 32. Plate XXIII.
How to reprefent Arches parallel ai^d perpendicular to the
Piclure.
First, of arches parallel to the pidure.
Let A, B, C, D, be an arched paffage, whofe entrance is pa
rallel to the pidure, in which cafe the arch is fimilar to its ori
ginal ; that is, a perfect femicircle, as demonftratcd by Fig. 20.
Plate XIX. and page 284. Therefore let the line 2, 4, drawn
parallel
( 307 )
parallel to the ground be the diameter, and E the center of the
arch; fweep the arch as in any other circle ; draw the vifuals
A J, B J, and make d the dirtance. Confider next the fize of
the pier or pillar on which the arch is to reft. Let A K be the
thicknefs, and draw K d cutting at P. Draw P Q parallel to the
ground, and raife a perpendicular from Q. From 2, 4 at the
fpring of the arch, and from E the center, draw lines to s the
center of the picSlure ; and the vifual line from 4 to j cutting the
perpendicular from Q at 3, draw from 3 a line parallel to 2, 4,
cutting the vifual Ej" at 1; then will I be the center of the
furtheft femicircle, which completes the arch, by fixing the
foot of the compaffes in I, extending the other to 3, and fweep
ing the arch i, 3, as the figure fhews»
Example V. Fig. 32. Plate XXIIL
3o rcprefent Arches in a perpendicular Dire&ion to the
Fiaure.
Let the perpendicular line A 7 be the original height
of the archway. Draw from 7 a line to the center j, and
make 7, 8 equal to the femidiameter of the arch, and fromt
8 draw a line to s. Next confider how far the arch is to be front
the front of the pidure, which is here equal A K. From K.
Q q 2 draw
( 3o8 )
draw a line to d, the diftance, cutting at P ; and from P raife a
perpendicular, cutting at lo. Take 8, 7 equal to the femidi
ameter of the original arch, and repeat it from K to N, from
N to S, from which draw lines to the diftance, cutting the vi
fual A J in O Y. From thefe raife perpendiculars, cutting at 11
and e\ then will a be the center of the aixh. Draw then the
diagonals a 11, a 10, and divide 9, 10, or 8, 7, into feven equal
parts, and take two of thefe, as at 12 ; from which draw a line
to J", cutting the diagonals, as the figure fliews by the points.
Through thefe points draw, by a fteady hand, this fide of the
arch. For the other fide of it proceed in the fame manner, by
drawing vifuals from 2, 13. Laftly, draw a c parallel; alfo 10,
14, artd ir, 15; then from c to 15 and to 14 draw diagonals
agreeing with the other, and cut thefe as before, by a line from
16, by which the other fide of the arch will be reprefented ;
that is, as much of it as ought to appear. The part which does
not appear is denoted by the dotted curve. In the fame manner
proceed with the fecond, or with as many more arches as may
be wanted, by repeatedly laying on the ground line the original
meafurement at T V.
Example
X<>o.;,/. 2.
//fuses X (/lairs „i furs/ie,/u
re 2 4
uSfift^iz^i i*^/
7h//tif/iW /if OTernf_ Aupf i. tj()'2
OJim^iff
( 309 )
Example VI. Fig. 33. Plate XXIV.
Hoiv to reprefent a Houfe in Ferfpe&ive^ having its Front parallel
to the Piflure.
Let H L be the horizon, and G R the ground line, s is the
center, and s dihQ diftance of the picture. Make AC the ori
ginal length of the front, from which draw vifuals to s. Con
fider next how far the houfe is removed back, which is here
equal C i. From 1 draw a line to d^ cutting at 7 ; and from 7
draw a parallel to 8. Draw a plan of the roof i, 2, 3, 4. And
from d the diftance, draw dv parallel to the fide of the roof i, 2 ;
then will v be the vanifhing point for that fide of the roof.
Take s v and place it below the horizon at V, perpendicular to j;
then will V be the vanifliing point of the other fide of the roof
2, 3. From 8 and 7 raife perpendiculars at pleafure, and make
A F the original height of the front. From F draw a line to j,
cutting at 9 ; draw a parallel from 9 to 10. For the windows
and door, lay their original meafurements on A F and A C,
drawing vifuals to j, as the figure fliews ; and as the front is
parallel to the pidurc, confequently each object on it is fimilar
to their originals ■••, and therefore lines perpendicular to 8, 7,
* See pages 274 and 27J.
I and
( 310 )
and 9,8, will form the fides, tops, and bottoms of each window
and doorway. From 9, 10 draw lines to ^', the vaniflring point
of the roof; from 10 draw a line to s, the center. Take then
I, 3, the fpan of the roof, and place it from F to B ; and from
B draw a line to j", cutting at 11 ; from 1 1 draw a line to V, be
low the horizon, cutting at 14; from 14 draw a parallel to 13,
for the top of the roof; and from 13 draw a line to V, cutting
the line 10 s at 15, forming the fartheft fide of the roof; draw
a perpendicular from 15 to 6, which w^ill complete the end of
the houfe. Laflly, to find the height of the chimney, draw a
line from s through 14, cutting at E ; and from E lay on the
original height of the chimney to D ; and from D draw a line
to J, cutting a perpendicular from 14, which will give the
height required.
Method fecond. — The front of the houfe being drawn as
has been defcribed, to find the appearance of the roof and gable
end, draw the roof i, 2, 3, as before; and from 4 and 3 draw
lines to d, cutting at 5, 6; from 5, 6 raife perpendiculars at plea
fure ; from 5 draw a parallel to O, cutting the vifual A j at O,
for the center of the left gableend ; from O raife a perpendicular
at pleafure. Take then the perpendicular height of the roof, from
4 to 2, and place it from F to E; and from E draw a line to s,
cutting the aforefaid perpendicular at 14, which will give both
the
( 311 )
the pitch and height of the roof. From 14 draw a parallel to
13, cutting the other perpendicular corrcfpondent \vith 14.
Laftly, from 9 draw a line to 14, and from 10 draw a line to 13,
and from 13 to 15, which will determine the appearance of the
roof, as before.
Example VII. Fig. 34. Plate XXIV.
"To find the Reprefentation of a Hoiife zvhofe Gableend is parallel
to the PiHure.
In this cafe the front that was before paralLl to the pidture
is now turned perpendicular to it. The gable is therefore pa
rallel to the pi(5lure, and is nothing more than a geometrical
elevation, found by laying on the heights on a b, and the
widths on a f, and drawing lines from thefe to j, the center;
w/ is the diftance of the houfe from the pi(5lure ; and a line
from 7n to </, cutting at ;z, finds the reprefentation of that dif
tance. The other lines to the left of m, all tend to d alfo, by
which the windows and doors. Sec. are found ; m q is equal to
the original length of the front, a line therefore from q to d de
termines its apparent length on the picture. For the pitch of
the roof, draw ^ j, cutting at/); from which raife a perpendi
cular ; draw another perpendicular from w, the center of the
other
( 312 )
other gableend; alfo draw the vifiials k s^ /s, for the roof;
which vifuals will cut perpendiculars at b and /, anfwering ta
the points / /^, by which the roof is formed. For the reft, the
figure itfelf is fufficient, by obferving that ti t is the perpendi
cular height of the roof, and / ^ of the cliimiiey.
Example VIII. Fig. 35. Plate XXIV.
How to reprefent a Chair, having its Front parallel to the
PiSIure^
After having made a fcale of feet and inches to propor
tion each part of the chair by, draw A, the profile of the back
and fide rail; and draw B on the right, according to the bevel of
the feat; and obferve, to diftinguifli the fines of each chair, one:
is marked with fmall letters, and the other with numerals.
Let H L be the horizon proportioned by the fcale, about
five feet high from G R the ground line. Make a b equal to the
length of the front ; from which draw lines to j, the center,,
which, in general, ought to be perpendicular over the middle
of the chair, becaufc it affords the moll: eafy and natural vievv
of its back. Next, from q, the width of the feat, draw a line
to the diftance, here out of the plate, cutting the vifual a s ^X c ;
from
( 3^3 )
■
from c draw a parallel to e at pleafiire. Take C D, the bevel of
the feat, and place it from a to d; and from d draw a line to j,
cutting c e at y, which gives the bevel of the feat. From a draw
aline through jk, cutting the horizon at V, which will be the
vanifliing point to every line originally parallel to ay, the fide
rail ; take s V and place the fame fpace to v, M'hich will be the
vanifliing point to the other fide of the chair; therefore from If
draw a line to v, cutting at e, which forms the feat. For the
thicknefs of the back rail, draw a line from p to the diftance, as
the figure fliews. For the height of the back, raife a perpen
dicular a gy and draw a parallel from r to ^ ; draw alfo a per
pendicular from J', and a line from g to V will cut it at 7^ de
termining the height of the back. For the bottom of the
back foot, draw a line from u to the diftance, cutting a per
pendicular from c at w. From w draw a parallel, and from z
draw a line to the vanifhing point V, cutting at .v, which will
determine the place of the back foot '■ . How every other part is
done, muft be evident from infpe<5ling the figure.
* The reader will perceive that the line from z to *• is not accurately drawn, for the
engraver did not follow his copy, otherwife the line would have touched the bottom of the
back foot tending to V, which the learner may prove, by drawing a line from z to V. This
inftance may ferve to (hew the trouble there is with engravers, who in general are totally
ignorant of perfpeftive.
R r Example
( 314 )
Example IX. Fig. 36. Plate XXIV.
How to reprefent a Chair having its Front perpendicular to
the Pi&ure,
In this example the fame ground line, horizon, center, and
diftance, is ufed as in the preceding ; therefore let the fpace 7, i,
be equal to the length of the chair front. From 7 draw a line
to J, and from i draw a line to the diftance, cutting at 16.
Make 7, 9 equal to the length of the fide rail, and from 9 draw
a line to j; make 9, 10 the thicknefs of the back foot, and from
10 draw a line to j, as before. Draw a parallel line for the
depth of the fide rail, and from 8 draw a line to s. Next con
lider how much the back foot fweeps off from the perpendicu
lar, which is equal to the fpace 12, 13, or 2,22; draw vifuals
from each of thefe points, as the example directs. To find the
bevel of the fides, take C D and place it from 7 to 5, and from i
to 3; from which draw lines to the diftance, cutting at 11 and
17; from II and 17 draw parallels cutting the vifual 9 j at 20
and 18; from 7 draw a line to 20, and from 16 draw one to 18,
which will finifh the outline of the feat. Laftly, from 18
and 20 let fall perpendiculars, cutting at 24, 25 ; from which
draw parallels to the vifual 13 j, which gives the bottom of
each
Vf./ pi g
M
rtate.2.i.
.'/nrff.i I /I Jif /u/ifcli^iM, ,>er f^Jr/i/(t/niiii'ii /"'J'"' ■
{t ^ rrn ntrae
r.r/trr,jrfn /]<!
Liiihj/ied III the AcCiiirects. bv G Terry October I'qi.
Mtlf^Sculfi
C 315 )
each back foot ; and for every other particular, a little reflec
tion and obfervation will be fufficient.
Example X. Fig. 37. Plate XXV.
How to reprefent a round fable in Perfpe&ive, having two of
its Claws in front parallel to the FiHure.
Draw a profile of the pillar and claw, as at A. Take a by
the fpring of the claw, from the center of the pillar, and with
it defcribe a circle 1, 2, 3; divide the circle into three equal
parts, fo as to fuit the intended pofition of the claws, as i, 2, 3;
draw from thefe perpendicular lines to /, e^f Reprefent a
fquare 4, 5, 6, 7, equal to the diameter of the top; draw the dia
gonals and diameters of the fquare, and from //draw vifuals
to s ; from C, the center, draw a perpendicular for the pillar ;
and having determined the height of the table at B D, from B D
reprefent a circle for the top, as has been taught in page 289,
fee Fig. 23. Next find the place of the claws; for which make
f e equal/ 2, and from e draw a line to the diflance d^ cutting at
g\ from g draw a parallel to h^ for the other claw. To find the
place of the back claw; extend the compaflTes from e to 3, and
make 4 c equal to it; from c draw a line to the diflance, cutting
at m ; and from m draw a parallel to /, which will be the place
Rr2 of
( 3i6 )
of the claw. For the different parts of the pillar, draw from
the profile lines to the diftance, cutting the perpendicular C F,
as the figure fliews. It now remains for every part to be
finiflied by a good hand and eye accompanied with judgment,
as no other rwles can be of any fervice in cafes of this fort.
Example XI. Fig. 38. Plate XXV.
How to reprefefit an oHagoti Table having one of its Claws in
Front perpendicular to the Pi&ure,
Draw the profile of the pillar and claw, as at B ; and, as in
the other example, take the fpring of the foot or claw from the
center of the pillar, and with it defcribe a circle, and mark,
out the place of the claws at i, 2, 3. Draw i, 2, 3 up to the
ground line, and produce i up to «, for the height of the table.
Reprefent a fquare both at top and bottom, and draw the dia
gonals, finding the center for the pillar. Draw now the dotted
lines from the profile to k u the perpendicular, and where they
cut draw lines to s, the center of the picflure, cutting the center
of the pillar for each refpedive moulding. Next find the fitu
ation of the claws ; having drawn lines from k^ h, a, to j, make
b b equal h /; and from b draw a line to the diftance, cutting at
^, which will be the place for the firfl: claw. Make a c equal
a 3, and from c draw a line to d^ as before, cutting at b ; from b
draw
( 317 )
draw a parallel to <?, then will 3 ehe the i^lace of the two other
claws. From 5 and 4, produced from 7, the height of the toe
draw lines to s ; and from e and l> raife perpendiculars cutting
thefe, which will be the height of the toes of the back claws.
Laftly, we here fuppofe the top to be an irregular odlagon,
wherefore let mnhQ equal to four of its fides ; draw from n m
lines to j, from n draw a line to d, cutting at ; from draw a
parallel to t\ finding the oppofite angle, draw mt\ and from
the diftance draw a line through w, cutting at r ; from r draw
a parallel to p ; and draw p q, which will finilh the o6lagon for
the top.
Example XII. Fig. 39. Plate XXV.
To put a Commode 'fable in Perfpeclive, having its Front pa
rallel to the Figure.
Observe, the ground line for the tables is here ufed as the
horizon for the commode.
Make s d half the diftance, for want of room on the plate,
and make G R the ground line. Draw then the plan P of the
front, according to the intended fcale. And, in cutting of each
vifual line, ufe one half of a foot inftead of a whole one; be
caufe only half the whole diftance is ufed. Therefore, having
drawn
( 3iS )
drawn the vifuals 3 J', B j, draw a line from i foot on the fcale
hne to d the diftance, cuttmg at g\ then will 3^ reprefent a
line two feet long, equal to the breadth of the commode. From
g raife a jjerpendicular, cutting at ;;;, finding the apparent
width of the top ; draw 5, 10 parallel and equal to the height of
the foot and bottom of the commode ; draw parallel lines, alfo,
for the partition below and above the drawer, and for the top^
as fliewn by the figure. Proceed now to find the place of the
feet and the fweep of the front : for the feet take half 3, 4, and
from 3 place it to 6 ; from which draw a line to d, cutting at 2 ;
from 2 draw a parallel cutting B J, for the other foot. Find now
two points by which to direct the fweep of the front thus : draw
perpendicular lines from the plan at 9, 12, and from 13, /, /,
where they cut, draw lines to s ; then take half 8, 9 and place
it from kto i; and from / draw a line to </, cutting at />, finding
a point for the curve ; from p draw a parallel to /, finding the
oppofite point, which will be fufficient for the whole. Lafl:ly,
for the recefs draw vifuals from ;•/, and, fuppofing the recefs
to be a foot deep from front, make ^/ equal half a foot on the
fcale ; draw from e a line to d^ cutting at ; and from draw a
parallel to the oppofite vifual. Every other thing may be learned
by obfervation, without going through a minute detail of every
particular, which would become an exceeding dry tafk indeed.
Example
C 319 )
Example XIII. Fig. 40. Plate XXVI.
How to reprefent a Chair obliquely fitu at ed to the Pi&ure.
In the two former examples of chairs in perfpecflive, the
firft of thefe had its front parallel to the pidure, which is the
moft ufual way of reprefenting a chair when it is wanted to be
viewed as a pattern ; for the back being parallel alfo, it gives
the moft natural and diftindl view of the banifter and all its
parts. The fecond is put with its front perpendicular to the
picture, which is a pofition wanted in the reprefentation of in
ternal views of rooms or paffages : and this third example being
put oblique, is conlidered by painters moft pi(5lurefque or fuit
able for a pi6lure, in which cafe the pattern of the chair is not
much regarded, only its unformal fituation fuiting to the fub
jedt and circumftances of the defign. In this example I fhall
therefore confider myfelf as offering fome alliftance to the
painter, as well as in a few other inftances in this book.
Obferve, that the vanifhing points "uV, and meafuring
points »z M, of this example, are all found by laying the dif
tance downwards to D, for want of room on the plate, and
which needs not here be explained, after what has been done
7 in
( 3^0 )
in problem VI. page 236, as it makes no difference whether the
diftance be above or below the horizon. Therefore proceed in
confidering G R the ground line, drawn parallel to the horizon
H L; on G R make a fcale of inches to proportion every part
by. Make ^/ equal to the original length of the front, which
in parlour chairs is generally 21 or 22 inches; and let aghQ
equal to the width of the feat from the infide of the back
to the front, commonly 16 inches. A.s a is confidered the
nearefl angle to the picture, from a raife a perpendicular at
pleafure, on which the original heights of each part muft be
laid, as from a to w, for the height of the feat rail, about 16
inches without the fluffing. From a and w draw vifuals tend
ing to V and v. From fc draw lines to m, cutting at xy; from
If do the fame, cutting at 3 ; from which points raife perpendi
culars for each foot. Next, from g draw a line to M, cutting at
k; from which raife a perpendicular to ; from draw a line to
V ; and from 4, the infide of the front foot, whofe thicknefs is
fuppofed equal to the bevel of the fide rail, draw a line to v,
cutting at p ; then from w, the outfide of the foot, draw a line
to /), produced till it cut the horizon at 0, which will be the va
nifhing point to every line originally parallel to the fide w p.
From V extend the compalTes to 0, which lay on to O, and O will
be the vanilliing point to all lines parallel to the other fide / 5.
Therefore, from / draw a line to O, which will cut at 5, com
pleting the form of the feat. On the perpendicular line from w,
lay
_F/<jff 2/^.
See. A^ z'n /l. J'^/ ^
■A"
V
^^rr.^^.
\.J'
T^Sh^r^eUcn. t&Z
/iiS&yfiaJ tfj tJ^ ./.</ ./f/ettt fir r Sficra/crt J^^vT Mf., t^9'
( 3^1 )
lay on 21 inches for the height of the back, and diredt a hne to
0, and through/) draw a perpendicular at pleafure for the joint
of the fide rail. Next confider how much the back foot pitches
which in this example is equal b g, and b i is for the thicknefs
of the toe. From thefe draw lines to M, cutting at k^ /, n ; and
from k^ /, Hy draw lines to V, which will cut the vifual b v in
the place for the toe at 8, 6; from 6 raife a perpendicular cut
ting at 7, and from 7 direct a line to V, for the top rail ; and
how the reft is performed muft be obvious from what has al
ready been faid and done.
Example XIV. Fig. 41. Plate XXVI.
To put a Cylinder Dejk and Bookcafe in Perfpe&ive^ having its
Front oblique to the Pi&ure.
Draw firft an elevation of the cornice and pediment, and
proportion the pediment according to Fig. 36, Plate V. by di
viding half the length of the cornice into nine equal parts, of
which take four for the pitch. Take one of thefe parts for the
height of the pedeftal, and the remaining three for the vafe.
Draw lines up to the ground line at 7, r, F, />,/, and the vanifh
ing points having been already found, draw from r lines tend
ing to each; from r, the neareft angle of the bookcafe, raife a
S f perpendicular
( 322 )
perpendicular at pleafurc, on which the feveral heights muft
be laid. From r to A lay on the depth of the lower part, and
dire6l a line to M, cutting at U, and make A B the depth of the
bookcafe, and draw a line as before, cutting at X, from which
raife a perpendicular. In the fame manner draw lines from F/>,
tending to ;«, and cutting at 3, 12, for the length and center of
the bookcafe. The feveral original heights for the defk part,
doors, and cornice, muft now be placed on the perpendicular,
from which lines muft be drawn to each vanifliing point. And
here we muft obferve, that as the neareft angle of the bookcafe
comes forward to the pidlure ■■'••, confequently the Aider is on
this fide of it. To projedt the Aider in this cafe, a vanifhing
point muft be found, from which, if a line be directed it will
pafs through the diagonal of any fquare. Thus : on D, the dif
tance, fweep the arch S, and bifed: it at S, and through S diredt
a line to the horizon, cutting at d on the fmall drawers ; lay
from r to ^ a fpace equal to the projedlion of the Aider ; and
from g dire<St a line to m^ cutting at / ; from / raife a perpendi
cular to ^; and from ^, the aforefaid vanifliing point, draw a
line through^ at pleafure; and from v draw a vifual for the
end of the Aider, cutting at «; from n draw a line to V, and
from V draw one through 10, for the other end of the Aider.
The opening of the door is next to be confidered. It is evident
* Wlien any objedl is reprefented to touch the groundline, that part which touchej
it is fiud to be iu the pidture.
7 that
( 323 )
that a door turning on its hinges muft defcribe a femicircle, and
therefore if a femi is reprefented, whofe radius is equal to the
breadth of the door, its circumference will determine any open
ing that can be propofed.
To defcribe the femicircle proceed thus. — From the vanifh
point V draw a line through z, the center of the bookcafe, and
produce it at pleafure ; then from d, the vanifliing point of any
diagonal, draw a line through 12, cutting at C ; from C draw a
line to V ; and from v draw a line through 12, cutting at K ;
and from K draw another diagonal to d, cutting at w ; from v
draw a line through w^ cutting at E, and produced to Q, cutting
a parallel from C ; from 12 to E draw a diagonal, and if the
door is intended to be opened 45 degrees more than fquare, pio
duce this diagonal, as fliewn by the dotted line, till it cut the
horizon, and its interfe6tion with it will be the vanifhing point
for the top and bottom of the door. Divide C Q into feven
equal parts, and from one of which at 7 diredt a line to w, cmt
ting at 13; and from 13 draw a vifual to v^ cutting at i ; from
I draw a vifual to V, cutting the other diagonal at 2 ; from 2
raife a perpendicular for the apparent breadth of the door in this
pofition ; and from the laft mentioned vanifliing point found
by the dotted line, draw lines for the top and bottom of the
door, by which it may be completed. For the ends of the cy
linder we need not fay any thing, as this is the fame as in pro
S f 2 blem
. C 324 )
blem XXII. therefore we fhall proceed with the cornice and pe
diment.
Set off the projeilion q r of the cornice at 6, 5, on a parallel
line drawn at the full height of the bookcafe, and drasv lines
to V, and the line 5 will cut the perpendicular raifed from X,
and the line 6 will cut a perpendicular at 8, fuppofed to be
raifed from /, the miter point of the cornice, which is found by
drawing a line from «', the vanilliing point of the diagonal to X,
cutting at t\ fi"om t dire<5l a line to V, cutting at ^; and from a
raife a perpendicular, which will cut a line drawn from 8 to V,
at the other miter point ; every other part of the cornice muft
be finiflied by the reader's judgment, governed by thefe prin
ciples, as it would be impoflible to apply every rule in fuch
fmall examples.
Laftly, for the pitch of the pediment, a vanifhing point
muft be found, according to the principles in Problem IX. Plate
XVI. by drawing a line from m parallel to the pitch line at the
elevation P, produced to VP, cutting a perpendicular from V;
from 8 draw a line to V P, cutting a perpendicular in the center
of the front edge of its cornice ; from which draw the other
lide of the pediment, which, if produced, would cut a point as
much below the horizon as V P is above it. Thefe pitch lines
being found, the fcroll pediment may be drawn by hand with
fufficient
( 325 )
fufficient accuracy; but if the pediment be a ftraight pitch, then
the lines for each moulding muft tend to V P, and to a point as
much below the horizon. And I would here obferve, that in
drawing after thefe examples, it is not intended that the dif
tances made ufe of in them iliould be a precedent to the learner.
Thefe are chofen to fuit the plate ; but the learner having fuf
ficient room on his drawingboard, muft choofe his diftance to
give the moft natural and pleafing effedt to his drawing, by the
rules already laid down. See page 275.
In thefe examples almoft every difficult part of perfpeflive
is introduced, and it is prefumed that, after the learner has
made himfelf fully mafter of them, nothing will occur in prac
tice that can give him much trouble, efpecially if he be pro
perly acquainted with the fhort theory that has been given.
However I am fully perfuaded, that no cabinetmaker or up
holfterer will ever want to pradlife more ; and, if I am not mif
taken, there are but very few painters who are at the trouble of
pra6lifing fo much. But if the reader's profeffion or neceffities
fliould require him to extend his fkill in this art further than
what has been advanced in this treatife, I will freely refer him to.
Mr. Malton's complete Treatife, from which, it is here gratefully
acknowledged, 1 have received coniiderable affiftance.
SECTION*
( 326 )
SECTION VI.
Containing a JJjort View of the Nature and Principles of Shadows^
caufed by the Sun coming in different Directions to the Pic
ture \ together with fome Remarks on the Eff'eH of Light and
Shade in general.
What has hitherto been done in the foregoing feclions is
termed by artifts linear perfpedtive, which propofes rules for
drawing the outlines of objedls in every fituation, proportioned
one to another according to their magnitude and diftance from
the pidture; but the fubjecl of the prefent fedtion is to propofe
rules for giving efFed to thefe outlines, by the different cir
cumftances of light and fhade. The mere outlines of a draw
ing is but as a fkeleton without flelh or life, but by the addi
tion of proper light and fhadow, we may almoft behold nature
in a picture : and that which before appeared flat and infipid,
now obtains the force and effetSl of the objects themfelves.
The dodlrine of hght and fhadow may be confidered under
three heads. As,
Firft, when the force of the fun's rays fall on objects, and
thereby produce a Ihadow ftrongly defined.
Secondly,
( 327 )
Secondly, When the fun is not fuppofed to fhine, and the
fhadow is only produced by light fimply confidered, or by
reflediion.
Thirdly, When the light or fhade of one objefl is propor
tioned with that of another at a greater diftance in the fame
picture. This is termed the aerial part of perfpedlive, or the
diminution of tints according to the diftance of objects.
The firft of thefe heads is, however, that which principally
concerns us, it being reducible to ftridt rules ; the fecond fol
lows of courfe ; and the laft can only be learned by obfervation
and practice.
In confidering the fhadows caufed by the fun's rays we
may obferve the following diftin6lions.
Firft, When the fun's rays are in the plane of the pi6ture,
or, which is the fame thing, when they are confidered parallel
to it.
Secondly, When the rays come from behind the pidlure.
And,
Thirdly, When they have their dire<Stion from the front of
the pidture.
Case
( 3^8 )
Case I. Fig. 42. Plate XXVI.
To proje& the Shadows of Obje&s in various Pojitions when the
Sun's Rays are parallel to the Pi&ure,
The fun, which is the great fource of light, being at an
immenfe diftance from the earth, the rays of light iffuing from
it in rightlined dire<5tions, are confidered as parallel to each
other. The truth of this is proved by the parallel fhadows
which it always produces on a plane from objects which are
parallel to each other and of equal thicknefs.
When, therefore, the rays are confidered as parallel to the
pidlure, the fliadows of all objeds are found by parallel lines
pairing by the angles of each objed, and in fuch a degree of
inclination as the fun is fuppofed to be in, either to the right or
left of the center of the pi<f^ure. Thefe lines, reprefenting the
fun's rays, being cut by lines from the bafes of each object
drawn parallel to the groundline, find every fliadow in this
cafe.
The learner will recolledl, that in ftating the theory of
lines parallel to the pidture in page 215, it is there faid, " Lines
" which are parallel to the pidture can have no vanifliing line
or
( 329 )
" or point in it, becaufe if infinitely produced would never
" cut it." The fame holds good in the theory of fhadows when
the fun's rays are parallel to the pi6lure ; for then they cannot
cut it, and confequently a vanifliing point is not wanted in this
cafe.
Hence the fliadows of all lines perpendicular to the ground
are drawn parallel to the ground line ; and as, in perfpedtive,
all lines perpendicular to the pi6lure vanifli into its center, fo
likewife the Ihadows of every fuch line will tend to it. There
fore,
Example I. Fig. 42.
Suppose A to be the reprefentation of a wall perpendicular
to the ground and to the picSture, R R is a ray from the fun in
clining to the left in an angle of fortyfive degrees, therefore
the fliadow 2, 3 of the perpendicular line i, 2 is equal in length
to the line itfelf. Draw the other ray r r parallel to R R, and
the fliadow r will be equal to the height of the wall r. The
line I r is originally perpendicular to the pidture, and vanifhes
in j, the center ; fo is its Ihadow 3 r, which likewife tends
to it.
T t Example
( 330 )
Example II. Fig. 42.
Suppose EB an objedt any where on the ground, whofe
fides EB are oblique to the pi6lure. Draw through each angle
a ray rr parallel with RR the given one, and draw lines from
the foot of each perpendicular, as 4, 6, parallel to the ground
line, and their fedlions with each other will form points for the
outline of the fhadow. Laftly, from the point 5 draw a line
to 7, and from 7 draw one to 8, and filling it up, the fhadow will
be completed.
Obferve, the line 4, 9, and its parallels, are not perpendicular
to the picture ; therefore its fliadow line 5 7 does not tend to s
the center, but to the fame vanifliing point necelTary for draw
ing the fide B. In the fame manner the fhadow line 7 8 vaniflies
to the point requifite for drawing the fide E.
Example III. Fig. 42.
Let D be an objed: having the fide D inclined to the hori
zon, and the other fides oblique to the picture. Draw a ray
through ^, and through /parallel to the given ray RR ; from^
the foot of b^ and from d the foot of/, draw lines parallel to the
ground
( 331 )
ground line, which will interfe6t the rays at a and c. To com
plete the fhadow, draw a line from the extremity of the inclined
plane to a^ and from ato c»
Example IV. Fig. 42.
Let F be the flump of a column refting on one end, whofe
fhadow is required. Find the diameter of the column each
way, both at top and bottom, as the figure fliews ; and through
the extremities of thefe diameters draw parallel rays as before.
Lallly, from the foot of each perpendicular falling from the
center and diameter, draw hnes parallel to the ground line, cut
ting the rays at v^w^X', draw a curve to pafs through thefc
three points, and the fliadow will be projected.
Thus it is evident how eafy a matter it is to projed: the
fhadow of any kind of obje6l when the rays are parallel to the
pi(5ture, and when the fliadow is to fall on the ground plane, as
in the foregoing examples.
It is, however, fometimes neceflary to projecSt fhadows fall
ing on other objects contiguous to thofe whofe fhadows are re
quired. Therefore,
Tta Example
( 332 )
Example I. Fig. 42.
Suppose the objecfl D ftanding in the way of the fliadow of
A, a plane of r^ys palling by the end i, 2 of the wall, will make
a fe6tion of D at /, /, 3; which is found by drawing the line
from 2 through to 3, and from 3, where it cuts the ray R R,
raife a perpendicular to /', and from / draw a line to /, which
will determine how far the fhadow comes in front. Laftly, the
bafe line t d^ of the object D, cuts a line from 3 at ^; therefore,
from e raife a perpendicular correfponding with 3 /, and from /
draw a line to the aforefaid perpendicular, and the fhadow, fo
far as it afFe<fls the inclined plane D, will be found.
Example II. Fig. 42.
Suppose the objed: C near fome inclined plane G, whofe
fhadow falls upon it. To find the fliadow, draw a line h to G,
parallel to the ground line, at pleafure; draw then a ray, as
before, cutting at G, where the fhadow would have terminated
if the inclined plane had not been there ; draw m /parallel to n 0,
cutting the ray at /) ; do the fame at the other end, and the
fhadow will be completed.
Before
( 333 )
Before I enter upon the other cafes of Ihadows, I would
here remark, that this which has now been exemplified is, in
my opinion, the moft ufeful, as well as moft eafily pradlifed.
Particularly it is the moft ufeful to the cabinetmaker and up
holfterer, who only want it for fhading different pieces of fur
niture; becaufe the fliadows thus proje6led will be to the right
or left of the piece, according as the light is fuppofed to come
in; but in the two following cafes of the fun's rays, the fhadows
will be projected either behind, or onthe front of the piece of
furniture, which fituations of lliadow are liable to the following
obje6tions.
Firft, if the rays come from behind the pi(5lure, the front
of the piece will be all in fliadow, and confequently the effe£t
of diftindtnefs of parts, wliich is always expelled in furniture,
will be deftroyed.
Secondly, if the rays come on the front, then the fhadow
will be behind the piece, and therefore little or none of it will
be feen, unlefs the point of light be taken very low, which is
not very agreeable. Befides, the light coming thus ftrong on
the piece, leaves a glare on the front that does not produce a
pleafing efFedt in furniture, nor fufHciently diftinguiflies the
front from the white ground of paper on which it is generally
drawn.
Painters,
( 334 )
Painters, indeed, are faid to make this laftmentioned pofi
tion of light to the picTtiire their choice, becaufe, I fuppofe, it
clears their picture from the appearance of long black fhadows,
which would frequently look too harfli, and introduce confu
fion, as is the cafe when the light comes in from behind. Yet
as every cafe of fhadowing may be neceflary at times, though
not out of choice, I fliall therefore proceed to the fecond cafe
propofed.
Case II. Fig. 43. Plate XXVI.
To prqje& the Sbadoivs of Obje&s tuhen the Rays come in a Direc
tion from behind the Figure.
When a ray of light comes in a diredtion not parallel to
the pi6ture, it will neceflarily cut it in fome point in the hori
zontal line, or vanifliing line of the ground plane ; for the fun
being at an immenfe diftance, and the plane of the horizon
being confidered as infinitely extended, we may fuppofe a per
pendicular let fall from the place of the fun will touch fome
where on the horizon. And hence, the point where it touches
the horizon is the vanifhing point of the fhadows, and confe
quently a line drawn through the faid point perpendicular to
the horizon will be the vanifhing line of the fun's rays ; and any
where on this line, if a point be fixed according to the fuppofed
6 altitude
( 335 )
altitude of the fun, it will be the vanifhing point of thofe
rays.
Thus : — in Fig. 43, the center and diftance of the pi6ture
remaining the fame as when ufed for drawing the cube, let it
be required to find its fhadow when the fun's inclination to the
left is thirtytwo degrees, and when its altitude is fortyfive.
From ^, the diftance, draw the line dh^ inclining from the per
pendicular J ^ in an angle of thirtytwo degrees ; and through h
draw S S perpendicular to the horizon ; then will S S be the va
nifhing line for the fun's rays. Make ^ M equal /6 6?, and from
M draw M S, making an angle with the horizon equal to forty
five degrees ; then will S above the horizon be the vanifliing
point of the rays when the fun comes from behind the pidlure,
and S below it will fupply its place when the rays come on the
front. From the vanifliing point h of the fhadow draw lines
through the angles i, 3, 8, of the cube ; and from S draw lines
through its upper angles 2, 4, 9, interfedting the lines drawn
from h in the points 5, 6, lo; from the point 5 draw a line to 6,
and from 6 a line to 10, which completes the fliadow.
Obfervations on the 'Theory of the above Figure.
The rays S 6 and S 10, forming a triangle, may be confi
dered as a plane of rays pafling by the angle 4, 9 of the cube,
and
( 3?>(^ )
and being ftopped on the ground plane at 6, lo, occafions a
Ihadow up to the cube, which fliadow will vanifli in the line
6, 10, to V; becaufe the angle or line 4, 9, which projected it,
was drawn to and vaniflies in V ; confequently a line from V
to S, the fuppofed place of the fun, will be the vanifliing line of
the faid plane of rays. The fliadovv on the other fide is com
pofed of two lines, becaufe it is projedled by two lines in dif
ferent pofitions to each other. Thus the line' 2, 4, originally
parallel to the horizon and to the ground, proje<5ls the fliadow
line 5, 5 by the plane of rays 5, S, 6 ; which fliadow line 5, 6 will
vanifli in V, becaufe the angle or line 2, 4 vaniflies there. The
fhadow line 5, i is projedled from the perpendicular line i, 2 by
the plane of rays 5, ^, S, pafling by the angle or perpendicular
line I, 2, and therefore the fliadow line 5, i will vanifli in h, the
feat of the luminary on the pidlure ; through which a line S S
pafling in a perpendicular diredlion to the horizon, anfwerable
to the perpendicular fides of the cube, is the vanifliing line of
the plane of rays 5, S, h^ in the fame manner, and for the fame
reafon, as the horizontal <u V is the vanifliing line of the flia
dows of lines originally parallel to it. The vanifliing line S S of
the fun's rays may be fuppofed to move along the horizon
anfwerable to the fun's inclination to the right or left of the
center of the pi6lure s, whether the fun be fuppofed on this or
that fide of the picture, or as we conceive of it by the figure,
whether it be above or below the horizon. Hence, if a plane
of
( 337 )
of rays be Jlippofed to come from behind the pi6liire, in a di
redtion perpendicvilar to it, the place of the fun will be fome
where on a perpendicular line drawn through the center of the
picture, as S d. And this place of the fun, or, which is the
fame thing, the vanifliing point S, of its rays, will be above or
below the horizon, according to the fuppofed altitude of the
fun. If, therefore, we imagiiie the fun's altitude to be as before,
its place will" be at d when the fun is behind the pidure, and at
S when it is before it ; arid the vanifliing point of the fhadow
will be at j, the center of th« picture. This is evident, for the
angle V, d^ y, is the fame and equal to M, S, ^. In both cafes the
lines /?* S, od:, of the angles of the fun's altitude are the fame,
being equal to the diftance jV of the picflure : for, in the fliadow'
of the cube, when the plane of rays from behind the pidture'
eutit in the oblique diredtion of the line db, the line dh is then'
cbrilidered as the diftance of the pi6lure, and being turned up
to S, is equal to the dillance of the place of the fun above the
horizon. And fuppofe the rays to come to the picture in the
dire6liori of d v, then b would be moved to v, and v d would be
equal to the diftance of the pidture ; and being turned up to v S,
S would then be the place of the fun, or the vanifliing point of
its' irays, and v the vanifliing point both of the fhadow and fide
of the cube 2, 4. In which cafe we fliould only have the fliadow
of the fide 4, 9, 3, 8.
Uu It
( 338 )
I
It is further obfervable, that as the fun may be fuppofed to
move in a circle, and if that circle be defcribed by a radius equal
to the diftance of the pi(5ture, we may fhew the different
fhadows of the fun upon objedls at the various times of the
day.
Thus : — in Fig. 44, fuppofe a line drawn from E W forming
the horizon ; from the center s defcribe a circle with the dif
tance of the pi6ture, and through s draw a hne perpendicular
to the horizon, and M will be the place of the fun at noon.
Now let it be required to find the morning fhadow of the rod a
when the fun has rifen 40 degrees above the horizon, as at 4o''S.
From 40" S let fall a perpendicular to the horizon at 6, and draw
it through to the other femicircle ; from i*, the vanilhing point,
of the fhadow, draw lines pafTmg by the bottom of the rod at
pleafure; and from 40° S, the place of the fun, draw a ray
through a^ the top of the rod, cutting at i ; which fhews the
length of the fhadow required. Suppofe the fliadow of the
fame rod be wanted at noon, s will then be the vanifhing point
of the fhadow, and M the vanifliing point of the fun's rays, and
the length of the fhadow will be at 5. Again, if it be required
to find the fhadow of the fame rod after the fun has palTed the
meridian 50 degrees, this will bring the fun to the fame degree
in the afternoon as it was in the morning ; and by drawing lines
6 in
( 339 )
in the fame manner as in the morning, the Ihadow in the after
noon will be at 2.
Now, if the fun be conjGdered on this lide the picture, the
Ihadows of the fame rod a, at thefe different periods of the day,
will be refpedlively beyond the rod at 3, 4, 6, towards the hori
zon ; which is done by tranfprojefting the place of the fun to
SMS, and drawing rays from the top of the rod to each place
of the fun. Thus : from a draw the dotted line to S on the left,
cutting at 3, and 3 will be the length of the morning fliadow ;
and from a draw the dotted line to S on the right, cutting at 4,
which will be the evening fliadow. Laftly, a dotted line from
a to M, cutting at 6, will be the fliadow at noon, which is
hardly feen on the pidlure. Thus we fee that the fliadows of a
morning or evening view are long, tending oppoflte ways; and
thofe of a view reprefenting noonday are fliort, tending from
fouth to north, nearly fo. But if we lived in a meridian on the
line, then it is evident that at noon there would not be the leafl:
fliadow of objects of equal thicknefs fl:anding perpendicular on the
ground: for, fuppofe the rod a moved into the line M M, then the
obje(5t would be in the fame plane with the rays of the fun; and
being diredly under it, of courfe all fliadow would be excluded
excepting fufpending obje(51;s, as No. 2, and thofe fupported like
tables ; in which cafe the rays ;• r faJIing perpendicular to the
U u 2 ground,
( 340 )
ground, and parallel to each other, on accoiint of the fun's
great diftance, they would form a cylinder, of which the flia
dow would be a parallel feition, and therefore muft be perfedtly
iimilar to the object itfelf,both in magnitude and form, as muft
be evident from the figure, and a little refiedtion. .on. theijfbre
going principles. iftoq'loi 2d Iliv/
'" <'■'■: tiff ;nOv^
^ASE III. , Hsl^diio
'fo find the Frojeciions of Shadows when the Sun's Rays copte on
the Front of the Figure.
Having already explained the theory of this in what has
now been advanced, it remains only to give an example or two
to illuftratc it.
. Example I. Fig. 45. Plate XXVI.
When the Shadow falls on the Ground.
In Fig. 45, A is a prifm whofe fliadow is projedled by the
fun as above propofed, h is the vanifhing point of the fliadow,
V of the fide of the cube, and S of the rays. Therefore from
the angles i, 2, 3, draw lines to h\ and from 4, 5, 6, at the top,
correfponding with thefe, draw lines to S, cutting at % c, b \
I from
( 341 )
from b draw a line to <r, and fiom c to 9, which, when filled up,
will complete the fhadow.
Example II. Fig. 46. Plate XXVI.
'ur
When the Shadow falls at the fame Time on upright^ oblique ^ and
horizontal Plajies.
!0 "J
This figure having the moft necefTary lines for reprefent
ing the two houfes, as well as for finding the lliadow of one
houfe falling upon the other, may be confidered as an example
both of perfpe6live and of fliadow. And as the lines for both
are here joined together in one view, it will Hiew their relation,
and the necefTary dependence they have on each other ; Avhich,
it is prefumed, will contribute more to the learner's advantage,
than if many examples of fhadowing had been added without
regard to the perfpecftive lines.
The horizon and ground line being drawn, fix the center
of the pi6lure as ufual ; from which raife a perpendicular as to
d. Make d the diiiance of the picture, and, according to the
obliquity fuitable for the front of the houfe, draw a line to V,
for one vanifhing point; next draw V d, and from d draw a line
to V, at right angles with V d\ becaufe the end and front of the
houfe are originally at right angles to each other. Make v M
equal to vd^ and whatever angle the pitch of the roof makes,
produce
( 342 )
produce a line from M equal to that angle, continued till it cut
a line perpendicular to v, as at V ; then is V the vanifliing point
for the fide of the roof of both houfes, and a line from V to V
will be the vanifliing point of the plane which the roof is in, and
H will be the vanifliing point of fliadows lying in the faid
plane ; and producing V V at pleafure, and meeting it in o at
Fig. 44, by a parallel from S, o will be the vanifliing point of
the fun's rays on that plane. Extend the compalTes from V to
«y, and place it below the horizon, and that point will ferve for
the other fide of both roofs. The houfes being completed in
their outlines, according to thefe vanifliing points, proceed to
fliade them upon a fuppofition that the light comes on in the
front of the picflure, and in a dire(ftion from the left hand pa
rallel to the dotted line dh. Therefore the point b will be the
vanifliing point of the fhadows falling upon the ground plane,
and producing b perpendicular to the vanifliing line V V, H
will be the vanifliing point as aforefaid. The place of the fun
S is fixed very losv, not as a precedent, but that it might throw
the fliadow of the firft houfe on the fecond, affording an occa
fion of fliewing the nature of fuch fliadows.
From o; the pitch of the roof on the gableend, draw a line
to S ; and from a draw a fine to b^ which will cut the front of
the other houfe at o; from o raife a perpendicular, cutting the
line drawn from ^ to i? in ^ ; from e diredl a line to V, the va
nifliing
( 343 )
nifliing point for the fronts of each houfe, which gives the
fliadovv for the roof. From the tops of each chimney draw
lines to S, and obferve that the fliadovv of the firft chimney falls
partlj^ on the roof, becaufe the ray drawn to S cuts the roof,
and that ray muft be cut again, by drawing a line from the top
of the perpendicular fliadow o ^ to H, the vanifliing point of
fuch fliadows as fall on the roof, and from the top of the fha
dow on the roof diredt a line to o, in Fig. 44, which gives the
complete fliado w of the chimney. Laftly, from ^, at the bottom
of the fecond houfe, draw a line to b ; and cut that line by two
others, one from the top of the chimney, and another from the
pitch of the roof, as before; from thefe interfedlions draw lines
to V, the vanifliing point of the houfe, and the fliadows will be
finiflied..
Of Shadows when the Sun is not fuppofed to Jhine, or thofe pro^
duced by common Light,
After what has been faid on fliadows produced by the
fim, it will not be requifite to fay much on this head. It will,
however, admit of a few remarks.
And firfl:, fuppofe an objedt ^, b^ c. Fig. 47, placed to
the light, and confider the parallel lines as rays of common
4ight falling on it ; for common light directs its courfe to ob
jeds.
l( 344 )
}e£ts in this manner. Now it is evident, therefore, that the
fide or plane a m ill have moft of the light, becaufe the rays fall
nearly perpendicular on it, which confeqnently excludes all'
fliadow ; but the plane or fide ^ receives the faid rays obliquely,
and in proportion thereto occafions a fliadow, becaufe the light
partly mifles the furface. The plane e is totally in fliadow, be '
caufe the ray r cannot touch that furface.
Secondly, in fliadows of this kind the contraft of light and
fliade is not fo fi:rong as when the fun's rays fall on obje<fls ;
the light is not fo glaring, nor the fliadows fo black. The out
lines of fuch fliadows ought not to be ftrongly defined, but
faint, and fometimes indifl:in£l, efpecially when the light is fup "
pofed to come from different apertures.
Laflly, fuch obje<51:s as are fuppofed to be viewed in a room ,
have their upper parts lighteil ; but the lighted parts will bear
a tint, and fometimes confiderable, fo that there will not be
much oppofition of light andfhade in their different furfaces.
It is requifite to confider the natural colours of obje6ls, in
order to fix the tone and true fcale of light fuitable to them .
The lighteil: part of an objecfl that is of itfelf black,' would be
* This is alfo necefiary \yhen the fun is fuppofed to iliine.
a fliade
( 345 )
a fhade to one that is white, and therefore, in producing a fha
dow to any thing black or blue, it will require all the force and
ftrength of the Indian ink. The other colours, as green and
yellow, &c. will alfo require a due degree of light and Ihade to
diflinguilli them by.
Mr. Kirby confiders the colours receding from white to
black in the following order: / e. yellow after white, then
green, red, blue, and black, fucceffively. It is difficult, how
ever, to diftinguifli fome of thefe by the effedl of Indian ink,
yet it is evident fomething may be done towards it. Thus : the
cube W is fuppofed to be white, Y yellow, G green, R red, B
blue, and BL black^'.
Of the Proportion of Tints fuited to ObjeHs at different DijJances in
the fame PiBure. See a View, Plate XXVI.
It is evident, from the nature of perfpedive in general,
that not only the proper dimenfions of objeds, but alfo the de
gree of tint, is eflential in making them appear at different dif
This is not the order of the fimple colours, according to Sir Ifaac Newton's theory
of their origin. His theory informs us, that when the rays of light are feparated by the re
fradion of a prifm, the firft will be red, then orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and
violet, fucceffively. See his Optics, Book I. Prop. 6. According to this, white is not a
fimple colour, but a compound or mixture of all that are fimple, and black a total privation
of every colour.
X X tances.
( 346 )
tanccs. For, as in iineai^ perfpeclive, objcifls are viewed under
a fnialler angle in proportion as they are at a diftance, fo in the
aerial part every tint and Ihadow gradually weakens as the obje6t
is iituated at a diitance from the front of the picture. The
reafon of this is obvious, when it is admitted that we are made
to fee obje6ts by innumerable beams of light iffuing from them
to the eye. It is eafy then to conceive, that when thefe beams
or rays of light have to make their way through the air from
diftant parts of the horizon to the eye, they muft greatly weaken
before their arrival to it, and therefore fuch diftant objeds muft
appear lefs diftindl and more dim in proportion to that diftance.
Hence, in a pi(5ture, as in the view given in Plate XXVI. objedls
on the fore ground are not only larger, but they are more made
out, more diftindl, and ftrongly marked. Their lights are
brighter, and their fliades are darker, than thofe on the back
ground. This will, perhaps, be more eafily underftood by the
following obfervations on the view.
The tree on the left is neareft to the eye of the fpeilator,
and is therefore moft made out ; its leaves are feen in clufters,
and its fliade is ftrong.
The firft tree on the right, being further back, is lefs dif
tinft in its parts, and rather fainter in its ftiadows ; and fo of the
reft in proportion to their diftance.
With
( 347 )
With refpeil to the honfes, we fee the fecond weaker in its
parts, and its fhadow, partly on the water and on the ground,
fainter than that of the firft. The laft houfe being at a vaft
diftance, appears as one mafs without diftinftion of parts ; and
thus objedls diminifh off till they and the horizon on which they
Hand mix with the fky.
Of the reflected Images of ObjeHs on Water,
To afcertain the reflected images of objects on water is ex
ceeding eafy, and very elTential to fome pi6tures. It is a law in
catoptrics ••', that the angle of refic6tion is always equal to the
angle of incidence t.
The angle of incidence and refledlion may be thus under
ftood and diftinguifhed. The inclined pofl, and its fhadow on
the water, form an angle with each other; and at the bottom of
the poll, where the line of refledlion on the water and the line
* Catoptrics, from KottCivlpov, katoptron, a mirror or lookingglafs. Catoptrics teach
the fcience of reflex vifion, and optics that of direft vifion, though in tlie general and ex
lenfive meaning of the term optics, " from cnrhyai, optomai, I fee," it includes in it
«' whatever relates to fight, or the doftrine of vifion ;" and therefore mull imply dioptrics
alfo, which teaches the properties of refracted vifion ; that is, when rays of light pafs through
one medium into another, as air and water.
t See fecond axiom of Sir Ifaac Newton's Optics.
X X 2 of
( 348 )
of incident rays from the poll meet, that point is termed the
point of incidence ; and if from the top of the poll a perpendi
cular be let fall, it will form a triangle ; and if that triangle be
bifeaed, that is, by drawing a parallel line from the point of
incidence b, cutting the perpendicular at c, then the angle c, «, b,
is the angle of incidence, and c, d, b, the angle of refle<flion,
•which are equal. Therefore if an objed: be perpendicular to
the horizon, its refleaed image on water will alfo be perpendi
cular, but in an inverted pofition to the objedl which refle<5ls
the image. And whatever angle of obliquity any objedl makes
Avith the ground, the fame will be its refledlion to the furface
of the water.
The refleclions of images on water are the fame as thofe in
a plain mirror. The furface of the mirror or lookingglafs is
the plane of reflexion ; and it is evident, that in whatever pofi
tion any objev5l is prefented to it, the fame will be that of its re
fledion on the faid plane. If a rod, &c. be placed perpendicular
to the mirror, its refleiled image will be perpendicular to it alfo.
And if one end of it touch the glafs, its image will alfo appear
to touch the furface of it ; or if it is withdrawn, its image will
appear equally removed from the refledling plane. This expe
riment is within the reach of every one, and will be fufficient
to convince any of the truth of the above propofition.
Example
( 349 )
Example I. See the View, Plate XXVI.
If, therefore, the reflexion of the indined poft be
wanted, let fall a perpendicular at pleafure, and cut that per
pendicular by a line drawn from the bottom of the poft in
clining to the faid perpendicular in an angle equal to the ob
jedl, and it will give the length and inclination of the refleaed
image. And obferve, that the length of the refleaion on
the water will be in proportion to the diftance of the objea
from it; confequently if the poft were removed a little fur
ther from the edge of the water, we fliould lofe its refleaion
entirely.
Example II.
If it be required to find the refleaion of any of the trees
fuppofed to ftand nearly perpendicular, let fall a perpendicular
from the bottom of it, and take the whole height of the tree
and place it downwards from the bottom of it, then take the
length of the trunk and do likewife, which will give the reflec
tion as required.
Laftly,
( 350 )
Laftly, it is manifeft from thefe principles, that if any
obje<5l be floating in the water, fuch as a piece of timber or
a Ihip, that its refle6ted image will be equal in length to
the objedt itfelf, and the depth of the refle£tion below the fur
face of the water will be equal to the height of the obje(5t
above it.
END OP THE SECOND PART.
THE
THE
CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S
D R A W I N GB O O K.
PART III.
CONTAINING A DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL PIECES OF
FURNITURE. I. OF THE USE AND STYLE OF FINISHING
EACH PIECE. 2. GENERAL REMARKS ON THE MANUFAC
TURING PART OF SUCH PIECES AS MAY REQUIRE IT. 3. AN
EXPLANATION OF THE PERSPECTIVE LINES WHERE THEY
ARE INTRODUCED. TO WHICH IS ADDED, A CORRECT AND
QUICK METHOD OF CONTRACTING AND ENLARGING COR
NICES OR OTHER MOULDINGS OF ANY GIVEN PATTERN.
INTRODUCTION.
The defign of this Part of the Book is intended to exhibit the
prefent tafte of furniture, and at the fame time to give the
workman fome afliftance in the manufadiiring part of it.
I am fenfible, however, that feveral perfons who have al
ready encouraged the work, will not want any help of this
3 nature ;
( r,^ )
nature ; but it is prefumed many will who are not much con
verfant in the bufinefs, and who have had no opportunity of
feeing good pieces of furniture executed.
For the advantage of fuch, it is hoped that the experienced
workman will exercife candour and patience in reading the in
ftru6tions intended, not for himfelf, but for thofe now men
tioned.
There are few but what may, with propriety, refleft on
their own paft ignorance, even in things which afterwards be
come exceeding fimple and eafy by a little practice and experi
ence. Such a refledlion ought, therefore, to promote both
candour and good nature in the minds of proficients, when they
read the documents neceffary to young beginners. And yet,
I hope, it may be faid, without arrogance, that it is probable
the experienced workman may derive fome information from
the fubfequent remarks, when it is confidered that they are
made not merely from the knowledge and experience I have
myfelf of the bulinefs, but from that of other good workmen.
In converfing with cabinetmakers, I find no one individual
equally experienced in every job of work. There are certain
pieces made in one fhop which are not manufadlured in an
other, on which account the beft of workmen are fometimes
Itrangers
^::^z
•( 353 )
ftrangers to particular pieces of furniture. For this reafon X '\
have made it my biifinefs to apply to the beft workmen in dif
ferent fhops, to obtain their affiftance in the explanation of fuch v ?=^
pieces as they have been mofi: acquainted with. And, in gene "*
ral, my requeft has been complied with, from the generous ''''■
motive of making the book as generally ufeful as poffible.
The methods therefore propofed, and the remarks made,
may be depended on by thofe who have not yet had an oppor ^ ^
tunity of feeing the different pieces executed.  ■ '■ ,
This is an attempt which has not yet been made in any %' i
•book of cabinet defigns, except a very few flight hints; and, '~ v
though it muft be acknowledged by every impartial mind as
highly ufeful, and even in fome cafes abfolutely neceffary, yet
I am apprehenfive it will not meet Vvdth the approbation of
thofe who wifh to hoard up their own knowledge to them
felves, left any Ihould fliare in the advantage arifnig from it.
In fome inftances it may be neceffary for a man to keep know .
ledge to himfelf, as his own property, and upon which his
bread may depend; but I do not fee any impropriety in perfons
of the fame branch informing each other, hi trades where
their arts depend on fecrets, it is right for men to keep them
from ftrangers ; but the art of cabinetmaking depends fo much
on practice, and requires fo many tools, that a ftranger cannot
Y Y fteal
( 354 )'
'ileal it. But in every branch there are found men who love to
keep their inferiors of the fame profeffion in ignorance, that
themfelves may have an opportunity of triumphing over them..
From fuch I expert no praife, but the reverfe. Their pride
will not fufFer them to encourage any work which tends to
make others as wife as themfelves ; and therefore it is their
fixed refolution to defpife and pour contempt upon every at
tempt of this kind, in proportion as it is likely to fucceed. But
thofe I will leave to themfelves as unwortliy of notice, who only
live to love themfelves, but not to alTift others..
Here I would beg leave to obferve, that it is natural for
every man under a heavy burden to pour out his complaint to
the firft fympathizing friend he meets with^ If the reader be
one of thefe, I will pour out mine, by informing him of the
difficult taik: I have had to pleafe all, and to fuit the various
motives which different perfons have for encouraging a pubU
cation like this.
I find fome have expedted fuch defigns as never were fetn,
heard of, nor conceived in the imagination of man ; whilft
others have wanted them to fuit a broker's fliop, to fave them
the trouble of borrowing a bafonftand to fhew to a cuftomer.
Some have expetfted it to furnifli a country wareroom, to avoid
the expence of making up a good bureau, and double cheft of
drawers,
( 35S )
drawers, with canted corners, &c. and though it is difficult
to conceive how thefe different quaUties could be united in a
book of fo fmall a compafs, yet, according to fome reports, the
broker himfelf may find his account in it, and the country
mafler will not be altogether difappointed ; whillf others fay
many of the defigns are rather calculated to fliew what may be
done, than to exhibit what is or has been done in the trade.
According to this, the defigns turn out to be on a more general
plan than what I intended them, and anfwer, beyond my
expe6tation, the above various defcriptions of fubfcribers.
However, to be ferious, it was my firft plan, and has been my
aim thtough the whole, to make the book in general as per
manently ufeful as I could, and to unite with ufefulnefs the
tafte of the times ; but I could never expetSt to pleafe all in fo
narrow a compafs : for to do this, it would be necefTary to com
pofe an entire book for each clafs of fubfcribers, and after all
there would be fomething wanting ftill.
Y y a A DE
^ SA^ )
& DESCRIPTION OF. THE SEVERAL PIECES OF FURNITURE.
Oft/je UniverfalTabk. Plate XXV. of the Cabinet Defigns,.
The ufe. of this piece is both to anfwer the purpole of. a:
breakfaft and a diningtable. Whenboth the leaves are flipped
under the bed, it will then ferve as a breakfafltable ; when one
leaf is out, as in this view, it will. accommodate, five perfons as
a diningtable; and if both are out, it will admit of eight, being
near feven feet .long, and thr^e feet fix inches in width. .
The drawer is divided into frx boxes at each fide, as in the
plan, and are found ufeful for different forts of tea and fugar,
and fometimes for notes, or the like. In tliis drawer is. a flider
lined with green cloth to write on. The flryle of finifliing them
is plain and fimple, with ftraight tapered legs, focket caftors,..
and an aftragal round the frame. .
Of the maniifa&uring Part:
This table fhould be made of particularly good and wtll
feafoned mahogany, as. a great deal depends upon its not being
liable
jVT'ij: /^/./.
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/'ii/>/i/JMhis[/ii\.lir liimr^fM (? Terry ^y<if la j;^i.
( 357 )
liable to cafl. In the beft kind of thefe tables the tops are
framed and pannelled ; the bed into two pannels, and the flaps
each into one, with a white firing round each pannel to hide
the joint. The framing is three inches broad, and mitered at
the corners ; and the pannels are fometimes glued up in three
thickneffes, the middle piece being laid with the grain acrofs,.
and the other two lengthways of the pannel, to prevent its
warping. The pannels are, however, often put in of folid Huff,
without this kind of gluing.
Wlien the pannels are tongued into the framing, and the
miters are fitted to, the tops Ihould ftand to flirink as much as
poffible before they are glued for good. There are different
methods of fecuring the miters of the framing. Some make
iimply a flraight miter, which they can flioot with a plane;
after which they put a couple of wooden pins in. Others,
again, having fitted the miters to by a plane, they flip in a tenon.
But the Itrongeft method is to mortice and tenon the miters to
gether, having a fquare joint at the under,, and a miter joint at
the upper fide. This method, however, is the moft tedious of
the tliree, and where the price will not allow of much time,,
the above methods are more ready,, and, if managed with care,
are fufiiciently flrong. In gluing the miters, it will be proper,,
firfl, to glue on the outfide of each miter a piece of deal in the
fliape of a wedge, which will take a handfcrew, fo that when
thef
( 358 )
they are putting together, the glue may be brought out, and
the miters made clofe.
The frame, as fliewn in the plan, is made exactly fquare,
either of faulty mahogany, or of wainfcot veneered. In making
this frame a box is formed at each end, about three inches in
width, containing two Aiders apiece, which run paft each
other in the faid box, as fliewn in the plan. In the bottom of
each box are put two pieces, with plough grooves in them, and
raking contrary to each other. In the line N O, on thofe raking
pieces the Aiders run, and are flopped from coming too far out
by a pin fixed in the under edge of the Aider; which pin runs
in the plough grooves already mentioned, denoted in the plan by
a dark line. The raking line of the Aiders is found by taking
the width of the Aap, as from S to M, and making the line in
cline in that width equal to the thicknefs of the flap. This may
be eafdy underftood, by placing a rule from the outer point M
of the flap, to S the inner point, whidh then will be parallel to
the raking line. The Aiding pieces being in a right line their
whole length at the under edge, of courfe their upper edge muft
be bevelled off, fo that when they are drawn' fully out, they
may be even, and in an exacSt line with the top of the frame.
The frame and tops being thus prepared, they are con
nected together by an iron fcrew and nut, as at A, which is
about
( 359 )
about the fub fiance of a bedfcrew. This fcrew is jointed into
a plate, which plate is let into the under fide of the bed, level
with it ; though I have defcribed it at A with its thicknefs out,
merely that the plate might be Ihewn. At B the bed A is repre
fented on the frame, and the iron fcrew paffing through the
rail of the table, is confined to its place by the nut, which is let
ipto the under edge of the rail by a centerbit. And obferve,
in making this centerbit hole for the nut, it muft be funk
deeper than its. thicknefs, that the bed may have liberty to rife
a little, and {o give place to the flaps when they are wanted to
be puflied in. It mufl be noticed alfo, from the plan of the
frame, that there is a middle piece, about five inches, broad,
and of equal thicknefs with the flaps, fcrewed down to the
frame with four fcrews at each end. This middle piece an
fwers three purpofes ; it fecures the frame, flops the flaps.,
when they are puflied in, and prevents the Aiding pieces from
tilting.
Before the bed is finally fixed to its place, there mufl be
four pieces of green cloth let into the under, fide of it, to pre
vent the flaps from rubbing as they Aide under. Upon the
edges of the flaps a hollow is worked all round, leaving a quarter
of an inch fquare, for no other purpofe than to take off the
clumfy appearance of the two thicknefTes when the flaps are
* under
( 36o )
under the bed. At the under fide of the flaps mud be goged
out fingerholes, to draw them out by.
The drawer is next to be confidered, which is fometimes
made with two fronts, and to draw out both ways, as in the
plan. On each front of the drawer is a lock, for the conveni
ence of fecuring it at either end ; for in cafe one flap be drawn
out, then the drawer can be locked or pulled out at the contrary
front, without the trouble of pufhing the flap in to come at the
drawer.
The covers of each box before mentioned, may have an
oval of dark wood, and the alphabet cut out of ivory or v/hite
wood let into them, as in the plan; or they may be white ovals
and black letters ; the ufc of which is to diftinguifli the contents
of each box.
Laftly, the Aider to write on is made exaiflly half the infide
length of the drawer ; fo that when it is puflied home to either
front, there is immediate accefs to fix of the boxes.
And here I would obferve that fometimes the flaps of thefe
tables have round corners, but they do not anfwer the bed {o
well when they are in. And, to fave expence, the tops have
been found to anfwer the purpofe in folid wood, without being
framed.
( 36i )
framed. When they are made in this manner, particular regard
fhoukl be had to placing the heart fide of the wood outward,
which naturally draws round of itfelf, and may therefore be
expelled to keep true, notwithftanding its unfavourable fitu
ation.
N. B. The heart fide of a board is eafily known by plan
ing the end, and obferving the circular traces of the grain,,
which always tend outwards.
"the Perfpe&lve Lines, explained.
In making defigns in perfpe6live, the firft thing to: be at
tended to is the fcale of feet and inches, by which t(i proportion:
the different pat ts to each other, to determine the height of the
horizon, and the diilance of the picture.
Having made the fcale, take from it about five feet fix for
the height of the horizon at H L. On this line place the point
of fight, fo as to give the moll favourable view of the defign,
as at s. Next lay on the dillance, which is here out of the plate,
and being equal to the fpace s a. agrees to the rule for choofing
a diftance contained in page 28 [. Draw ab perpendicular to
the ground line, and from a draw a line to the point of fight s.
Z z Next
( 3^2 )
Next confider how much the top proje6ls over the frame, and
as much as this is, lay it from a towards ^, as the firft Une
Ihews, which is dire<Sted to the point of diftance. Where this
cuts the aforefaid Hne drawn to j, raife a perpendicular anfwer
'ing to a b. From b lay on the fpace b d^ for the depth of the
framing; and from d draw a line as before to s\ and from
where the line cuts the fecond perpendicular, draw a parallel
for the under edge of the framing. On a parallel line from b^
lay on the dimeniions of the bed and flap; and from thefe draw
lines to j, as the defign fliews. Now, as the bed of the table is
fquare, nothing more is wanted to find its apparent width than
to draw a line from o to the diftance which cuts at the oppofite
angle ; and through this angle draw r t parallel, which com
pletes the outline of the top.
To find the place of the drawer and the boxes in it, pro
ceed thus. — On the ground line make a e equal to the whole
fpace, from the drawer in the plan to the projedtion of the
middle piece acrofs the frame. Alfo make e b the whole length
of the drawer, and ,?/the diviilons for the boxes. From each of
which draw lines to the diftance, cutting at 1,2,3,4; from
which draw parallels to 7, 6, 5, 8. Again, from 7 raife a per
pendicular, and make k b^ on k m^ equal to the height of the
drawer; from b draw a line to s\ and from ;;/, the height of
the covers of each box, do the fame. Laftly, from 6, 5, &c.
raife
1^>«=~:
fei
'j ^ 6
#=
■ !/■• /// /.
T. Sftrr.ihft iff/fn .
Pii/>li/^tefi (?s t/uAi'C Jiix'cU.fy (r lerry—Ifecj !j<fi .
C 363 )
raife perpendiculars, which will cut b s in the place for th&
boxes, and at n for the height of the covers. How every other
thing is done, muft be obvious from infpedtion.
Of the Sideboard Tables, Plate XXYl. and XXIX. and of Tables
of this Kind in general.
The fideboard in Plate XXVI. has a brafs rod to it, which
is ufed to fet large diflies againft, and to fupport a couple of
candle or lamp branches in the middle, which, when lighted,
give a very brilliant effe6l to the lilver ware. The branches are
each of them fixed in one focket, which Aides up and down on
the fame rod to any height, and fixed any where by turning a
fcrew. Thefe rods have fometimes returns at each end of the
fideboard; and fometimes they are made ftraight, the whole
length of the fideboard, and have a narrow Ihelf in the middle,
made of full halfinch mahogany, for the purpofe of fetting
fmaller dilhes on, and fometimes fmall lilver ware.
The righthand drawer, as in common, contains the cel
leret, which is often made to draw out feparate from the reft.
It is partitioned and lined with lead, to hold nine or ten wine
bottles, as in Plate XXiX.
Z z 2 The
( 364 )
The drawer on the left is generally plain, but fometimes
divided into two ; the back divifion being lined with baize to
hold plates, having a cover hinged to enclofe the whole. The
front divifion is lined with lead, fo that it may hold water to
wafh glaffes; which may be made to take out, or have a plug
hole to let off the dirty water. This lefthand drawer is, how
ever, fometimes made very fliort, to give place to a potcup
board behind, which opens by a door at the end of the fide
board. This door is made to hide itfclf in the end rail as much
as poflible, both for look and fecrecy. For which reafon a turn
buckle is not ufed, but a thumbfpring, v/hich catches at the
bottom of the door, and has a communication through the rail,
fo that by a touch of the finger the door flies open, owing to
the refiftance of a common fpring fixed to the rabbet which the
door falls againft, as is denoted by the figure A. F is for the
finger, B is the brafs plate let into the rail, L is the lever, p is
the fpring that prefTes the lever upwards, and c is the end of it
which catches the under edge of the door as it pafTes over it and
llrikes into a plate with a hole in it, and s is the fpring fcrew^ed
to the rabbet ■^^ hich throws the door out when F is puflied
upwards.
But the reader muft here obferve, that the fliape of this
lideboard will not admit of a cupboard of this fort in the end
raiJ.
( 365 )
rail. Thofe which are fquare at the ends, and only a little
ihaped in front, are fitteft for this purpofe.
In large circular fideboards, the lefthand drawer has fome
times been fitted up as a platewarmer, having a rack in the
middle to ftick the plates in, and lined with llrong tin all round,
and on the underlide of the fideboard top, to prevent the heat
from injuring it. In this cafe the bottom of the drawer is made
partly open, under which is fixed a fmall narrow drawer, to
contain a heater, which gives warmth to the plates the fame as
in a pedeflal.
In fpacious diningrooms the fideboards are often made
without drawers of any fort, having fimply a rail a little orna
mented, and pedeftals with vafes at each end, which produce
a grand efFe6t. One pedel1:al is ufed as a plate warmer, and is
lined with tin ; the other as a potcupboard, and fometimes it
contains a celleret for wine. The vafes are ufed for water for the
ufe of the butler, and fometimes as knifecafes. They are fome
times made of copper japanned, but generally of mahogany^
There are other fideboards for fmall diningrooms, made
without either drawers or pedeftals ; but have generally a wine
cooper to ftand under them, hooped with brafs, partitioned and
lined with lead, for wine bottles, the fame as the abovemen
tioned celleret drawers.
The
( 366 )
The fideboard in Plate XXIX. fliews two patterns, one at
each end. That on the left is intended to have four marble
flielves at each end, inclofed by two backs, and open in front,
Thefe flielves are ufed in grand fideboards to place the fmall
iilver ware on. The pattern on the right is intended to have
legs turned the whole length, or rounded as far as the framing
and turned below it, with carved leaves and flutes. The divifion
beyond the celleretdrawer is meant for a potcupboard.
It is not ufual to make fideboards hollow in front, but in
fome circumftances it is evident that advantages will arife from
it. If a fideboard be required nine or ten feet long, as in fome
noblemen's houfes, and if the breadth of it be in proportion to
the length, it will not be eafy for a butler to reach acrofs it. I
therefore think, in this cafe, a hollow front would obviate the
difficulty, and at the fame time have a very good effe6t, by
taking off part of the appearance of the great length of fuch a
fideboard. Beiides, if the fideboard be near the entering door
of the diningroom, the hollow front will fometimes fecure the
butler from the joflles of the other fervants.
Of
( 367 )
Of the Perfpe&ive Lines.
Having drawn the plan and adjufled the height of the ho
rizon by the fcale, as was mentioned in the univerfal table, re
prefent a parallelogram a, b, c, d, equal to the length and breLdth
of the table; and from every part of the plan draw lines up to
the ground line, and from the ground line direft thefe to the
point of fight. Take from the plan the fpace M N, and place it
from 1 to 2 ; and from ^ diredt a line to the point of diftance, cut
ting a point next to;;; from which point draw a parallel for the
place of the front legs. In like manner take the other dimen
fions from the plan to find every other correfpondent point in
the reprefentation. To find the reprefentation of the hollow and
round fronts, confult the treatife on perfpedive in pages 294 and
295> together with the lines here fliewn as hints, and it is prefum
ed that the learner will not be at any lofs in drawing fuch a table.
Of the Bookcafe Doors. Plate XXVlI. and XXIX.
In the execution of thefe doors, the candid and ingenious
workman may exercife his judgment, both by varying fome
parts of the figures, and taking other parts entirely away, when
the door is thought to have too much work.
^ No. I,
C 368 )
No. I, in Plate XXVII. might do for a plain door, if the
ornament and fquare part in the middle were taken away.
No. 1 might alfo have the fquare in the middle taken away,,
and look very well.
No. 4 may have the upright and horizontal bars away, and
No. 5 the fmall fquares ; and at each angle of the hexagon the
ftraight bar might be carried through to the frame.
Witli refpecH: to No. 6, it may be ufeful to fay fomething of
the method of making it, as well as of fome of thofe in Plate
XXIX.
The firft thing to be done, is to draw, on a board, an oval
of the full length and breadth of the door. Then take half the
oval on the fliort diameter and glue on blocks of deal at a little
diftance from each other, to form a caul ; then, on the fliort
diameter, glue on a couple of blocks, one to flop the ends of the
veneer with at tlie time of gluing, and the other, being bevelled
off, ferves to force the joints of the veneer clofe, and to keep
all fall till fufficiently dry. Obferve, the half oval is formed by
the blocks of the fize of the aftragal, and not the r ibbet ; there
fore confider how broad a j^icce of veneer will make the aftra
gals for one door, or for half a door. For a whole door, which
takes
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( 369 )
takes eight quarter ovals, it will require the veneer to be inch
and quarter broad, allowing for the thicknefs of a fafli faw to
cut them off with. Veneers of this breadth may, by proper
management, be glued quite clofe; and if the veneer be ftraight
baited, and all of one kind, no joint will appear in the aftragal.
Two half ovals thus glued up, will make aftragals for a pair of
doors, which, after they are taken out of the cauls and cleaned
off a little, may be glued one upon the other, and then glued on
a board, to hold them faft for working the aftragals on the edge;
which may eafily be done, by forming a neat aftragal in a piece
of foft fteel, and fixing it in a notched piece of wood, and then
work it as a gage ; but before you work it, run on a gage for
the thicknefs of the aftragal; and after you have worked the
aftragal, cut it off with a fafli faw, by turning the board on
which the fweeppieces are glued on an edge; then having
fawn one aftragal off", plane the edge of your ftuff* again, and
proceed as before.
For gluing up the rabbet part, it muft be obferved, that a
piece of dry veneer, equal to the thicknefs of the rabbet, muft
be forced tight into the caul ; and then proceed as before in
gluing two thicknefles of veneer for the rabbet part, which will
leave fufficient hiding for the glafs, on fuppofition that the
aftragal was glued in five.
3 A The
( 370 )
The door being framed quite fquare, without any mould
ing at the inner edge, proceed to put in the rabbet pieces.
Put, firft, an entire half oval, and fcrew this to the inner edge
of the door, and level with it; then jump up the other half
oval to it, and fcrew it as before; which completes the center
oval. Next, fix the fquare part, having been before mitered
round a block, and keyed together; after which, halflap the
other quarter ovals into the entire oval where they crofs each
other, and into the fquare part, liping it into the angle of the
door; put in the horizontal bars for the leaves to reft on; glue
on the aftragals, firft on the entire oval, tying it with pack
thread, to keep it on ; then the ftraight one on the edge of the
framing, fitting it to the oval ; lailily, miter the aftragal on the
fquare part, and every other particular will follow of courfe.
With refpedt to the doors in Plate XXIX. all of them may
be made nearly on the fame principles, at leaft the rabbet parts
muft ; but the aftragals in No. i, being all of them portions of
circles, fliould be cut out of folic! wood, and glued on a deal
board and fent to the turner's. The fame may be faid of No. 5,
which, in the vafe part, may have a piece of filvered glafs.
The center in No. 2, is intended to have a print or painting in
it. The fweeps, in No. 6, fliould be cut out of the folid, and
worked by a tool. As to fixing any part of the ornaments in
troduced in thefe doors; this is eafily done, by preparing a
very
A/. /^/.
J' j'ArraJtn Sri
Fu^it/^d €if CA^:/ict dir€cCr. fy & Tern : Dec "24 '*'jjai
ILSarl^ uufy
r\
( 371 )
very ftrong gum, which will hold on glafs almofl: as ftrong as
glue on wood.
Of the Secret ajy and Bookcafe. Plate XXVIII.
The ufe of this piece is to hold books in the upper part,
and in the lower it contains a writingdrawer and clothesprefs
flielves. The defign is intended to be executed in fatinwood,
and the ornaments japanned. It may, however, be done in
mahogany ; and in place of the ornaments in the friezes, flutes
may be fubftituted. The pediment is fimply a fegment of a
circle, and it may be cut in the form of a fan, with leaves in
the center. The vafes may be omitted to reduce the work : but
if they are introduced, the pedeftal on which the center vafe
refts is merely a piece of thin wood, with a necking and bafe
moulding mitered round, and planted on the pediment. The
pilafters on the bookcafe doors are planted on the frame, and
the door hinged as ufual. The top of the pilafters are made to
imitate the Ionic capital.
Of the Perfpe&ive Lines.
G R is the ground line, and H L the horizontal line, or
height of the eye. Lay on the original heights of the book.
3 A 2 cafe,
( 37^ )
cafe, as at gyb,i,J, k, ?c;r. and draw a perpendicular line at the
angle of the piece, as at A ; to which diredt parallel lines as
fliewn. On the ground line lay a, or two feet, for the breadth
of the end ; and from 1/ a diredt lines to the diftance, which is.
here out of the plate, cutting the vifuals at fl'*?; from e raife a
perpendicular, which will determine the front of the bookcafe,
provided it be only a foot deep. The perpendicular B is necef
fary, in order to find the perfpedlive heights of the bookcafe,
as fliewn in the figure.
Of the Library Table. Plate XXX.
This piece is intended for a gentleman to write on, or to
ftand or fit to read at, having defkdrawers at each end, and is
generally employed in fi:udies or libraryrooms. It has already
been executed for the Duke of York, excepting the defkdraw
ers, which are here added as an improvement.
The ftyle of finiflimg it ought to be in the medium of that
■which may be termed plain or grand, as neither fuits their
fituation. Mahogany is the moft fuitable. wood, and the orna
ments fhould be carved or inlaid, what little there is; japanned
ornaments are not fuitable, as thefe tables frequently meet with
a little harfli ufage»
The
C 373 )
The rtrength, folidity, and effe<£l of brafs mouldings are
very fuitable to fuch a defign, when ex pence is no objedt. For
inftance, the pilafters might be a httle funk, or pannelled out
and brafs beads mitered round in a margin, and foUd flutes of
the fame metal kt in. The aftragal which feparates the upper
and lower parts might be of brafs ; and likewife the edge of the
top, together with the patera in the upper pannel, as fliewn on
the left hand. The top is lined with leather or green cloth,
and the whole refts and is moved on caftors hid by the
plinth.
Of the mamifa&ur'mg Part'.
The top fliould be framed in inch and quarter wainfcot, in
the figure of a long hexagon, which bed fuits the fhape of the
oval. 1 he pannels, which are tongued in, fhould be of at leafl:
three quarters hard mahogany, about nine inches fquare, and
the ftiles three and an half broad. The top being thus framed
of very dry wood, it fliould be planed over, and fl:and for fome
time at a moderate diftance from a fire, after which it may be
glued together, and when hardened it ought to be planed over
again, and remain in that ftate till the lower part is finiflred.
If thefe methods are not purfued, the pannels will flirink, and
their joints will draw down the leather or cloth, fo that the
figure
( 374 )
figure of the framed top will appear, efpecially when it is lined
with leather.
Next, it muft be confidered how to glue on the mahogany
on the framing, fo as to make the furbafe moulding appear of
folid wood. Firft, plough the four fliort fides of the hexagon,
and then tongue in fuitable mahogany lengthways, meeting in
a ftraight joint in the center of the top; and, laftly, after the
tongiung is dry, glue in ftraight joint pieces on the two long
iides of the hexagon, and when dry, the top will be prepared
for cutting to its elliptic fliape.
The manner of framing the upper and lower parts of the
carcafe muft be learned from the plan.
The upper part, framed in an entire oval, contains the
defkdraw^ers ; and, if thought neceflary, two fliort ones may be
obtained over the fide niches.
The cupboard part is framed in two, each of which has a
niche at the end, and onethird of the fide niches; for the
niches are all of them divided into three pannels, and the middle
pannels of the fide ones ferve as doors, by which an open paf
fage is gained through the table. There are four cujjboards in
the whole, divided in the manner fpecified by the dotted lines in
the
( 375 )
the plan, one or two of which may be fitted up in a neft of
fmall drawers and letterholes.
The plinth is framed entire of itfelf, and the bafemoulding
Hands up a little to receive the whole and hide the joint.
In putting on the bafemoulding there are two or three
methods which I would otter as the belt I know of. The frame
being made fo thick as to take the projection of the bafe, it
muft then be rabbeted out of the folid to receive it. This being
done, proceed to glue the bafe in three or four thicknefTes, con
fining them to their place by handfcrews, or other devices of
that nature ; but obferve to let the bafe project further out than
the deal plinth, that it may receive the mahogany veneer which
is to be glued on lengthways to hide the deal.
After the whole is glued faft to its place, the veneer on the
plinth and the bafe muft be cleaned off level with each other*
The convex parts of the bafemoulding may be worked with
hollows and rounds; and after thefe are finifhed, the niches
Ihould be worked down to them, by a tool made on purpofe.
Another method of gluing the bafemoulding is as follows :
— Prepare the inch deal, and make cauls to fit the end and fide
niches of the plinth ; after which take ftraight baited three
I eighths
( 376 )
eighths Spanifli wood, and work the hollow part of the bafe fe
parate from the torus; then, from quarter ftufF of the fame
kind, cut off flips for the torus ; heat the caul well, and both
wet and heat the flips, which will then eafily bend. When the
hollow part is well tempered, and alfo the torus, begin at one
end, and by a thin chip run glue in between them ; and as you
go on drive in nails about every inch, having between the nails
and the moulding a thin Hip of wainfcot well heated. Obferve
to let the moulding pafs beyond the caul at each end, that a
packftring may be tied to keep it to its place when it is taken
out. The torus may then be worked before it is glued on the
plinth
A third method is, to make the plinth itfelf the caul, and
firft work the hollows, and foak them in water a whole night.
Next morning take a handiron and heat it well, and over the
curved fide of which bend the hollow as near as may be to the
fweep. Having already a flop fcrewed on the plinth, jump one
end of the moulding to it, and glue as you go on ; at the fame
time fixing fmall handfcrews to draw it to, or brads may be
put through the fquare part to affift in this bufinefs, if necef
fary, for thefe will be covered by the torus. After the hollow
is fufficiently dry, the torus being worked oiF and well foaked,
and bent round the iron as above, it will glue to the hollow
without the fmalleft difficulty, by firll: jumping it againrt the
flop
( 377 )
flop before mentioned ; and after it is brought pretty near, take
another flop and fcrew it againft the end of the torus, which
will draw it down without further trouble. Thefe two methods
are founded on experiment ; for, at my requeft, it was per
formed by fome cabinetmakers to my full fatisfa6tion ; there
fore, fliould either of thefe methods fail in the hands of any, it
mull; be owing to fome defedl in the management.
Of the Perfpeciive Lines.
Draw firft a plan of the whole, and make G R the ground
line, and H L the horizon. From the plan draw perpendicular
lines from every part to G R, as fliewn in the Plate ; make s the
center, and lay on the diftance, which is here out of the plate.
From each j^erpendicular line drawn to G R draw lines to j
then reprefent a parallelogram both at top and bottom, in which
the ellipfis maybe infcribed; and draw the diagonal correfpond
ing with that fliewn in the plan, which will cut the vifual
drawn from the faid diagonal in the plan, finding a point to
guide the ellipfis. For other particulars relative to the repre
fentation of an ellipfis, fee page 294, and Plate XXI ; for the re
prefentation of the niche, fee page 295 ; and for the deikdrawer,
fee page 231, Prob. 4.
3B Of
( 378 )
Of the Kidney Library Table. Plate LVIir.
This piece is termed a kidneytable, on account of its re
femblance to that inteftine part of animals fo called. Its ufe,
however, is the fame as that already defcribed.
The drawers which appear in the delign arc all real, and
are ftrung and crofsbanded, with the grain of the mahogany
laid up and down. The pilafters are pannelled or crofsbanded,
and the feet below turned. The view of it below fliews the ends
pannelled, and the back may be fo too, or it may be plain.
With refpedt to the manufaduring part, I need not fay any
thing after what has been faid on the other, except to explain
the reading defk which Aides out, as fliewn below. Obferve,
B is the profile of the frame which Aides out, in the Q(\<gQ of
which there is a groove fliewn by the black ftroke, and a tongue
is put into the edge of the well part to fait it. F is the delk
part which rifes by a horfe; and A is a part of that, which rifes
at the fame time to flop the book ; ^ is a tumblerhinge let in
flufli with the top, and hid by the cloth or leather ; <r is a com
mon but:hi?ige let in the edge of F, and upon the frame B ; fo
that when F falls to B, A does alfo. The length of the table
is four feet, its width two, and its height thirtytwo inches.
Of
N'^j.^l.,^
^y JTinA^KY 7:uiLJ':.
X^^.
rS/ifriifln .Jlf .
IiM>Jh/«J/irJrfi/tr^ti'. /r ^ Terry ^ rrt. /f. f^rj/i
iS,r,...f?
TMutith'ii ./'■/'
Xirjy .^'■"V '
Utif^its Ihf Aet tirttl' ftf> T :ii' tloi tv u Terrv
M
( 379 )
Of the Sofa Bed. Plate XXXI.
The frames of thefe beds are fometimes painted in orna
ments to fiiit the furniture. But ^vhen the furniture is of rich
filk, they are done in white and gold, and the ornaments carved.
The tablets may have each a fertoon of flowers or foliage, and
the cornice cut out in leaves and gilt has a good effetft. The
drapery under the cornice is of the French kind ; it is fringed
all round, ^nd laps on to each other like unto waves. The va
lance ferves as a ground, and is alfo fringed. The rofes which
tuck up the curtains are formed by lilk cord, &c. on the wall,
to fuit the hangings; and obferve, that the center rofe contains
a brafs hook and foeket, which will unhook, fo that the cur
tains will come forward and entirely enclofe the whole bed.
The fofa part is fometimes made without any back, in the
manner of a couch. It muft alfo be obferved, that the befl:
kinds of thefe beds have behind what the vipholfterers call a
fluting, which is done by a flight frame of wood faftened to the
wall, on which is ftrained, in ftraight puckers, fome of the
fame fluff of which the curtains are made.
The left plate fliews the plan of the tefter, and the manner
of fixing the rods, which are made in two parts to pafs each
3 B 2 other,
( 38o )
other, fo that the curtains may come clofe to each other in the
center.
The tefter rods fcrew foft in front, and hook pail each
other behind. The manner of fixing the tefter up is by an iron
bracket at each end; one arm of the bracket fcrews to the under
iide of the tefter, and the other againft the wall, by driving in
plugs for that purpofe.
Of the Ferfpe&ive Lines.
The left plate fliews thefe lines, and the right fliews the
fcales of proportion. Thefe beds feldom exceed twelve feet in
height, including the feather at top. Thek length is feven feet,
and width about five.
The perfpedive lines are drawn by a contra6led diftance,
being only one third of the whole. The front of the fofa is
merely a geometrical elevation. For the apparent width of it
take five feet from the fmall fcale, which is termed one third of
the real fcale of feet and inches ; place this meafurement from
14 to ^, and draw a line to J, cutting at 15 ; a^b^ d, are for the
tablets at each end; and at /is laid on the full meafurement of
the back tablet, from which lines are drawn to s the center,
which
ALi^OA^w ny,:D
Ao
T. JA^rabn dtiin ,
/. Barlct^Jat^.
/"li/f/z/hr^/ /:ir fhfjij^ a/r€t^.iy T.Shrra/p7iiFeh4.ljti%
( 38r )
v/!iicli cuts the back of the fofa at the line i^, i6, and deter
mines its length. The back tablet being the higheft, lay on the
additional height from to, and draw a line to s, cutting a per
pendicular at ii; from which draw a parallel as fliewn. The
line drawn through /j is to find the front of the dome, which
comes forward rather fliort of half of the breadth of the fofa.
The line 4 is the back of the doiae, 5 is the center line, and 3 is
its front ; 7 Ihews the height of the under fide of it, 8 of the top
of the cornice, and 9 the top of the dome ; the reft muft be ua
derftood by obfervation.
Oftbe Alcove Bed. Plate XL.
The term alcove, in buildings, means a part of a room fe
parated off from the reft by columns and arches correfponding,
in which is placed a bed : fo that it is not the particular form of
the bed which gives rife to this name, but the place in which it
Hands. The learned inform us, that the word alcove is from
the Arabic elcauf^ which means a cabinet or fleepingplacc
This defign is reprefented ftandmg on a plinth, covered with
carpet, and having a border round it fuppofed to be on the
floor of the room. The ft:eps are introduced to fliew that beds
of this fort are raifed high, and require fomething to ftep on
before they can be got into. The fteps are generally covered
with
( 382 )
with carpet, and framed in mahogany. Both this, the fofa, and
French ftate hed, require fteps. The dome of this bed is fixed
in the fame manner as the other ; but the rofes to which the
curtains are tucked up are different. This is made of tin, and
covered with the fluff of the bed, and unbuckles to take in the
curtains behind the rofe. Upon the fluting, as before men
tioned, is fixed a drapery in this, as fhewn in the defign ; and
fometimes in the arch of the alcove a drapery is introduced.
Of the SummerBed in two Coujpartmejits. Plate XLI.
These beds are intended for a nobleman or gentleman and
his lady to lleep in feparately in hot weather. Some beds for
this purpofe have been made entirely in one, except the bed
clothing being confined in two drawers, running on rollers,:
capable of being drawn out on each fide by fervants, in order to.
make them. But the preference of this defign for the purpofe^
mufl be obvious to every one in two or three particulars.
Firfl, the pafTage up the middle, which is about twenty
two inches in width, gives room for the circulation of air, and
Hkewife affords an eafy accefs to the fervants when they make
the beds.
Secondly.
>•"/'. /»/./.
FU:4/.
kA^^ \^// /// ////^'rji^^^^r// /m ^/?Jef^ (/■u?///a//////f/^/.i
LKKi'ristih^jkj.Xjkj^ik' ''
7eet iimi Z/tc?tfS
S/iera/tit .2^ el .
SmUwS.;Jj,
Jhiili/hei/ au' the Ait Jirfetj' ir e. Terry. — . Junt ZO. I^a^.
( 383 )
Secondty, the paflTage gives opportunity for curtains to en
clofe each compartment, if neceffary, on account of any fudden
change of weather.
Thirdly, it makes the whole confiderably more ornamental,
uniform, and light.
The firft idea of this bed was communicated to me by
Mr. Thompfon, groom of the houfliold furniture to the Duke
of York, which, I prefume, is now improved, as it appears in
this defign.
The manufadturing part may eafily be underftood from the
defign by any workman; I fliall, however, point out a few par
ticulars. The arch which fprings from the ionic columns fhould
be glued up in thicknefs round a caul, and an architrave put on
each fide afterwards. The arch fliould be tenoned into the co
lumns, with iron plates fcrewed on, fo that it may be taken off
when the bed is required to come down, hi this arch a drapery
is fixed, with a taflTel in the center, and a vafe above. The
headboard is framed all in one length, and the two inner fides
of the bed tenoned into the headrail, and fcrewed. The tefter
is made in one, in which there are two domes, one over each
compartment. It may, however, be made without domes, but
Diot with fo good effedt. In the middle of the tefter, perpendi
I cular
C 384 )
cular to the fides of the paflage, are fixed two rods, for the cur
tains above mentioned. Thefe rods are hid by valances, and
between the valances is formed a pannel, by fewing on va
riegated margins to fuit the reft of the upholftery work. The
ornamented margins, and the oval with crefts in the center of
the counterpanes, may all be printed to any pattern, at a manu
fadlory which has been lately eftabliflied for fnch purpofes.
The fcale fiiews the fizes which applies to every part of the
end of the bed, it being merely a geometrical elevation.
Of the French StateBed. Plate XLV.
Beds of this kind have been introduced of late with great
fuccefs ill England.
The ftyle of finifiiing them, with the management of the
domes, is already defcribed in general terms, in page 113, 8cc.
1 fliall, therefore, omit it here, and proceed to give fome hints
relative to the manufac^turing part. The dome is fupported
with iron rods of about an inch diameter, curved regularly
down to each pillar, where they are fixed with a firong fcrew
and nut. Thefe iron rods are covered and entirely hid by a
valance, which comes in a regular fweep, and meets in a point
at
A :h'Fs>:^iN(i:e STATI*. 'l3KB'(«LI'C;)FFXTSl'irTTATKrJ T'(> TME nCTUl^E
V] ui
JTi'Amt/^i c^U <
/S/ *at Me^U AnxGr Je^ "iff *X^2 /f /" . i^^mlan.
7\m/Au€it^^^ /Oi/^
1
( 385 )
at the vafcs on the pillars, as the defign lliews. Behind this va
lance, which continues all round, the drapery is drawn up by
pulleys, and tied up by a filken cord and taffels at the head of
the pillars. The headboards of thefe beds are framed and
ftuiTed, and covered to fuit the hangings, and the frame is white
and gold, if the pillars and cornice are. The bedframe is fome
times ornamented, and has drapery valances below.
Obferve, that grooves are made in the pillars to receive the
headboards, and fcrewed at the top, by which means the whole
is kept firm, and is ealily taken to pieces. Square bolfters are
now often introduced, with margins of various colours Hitched
all round. The counterpane has alfo thefe margins; they are
alfo fringed at bottom, and have fometimes a drapery tied up in
cords and taffels on the fide.
Of the Perfpe&ive Lines,
This defign is in an oblique fituation, fo termed becaufe
none of its ends or fides are parallel to the picture. I have
here taken the neareft angle of the bed for the center of the pic
ture, from which raife a perpendicular as from feven on the
fcale line. Confider next the height of the horizon, which
fliould be about five feet fix, taken from the fcale you draw the
3 C bed
( 386 )
bed by. On the perpendicular line now mentioned lay on the
diftance of the picture from the horizontal line. Then deter
mine the pofition of one fide of the bed, by drawing a line from
the angle E to V ; from V draw a line to the diftance here out
of the plate, on the aforefaid perpendicular ; from the diftance
draw a line TU at right angles with this, which produced cuts
the horizon, and finds the vanifliing point for the ends of the
bed ; confequently V is the vanilhing point for the fides of the
bed. From 7 to A is feven feet, the length 'f the fide; and
from 7 to N is the width of the bed. From N A draw lines to
D D, the dividing centers, or meafuring points, found as in
Problem VI. Method 2. page 237, which will cut the vifuals for
the apparent length and width of the bed. A perpendicular
from 5 is the center of the end of the bed ; S is the original
height of the dome, from which a line is directed to the right
hand vanifliing point, cutting at d; a line from ^ finds the cen
ter of the dome, and V the top of the pineapple; c a give the
height of the cornice ; the diagonals i, 3, 2, 4, find the center of
the dome, by railing a perpendicular from their interfection.
Every other thing will follow of courfe to him who has previ
oufly ftudied the rules given; without which, it would be im
pofhble to make ever}'' particular underftood here.
Of
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( 387 )
Of the DrawingRoom Chairs. Plates XXXII, XXXIV.
These chairs are finiflied in white and gold, or the orna
ments may be japanned; but the French finifli them in maho
gany, with gilt mouldings. The figures in the tablets above
the front rails are on French printed filk or fatin, fewed on to
the fluffing, with borders round them. The feat and back are
of the fame kind, as is the ornamented tablet at the top of the
lefthand chair. The top, rail is pannelled out, and a fmall gold
bead mitered round, and the printed filk is pafted on. Chairs
of this kind have an elBfea which far exceeds any conception we
can have of them from an uncoloured engraving, or even of a
coloured one.
The perfpeaive lines in the left chair may ferve as hints ;
but I need not explain them, fince I have fully done this in
Plate XXIV. and XXVI.
The parlour chairs in Plate XXXIII. and XXXVI. need no
explanation, as every one muft eafily fee how they are to be
finifhed.
3C2 0/
( 388 )
Of the Sofa. Plate XXXV.
These are done in white and gold, or japanned. The loofe
cufhions at the back are generally made to fill the whole length,
which would have taken four; but I could not make the defign
fo ftriking with four, becaufe they would not have been dif
tinguillied from the back of the fofa by a common obferver.
Thefe cufliions ferve at times for bolfters, being placed againft
the arms to loll againft. The feat is fluffed up in front about
three inches high above the rail, denoted by the figure of the
fprig running longways ; all above that is a fquab, which may
be taken off occafionally. If the top rail be thought to have too
much work, it can be finiflied in a flraight rail, as the defign
fliews.
Of the Lady's Writing "table. Plate XXXVII.
The convenience of this table is, that a lady, when writing
at it, may both receive the benefit of the fire, and have her face
fcreened from its fcorching heat.
The ftyle of finifliing them is neat, and rather elegant.
They are frequently made of fatinwood, crofsbanded, japan
ned, and the top lined with green leather.
The
'::s
,5^
^
^
V
^
J
( 389 )
The maniifacSluring part is a little perplexing to a ftranger,
and therefore I have been particular in fliewing as much as I
well could on the plate.
Obferve, that in the fideboxes the inkdrawer is on the
right, and the pendrawer on the left. Thefe both fly out of
themfelves, by the force of a common fpring, when the knob
on which the candlebranch is fixed is preffed. Figure A is
the fpring which is let in under the candlebranch ; C is a lever
which is prelTed to B, the end of the drawers, by a fpring rifing
from D ; N is a part of the candlebranch, and e is the knob
juft mentioned, which is capable of being prelTed down ; there
fore, if P be fcrewed into E by preifing ^, C rifes and relieves B,
which immediately ftarts out, by a common fpring fixed on the
infide of the boxes.
Obferve a patera in the center of the back amidft the orna
ment. This patera communicates to a fpring of precifely the
fame kind as A; which fpring keeps down the fcreen when the
weights are up: and by touching the faid patera, which has a
knob in its center like e^ the fpring is relieved, and the weights
of courfe fend up the fcreen, being fomewhat affifted by a
fpring at the bottom, which may be feen in the defign. Figure
T fliews the lead weight, how the pulleys are fixed, and the
manner of framing the fcreen before it is covered with fluff.
I The
( 390 )
The workman will obferve, that a thin piece of mahogany Aides
out in a groove, to afford accefs to the weights, and afterwards
enclofe them.
There is a drawer under the top, which extends the whole
of the fpace between the legs.
The fcale fliews the length of the table, b its height, a the
depth of the drawer, b c the depth of the fideboxes, and e d the
height of the fwell of the fcreen part ; the width of the table is
twenty inches »
0/ the tripod FireScreens. Plate XXXVIII.
Screens of this kind are termed tripod*, becaufe they
have three feet or legs.
The middle fcreen may be finiflied in white and gold, or
japanned; and the other two of mahogany, or japanned. The
rods of thefe fcreens are all fuppofed to have a hole through
them, and a pulley let in near the top on which the line paffes,
* Tripod, of T'fEif, treh three ; and itohw, podien, a foot. Anciently the word tripod
xifed to be applied to a kind of facred threefooted ftool, on wliich the heathen priefts were
feated to receive and deliver their oracles r from which we may learn how time alters
words.
and
•"/ z*'^
JViYIlFE, CASES.
/>/^i^
y »<vli. /n< Aty.
TS/irnf.t' ./?./
2U : oj fLA€t. Jt'rerAf /y ^ Terry Mv, 2y. n^SL .
f^l^rry Sa/^l
( 39^ )
and a weight being enclofcd in the taffel, the fcreerl is balanced
to any height. The rods are often made fquare, which indeed
beft fuits thofe which have pulleys, while thofe that are made
round have only rings and fprings.
Such fcreens as have very fine prints, or worked fatin,
commonly have a glafs before them, hi which cafe a frame is
made, with a rabbet to receive the glafs, and another to receive
the ftraining frame, to prevent it from breaking the glafs; and
to enclofe the ftraining frame a bead is mitered round.
Of the Knifecafes and Ladfs TravelHngBox. Plate XXXIX.
Little need be faid refpeding thefe. It is only wanted
to be obferved, that the corner pilafters of the lefthand cafe
has fmall flutes of white holly or other coloured wood let in,
and the middle pilafters have very narrow crofsbands all round,
with the pannels japanned in fmall flowers. The top is fome
times japanned, and fometimes has only an inlaid patera.
The half columns of the righthand cafe are fometimes fluted
out, and fometimes the flutes are let in. The feet may be
turned and twifted, which will have a good eifedl.
A5
( 392 )
As thefe cafes are not made in regular cabinet fhops, it
may be of fervice to mention where they arc executed in the
heft tafte, by one who makes it his main bufincfs ; /. e. John
Lane, No. 44, St. Martin'slegrand, London.
The Lady's travelhngbox in the fame plate, is intended to
accommodate her in her travels with conveniences for writing,
dreffing, and working. The front is divided into the appear
ance of fix fmall drawers; the upper three fliam, and the under
real. The ^vritingdrawer takes up tN'^o of thefe fronts in
length, and contains an inkdrawer, and a top hinged to the
front, lined with green cloth. The top being hinged at front,
by pulhing in the drawer, it will rife to any pitch. The other
drawer on the left, which only takes up one front, holds a kind
of windlafs or roller, for the purpofe of fixing and wmding up
lace as it is worked. The middle vacuity, which holds the
fciffors and other articles of that nature, takes out, which gives
acccfs to a convenience below it for holding fmall things. The
boxes on each lide hold powder, pomatum, fcentbottles, rings,
Sec. The dreffingglafs, which is here reprefented out of the box,,
fits into the vacuity above the fciiTorcafe.
0/
C 393; )
Of the Corner BafonStands. Plate XLII.
The righthand bafqnftand contains a cupboard amV a real
drawer below it; by the top folding" down the bafon is inclofed
and hid when it is not in vife. The lefthand top is fixed to the
fide of the bafonftand by a rulejoint, the fame as the flap of a
Pembroke table; but inilead of iron the hinges are made of
brafs. The righthand top is hinged to the other by common
butthinges, by which means it will fold againft the other, and
both may be turned down together. When the tops are in their
place, there then appears a rulejoint on both fides. The front
edges of the tops are hollowed and beaded, which hang a little
over, fo that the fingers may get hold to raife them up. Short '
tenons are put to the under edge of the righthand top, to keep
it in its place on the end of the lower part.
The bafon ftand on the left has a rim round the top, and a
tambour door to inclofe the whole of the upper part, in which
is a fmall ciftern. The lower. part has a flielf in the middle, on
which fl:ands a veilel to receive the dirty water conveyed by a
pipe from the bafon. Thefe fort are made large, and the bafon
being brought clofe to the froiit, gives plenty of room. The ,
advantage of this kind of bafonfiand is, that they may iland in a
3 D genteel
( 394 )
genteel room without giving offence to the eye, their appearance
being fomewhat hke a cabinet.
Of the Dejigns in Plate XLIII.
The drawer in the wa(hhand ftand is lined with lead, into
which the bafon is emptied. The upper part, which contains
the ciftern, takes off occafionally. Below the drawer is a cup
board. Obferve, that in the defign the drawer back is fuppofed
to be behind the bafon ; but before the drawer is wholly taken
away, the bafon muft be taken out.
Of the PotCupboard.
These are ufed in genteel bedrooms, and are fometimes
finiflied in fatinwood, and in a Ityle a little elevated above their
ufe. The two drawers below the cupboard are real. The par
titions may be crofsbanded, and a ftring round the corners of
the drawer. Thefe feet are turned, but fometimes they are
made fquare. Sometimes there are folding doors to the cup
board part, and fometimes a curtain of green filk, fixed on a
brafs wire at top and bottom ; but in this defign a tambour door
is ufed, as preferable. The upper cupboard contains flielves,
and is intended to keep medicines to be taken in the night, or to
hold other little articles which fervants are not permitted to
overlook.
Of
.\:..,i./'/.i
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e / '/ '/.i// ' //t^r //</ ' ^/f/y/f/.
y.fii,,,,/,.,, ,/,./
Ji/M.i/u/ /■,/ /r.Irrri/. ir/zZ^. V/ef^.
( 395 )
Of^be Ladfs Secretary.
These are fometimes finifhed in black rofewood and tulip
crofsbanding, together with brafs mouldings, which produce
a fine eifeft. The upper Ihelf is intended to be marble, fup
ported with brafs pillars, and a brafs ornamented rim round the
top. The lower part may be fitted up in drawers on one fide,
and the other with a flielf to hold a lady's hat, or the like.
Of the ScreenTable.
This table is intended for a lady to write or work at near
the fire ; the fcreen part behind fecuring her face from its in
juries. There is a drawer below the Aider, and the Aider is
lined with green cloth.
The back feet are grooved out for the fcreen to Aide in ; in
each of which grooves is fixed a fpring to balance the fcreen by.
The top is firll: crofsbanded all round ; then a border is put on,
fo broad as to fall exa6lly where the joint of the fcreen will be
in the top. Beyond that again is put a narrower crofsbanding.
When the fcreen is down the top appears uniform, without any
joint, at leaft not fo as to be ofFenfive to the eye. The ftraining
3 D 2 frame
( 396 )
frame of the fcreen is made of thin wainfcot, and framed in
four pannels. When the faid frame is covered in the manner
of any other fcreen, Hips are got out and grooved and mitered
round, and a part of the top which rifes up with the fcreen is
glued on to the flip, and as of courfe the top will project over
behind, fo it affords hold for the hand to raife the fcreen by.
Off/je two tables, Plate XJJV.
The lefthand table is to write and read at. The top is
lined ^vith leather or green cloth, and crofsbanded. To Itop
the book there are two brafs plates let in, with keyholes ; and
in the moulding, which is to flop the book, are two pins, with
heads and flioulders, by which the moulding is effe.^tu^Ily
fecured. < •
The righthand table is meant to write at only. The top
part takes off from the under part, which, having a bead let in
at the back and ends of the top, prevents the top part from
moving out of its place. This table being made for the conve
nience of moving from one room to another, there is a handle
fixed on to tlie upper flielf, as the diawing fliews. In the
drawer is a flider to write on, and on the righthand of it ink,
fand, and pens. The fizes are fliewn by the fcales.
Of
r
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^111 i~T~ r i T~rT [
/>/•*' X Inches
T. Sheraton dfl
.PaHish./ US th A.! '/nrrts /r ff 7>^r
h'lh'ry.Snilp
( 397 )
Of the Lady's Dr effing "table. Plate XLVI.
The ftyle of finifhing thefe tables is neat. They are often
made of fatinwood, and banded ; but fometimes they are made
of mahogany. The fize of this table, which is here three feet,
fliould be increafed in its length near fix inches when thefe
folding fideglaffes are introduced. The reafon of this is, that
a lad}^ may have more room to lit between them to drefs. It
fliould, in this cafe, be made about two inches widen But, ob
ferve, the llze here given is that which is ufed when only the
rifing backglafs is introduced ; and this has been the common
w ay of finifliing them. Thefe fideglaffes are an addition of my
own, which I take to be an improvement; judging that, when
they are finifiied in this manner, they will anfwer the end of a
Rudd's table, at a lefs expence.
The glafs behind rifes up like that of a fliavingftand.
Thofe on the fide, fold down paft each other, being hinged to a
iViding ftretcher, which is capable of being puflied backward or
forward. If the righthand glafs be pufiied to the back it will
then fold down, and the other keeping its place will do the
fame. A and B, in the plan, fliew thefe glaffes in their place ;
e is the backglafs, and / is the top, which is hinged to a piece
of
( 398 )
of wood, which runs in a groove at each end, fo that when the
top is drawn fully up, it will fall down on the frame. The
other folding top on each fide have each of them a fmall tenon
near the front, as may be feen at the edge of the lefthand one.
Thefe tenons being let into the middle part, are the means of
fecuring each fidetop, when they are folded down, and the
middle part is put down upon them, fo that the lock in the
middle fecures the three tops. The drawer on the right is the
depth of two fronts, as is eafily feen ; the ufe of which is to put
caps in. The lefthand fronts are in two real drawers, for the
purpofe of laying fmall things in. The cupboard in the knee
hole has its front reeded in the hollow part to imitate tambour,
and the circular door in the center is veneered and quartered.
This cupboard will take a lady's hat as they wear them now.
The other drefTing conveniences are obvious in the plan.
Of the PerfpeHive Lines.
These I only confider as hints or memorandums to fuch as
have already gone through the regular trcatife on the fubjecft.
an\% the width of the table; and a line fi'om a to r/, the diftance,
cuts the vifual n s in b^ which gives the apparent width at that
diftance. The front of the table is fuppofed to be in the pic
ture, and therefore every meafurement is purely geometrical;
that is, they are taken from the fcale. From r to o is the width
7 of
( 399 )
of the top, except the flip behind. Therefore by drawing a
perpendicular at />, and directing a line from o to j, the center,
it will cut at /), and give the height of the top, fuppofing it to
be raifed quite up, ready for turning down.
Of the Cylinder Dejk and Bookcafe. Plate XL VII.
The ufe of this piece is plain, both from the title and de
fign. The flyle of finifhing them is fomewhat elegant, being
made of fatinwood, crofsbanded, and varniflied. This defign
fliews green lilk fluting behind the glafs, and drapery put on at
top before the fluting is tacked to, which has a good look when
properly managed. The fquare figure of the door is much in
fafliion now. The ornament in the diamond part is meant to
be carved and gilt, laid on to fome fort of filk ground. The
rim round the top is intended to be brafs ; it may, however, be
^Jone in wood.
Of the manufa&uring Part,
The manufacSturing part of this piece is a little intricate to
a ftranger, for which reafon it will require as particular a
defcription as I can give to make it tolerably well under
llood.
Firll,
C 400 )
Firft, obferve the flider is communicated with the cylinder
by an iron trammel, as I,fo that when the former comes forward,
the latter rifes up and fliews the nell: of the fmall drawers and
letter holes, as appears in the defign. When, therefore, the Hider is
puflied home even with the front, the cylinder is brought clofe
to it at the fame time In this ftate the lock of the long drawer
under the flider fccures both the drawer itfelf and alfo the flider
at the fame time, in the following manner: — D is the long drawer
under the flider, P the partition above it, and S is the flider ;
C is a fpringbolt let into the partition. When, therefore, the
drawer lockbolt is out, as it rifes it drives C, the fpringbolt,
into the flider ; and when the drawer is unlocked, then C falls
down to its place in the partition, and the flider can be pulled
out. The trammel I, ^s a piece of iron near a quarter thick, and
inch and quarter broad, with grooves cut through, as fliewn
at I. S, in the profile, is the flider; and ^^, 12, //, the cy
linder. The trammel T is fixed to the cylinder at h by a
fcrew, not drove tight up, but fo as the trammel will pafs round
eafy. Again, at the flider S a fcrew is put through the groove
in the trammel, which works on the neck of the fcrew, and its
head keeps the trammel in its place ; fo that it muft be obferved,
that the grooves or flits in the iron trammel are not much above
a quarter of an inch in width. When tlie flider is puflied in
about half way, the trammel will be at w, and its end will be
below the flider, as the plate fliews; but v/hen the flider is
home
C 40I )
home to its place, the trammel will be at T and g. The center
piece with four holes is a fquare plate of iron, having a center
pin which works in the upper llit of the trammel. It is let into
the end of the cylinder, and fixed with four fcrews. To find the
place of this center, lay the trammel upon the end, as T b, in
the pofition that it will be in when the Aider is out, and, with a
pencil, mark the infide of the flits in the trammel. Again, place
the trammel on the end as it will be when the flider is in, as at T^,
and do as before ; and where thefe pencil marks interfe6l each
other will be the place of the centerplate. The figures i, 2,3,4,
fhew the place of the fmall drawers. The triangular dotted
lines with three holes, is a piece of thin wood fcrewed on to the
end, to which is fixed the neft of fmall drawers, forming a vacuity
for the trammel to work in. F is a threeeighth piece veneered
and crofs banded, and cut behind to give room for the trammel.
This piece both keeps the Ihder to its place, and hides the tram
mel. The next thing to be obferved is, that the lower frame,
containing two heights of drawers, is put together feparate
from the upper part, which takes the cylinder. The ends of
the cylinder part are tenoned with the flip tenons into the lower
frame and ghied. The fliaded part at A fhews the rail cut out
to let the trammel work. The back is framed in two pannels,
and the back legs are rabbetted out to let the back framing
come down to the lower drawer. The flider is framed of ma
hogany, with a broad rail at each end about nine inches, and'
3 E one.
( 402 )
one at the front about three and an half. In the inlide of the
framing a rabbet is cut to receive a thin bottom. The bottom
being fixed in, a flip is put at each end to receive the horfe
which fupports the deflc part. The ink and pen drawers at each
end of the Aider have a fmall moulding mitered round them to
keep them faft, without their being glued on. Obferve, there is a
£ham drawerfront faftened on to the Aider, which of courfe goes
in with it, and which contains the depth of thefc ink and pen
drawers, fo that they are not required to be taken out when the
Aider goes in. The cylinder is jointed to its fweep in narrow Alps
of ftraightbaited hard mahogany, and afterwards veneered. If
the veneer be of a pUable kind it may be laid with a hammer,
by firft flirinking and tempering the veneer well, which muft
not be by water, but thin glue. If the veneer be very crofs and
unpliable, as many curls of mahogany are, it is in vain to at
tempt the hammer. A caul in this cafe is the fureft and beft
method, though it be attended with confiderably more trouble
than the hammer. To prepare for laying it with a caul, pro
ceed as follows.— Take five or fix pieces of threeinch deal, and
fweep them to fit the infide of the cylinder. Fix thefe upon a
board anfwerable to the length of the cylinder. Then have as
many cauls for the outfide of the cylinder, which may be made
out of the fame pieces as thofe for the infide. Take then quarter
mahogany for a caul to cover the whole veneer, and heat it
well. Put the caul fcrews acrofs the bench, and Aip in the
8 board
j\rp2. />/.2.
fiA/,S.
a/^^/ie^tj^
i9lw^ J'<i? a cr auA' ^z^ C^c^ £t>Ai>le d&s^h/UT^.
7
Br€^/Jt <y/' Uwe/" ^ay^
"'•/i/h .^ /7.f fAe .'iit dir^ij' hy it 7hrv . Ano fl /"
( 403 )
board with the round cauls fcrewed to it ; and proceed, in every
other particular, as the nature of the thing will neceffarily
didtate.
Of the Perfpe&ive Lines,
GR is the ground line, and H L the horizon ; s the center,
and d the diftance of the picture. A B, on the ground line, is
the breadth of the ends ; from which a line is drawn to d^ cut
ting the vifual B j, for the perfpedlive breadth of the end. O is
the height of the lower part, and the upper part being level
with the horizon, appears in one line, and therefore flievv^s no
breadth at the top.
Of the Cabinet. Plate XLVIII.
The ufeof. this piece is. to accommodate a lady with con
veniences for writing, reading, and holding her trinkets, and
other articles of that kind.
The ftyle of finifhing them iselegant, being often richly
japanned, and veneered with the fineft fatinwood.
The manufacturing part is not very difficult, but will ad
mit of the following remarks. — The middle drawer over the
3 E 2 knee
( 404 )
kneehole has a Aider to write on, and thofe on each fide are
plain. The doors under them are hung with pinhinges, and
in the infide there is one flielf in each. The cupboard within
the kneehole is fitted up in finall drawers, and fometimes only
a fiielf. The pilafters or half columns are put on after the car
cafe is made. The corner ones are planed fquare firft, and then
rabbetted out to receive the angle of the carcafe, and afteru'ards
tlcal is glued in a flight manner into the rabbet, that it may be
eafily taken out after the column is turned.
The center door of the upper part is fquare at the top,
opening under the aftragal which finiflies the cove part. The
pilafters are on the door frame, and the drapery is formed and
fewed to the filk, and both are tacked into a rabbet together.
Behind the filk door are Aiding flielves for fmall books. The
wings are fitted up as Aiewn in the defign on the right, or with
more fmall drawers, having only two or three letter holes at
the top.
Of the Perfpe&ive Lines.
G R is the ground line, H L the horizon, and s d only half
the full diftance of the pidlure ; wherefore ^ ^ is only half the
original meafurement of the ends of the cabinet. A perpendi
cular from e determines the front of the upper part, and all
thofe
.v.'V./. /j/
H
Jlnf^ ^.
^lihrmfe^ft. •/'/
/'///•//.r//,/ /7x //^ ./A (^rVV^r/j, 4)' Ir Terrv. _ ^ 'V^>. J, <7^2 .
&Terf'y.t?*^//f
(405)
thofe vifuals drawn to s are obvious in themfelves. The per
pendicular lines cc, at the cove, fhew the centers for drawing
it. The righthand door opens more than fquare, confe
quently it is oblique to the pi6lure; and being oblique, the top
and bottom of it tend to fome vanifliing point out of the center
of the pi6lure, as is denoted by the lines n n, s s. Thefe two, if
produced, would meet in a point on the horizon, and that point
is termed the vanifliing point of all lines parallel to the top
and bottom of the door. The door turning on its hinges de
fcribes a femicircle, as is Ihewn; and, confequently, every open
ing of the door muft come within the circumference of that
femicircle.
" Oftbe Ladfs Cabinet BrejfmgI'abk. Plate XLIX.
This table contains every requifite for a lady to drefs at.
The ftyle of finifhing them is neat and fomewhat elegant.
With refpe£l to the manufacturing part, and what it con
tains, thefe may be learned from the defign itfelf, which here
fhews the parts entirely laid open. I fhall therefore only men
tion two or three particulars. When the wafhingdrawer is in,
a Aider which is above it may be drawn out to write on occa
lionally. The ink. and fand are in the righthand drawer under
the
( 406 )
the center dreffingglafs. Behind the drapery, which is tacked
to a rabbet, and fringed or gimped, to cover the nails, is a flielf,
on which may fland any veffel to receive the dirty water. Above
the drapery are tambour cupboards, one at each end, and one
in the center under the drawer. Above the tambour at each
end are real drawers, w'hich are fitted up to hold every article
neceffary in dreffing. The drawers in the cabinet part are in
tended to hold all the ornaments of drefs, as rings, drops. See.
Behind the center glafs is drapery ; it may be real to fuit that
below, or it may only be painted in imitation of it. The glafs
fwings to any pofition, on center pins fixed on the flielf above
the candlebranches. The fideglaflTcs fold in behind the doors,
and the doors themfelves, when fliut, appear folid, with ovals
in the pannels, and ornamented to fuit the other p^rts, Ob
ferve, the whole plan of the top is not in the plate, it being re
quired to be two feet over.
The perfpedlive lines fliewn at the circular end, are as fol
lows. — When the plan is made, divide the curve into parts, as
Ihewn ; and from thefe divifions on the ground line, draw lines
to the center s. Then turn up the ordinates to the ground line ;
and from the points where they cut on that line, draw lines to
the diftance, as fhewn, which will cut the vifuals at 6, 7, 8, 9,
and fo on, finding points to diredt the curve by.
Of
\T/3. />/. a.
rlatr.iP.
^ H
^ ^Q^..l£j^j 9:UL/ .w V//x////./^. %//fy
' /ett and Iru^ej '
MUM
TSA^^B^H l}itl
J*tiiii/heii /zr the Jcf tiirecU M ^ 7^'rrt' April Jr. m^s
A «
Baf/'if j:n/^.
( 407 )
Of the Lady's Cabinet and WritingTable. Plate L.
This table is intended for writing on, and to hold a few
fmall books in the back of the upper part. Within the door at
each end, under the domes, are formed fmall cabinets of
drawers, &c. The front of the upper part, which inclofes the
neft of drawers and letter holes, ilides in under the top, and
when drawn fufficiently out falls down in the curve fg^ and
locks into the folding top.
The method of hinging this front is thus : — Suppofe BD to
fhew it up, as it is in the defign, ready for pufliing home.
Then obferve, D ^^ is a (lip which runs in a groove cut at each
end. The front B is rabbetted out, and alfo the flip D. Thefe
are hinged together, and are both of one thicknefs, fo that when
B is drawn out, the flip having a tenon at d^ flops it from com
ing entirely out. The other figure fliews the front when it is
let down, which cannot fail of making it underflood. The
dotted curve line oP fliews that the imder fide of the top muft
be hollowed out fo that the angle of the falling front may
clear itfelf as it turns.
Obferve,
( 4o8 )
Obferve, the writing part folds over like a cardtable, and
when it is open, is fupported by the drawer in the frame.
Every other part muft be plain to the workman.
N. B. Upon the fame principles the top of the dreffing
table, Plate XLVI. is managed.
. Of the Drapery. Plate LI.
Little can be faid of this, as every part explains itfelf,
as reprefented in the drawing. It is, however, necelTary to ob
ferve, that the French ftrapping and taffels in the righthand
defign is no part of the cornice, as fome cabinetmakers have
already miftaken it to be. It is the upholfterer's work, and is
fewed on within the valance or ground of the drapery.
Thefe curtains are drawn on French rods. When the cords
are drawn the curtains meet in the center at the fame time, but
are no way raifed from the floor. When the fame cord is
drawn the reverfe way, each curtain flies open, and comes to
their place on each fide, as they are now reprefented. The
cord pafTes on a fide pulley fixed on the righthand.
To
^
( 409 )
To effect this, the rod is made in. a particular manner,
having two pulleys at one end, and a fingle one at the other,
which cannot well be defcribed in words without a drawing
of it.
Of the Gentleman^ s Secretary. Plate LIT.
This piece is intended for a gentleman to write at, to keep
his own accounts, and ferve as a library. The ftyle of finifli
ing it is neat, and fometimes approaching to elegance, being at
times made of fatinwood, with japanned ornaments.
Of the manufaBuring Fart.
The great thing to be obferved in this, is the management
of the fall A, or writing part, which is lined with green cloth.
This fall is hung by an iron balancehinge B, fo that when the
fall is raifed vip by the hand a little above an angle of fortyfive
degrees, or in the pofition it is fliewn at A, it falls to of itfelf
by the balancing power of B.
When A is in a horizontal pofition, B is at F, the infide of
the pilafter, on which is glued a piece of cloth to prevent the
3 F iion
( 4'o )
iron from rattling. B flopping at F it is evident how firmly
the fall is fnpported by that means ; for the hinge is made very
ftrong, about three (juarters thick at the dovetail end, and ta
pered off to about a quarter thick at the joint, and where it is
fcrewed to the fall. The hinge is made in two parts, as D and
b. D has a center pin, and is fcrewed on to the infide of the
pilafter, as at ^; /^ is all in one piece, and is fcrewed on to the
fall, having a center hole to receive the abovementioned pin in
the other part of the hinge.
It is neceffary to obferve, that there is a vacuity behind
both the upper and lower pilafters in which the iron ba
lance operates, fo that nothing is feen but the mere joint of
the hinge.
Again, it is requifite to obferve, that a hollow muft be
worked on the upper fide of the under carcafs, to give place to*
the circular motion of the under angle of the fall, as it turns
upon its hinge from a perpendicular to a horizontal form. This
hollow may be obferved in the plate. The fpace i contains the
fall when it is up; 2 is an open fpace, which affords room for
the rings on the fmall drawers; and 3 is the pilafter. The or
namented freeze under the cornice is, in reality, a drawer,
which fprings out when the bolt of the falllock is relieved.
This is done by a fpringbolt let into the partition under the
drawer,
A^/.C. />/■/■
Platr
63.
A Cii^irrBJEK ^yASH"HArra) Tabjle
T .fJirratfri <irl
Pithlu^hd tUf thf Act duecti hy (r.Tcrty June 2^.iJ<i2.
^ Bar ml j>*tlp
( 4" )
drawer, which is forced up by the bolt of the falllock into the
under edge of the drawer; and when the fall is unlocked this
fpringbolt returns to its place in the partition, and a common
fpring fcrewed on to the drawerback fends it forward, fo that
it may be drawn out independent of a ring or handle.
When the fall is up, there appear two pannels in the form
of thofe below. As for any other particular, it muft be under
ftood by a workman.
Obferve, the dimenfions of every part may be accurately
taken from the profile by the fcale.
Of the Cylinder Wajhhand Table. Plate LIII.
These are always made of mahogany, and having a cy
linder to rife up to hide the wafliing apparatus, they look neat
in any genteel dreflingroom.
They alfo contain a bidet on the right near the front, and
D, a waterdrawer on the left near the back, fo that when the
two are puftied home they pafs by each other. The drawer on
the front, which appears partly out, runs above the bidet and
the waterdrawer. The two heights of fliam drawers above
contain the cylinder, and the two heights of fliam drawers be
3 F 2 low
( 412 )
low contain the bidet and waterdrawer. The bafon has a phig
hole at the bottom, by which the water is conveyed off into the
■drawer D, which is hned with lead. The top of the cittern is
hinged, and can be turned up at any time to fill it M'ith freili
vater. The glais rifes up behind, in the fame manner as that
of a fhavingftand. And when the glafs is down, the top can be
turned down alfo; and the cylinder being raifed to meet it, the
whole is enclofed. The motion of the cylinder is guided by
two quadrant pieces, one at each end of it, which are hinged to
the top in which the bafon hangs. This is fliewn by A in the
profile; which, when the cylinder is let fall to its place, will be
at B. When the cylinder is raifed up to A, it catches at C,
which is a fpring of the fame kind as thofe put on to fecretary
drawers. The bidetdrawer is fometimes made to take quite
out, having four legs to reft on. The end of the piece of work
is cut out fo as the feet can go in without being folded up.
This, in the defign, is ftopped from coming quite out, and the
framed legs, which appear, fold under the drawer and flip in
along with it.
Of the Pembroke Table and French Work Table, Plate LIV.
The ufe of this piece is for a gentleman or lady to break
faft on.
The
( 413 )
The flyle of finifliing thefe tables is very neat, fometimes
bordering upon elegance, being at times made of fatinwood,
and having richly japanned borders round their tops, with or
namented drawer fronts.
The manufadluring part of this table differs but very little
from thofe in common ufe.
The fly brackets which fiipport the flaps are made and
fixed in the fame manner as any other, only I apprehend it belt
to make a dovetail groove in the front for the drawer fides, at a
diftance from each end of the drawerfront equal to the thick
nefs of the bracket and the inner lining ; fo that the front laps
over and covers the whole, as appears in the defign. In this
cafe the lockbolt flioots up into the top of the table. The top
and frame may be connected to the pillar and claws, either by
a fquare block glued up, or by a couple of pieces, about four
inches broad, halflapped into each other at rightangles, and
double tenonned into the pillar, and fcrewed to the bottom of
the frame, as the profile of the pillar and claw is intended to
fuggeft.
The workman is defired to obferve, that the top of the
table, as fliewn in the deiign, is not meant to reprefent a regu
lar ellipfis, as they are generally made a little fuller out at each
corner
( 414 )
comer of the bed. The reafon of this is, that the flaps, when
turned down, may better hide the joint rail.
Of the French Work Table. Plate LIV.
The title of this table fufficiently indicates its ufe. The
ftyle of finifhing them is neat, being commonly made of fatin
wood, with a brafs moulding round the edge of the rim.
The front part of the rim is hinged to the top, in the fame
way as the front of a fecretary or defkdrawer ; fo that when it
is turned up, it fallens by two thumbfprings as they do. The
brafs moulding is mitered upon the edge of the rim when the
front is up, and after it is hinged ; which being cut through
with a thin faw, the moulding, on the return of the front, will
be fair with that on the end.
The flielf below is fliaped fomething like a boat. The
bottom of it is made of inch fluff, and double tenonned into the
ftandards, as the profile plainly fliews. The top of each fland
ard has alfo double tenons, to which crofsbars are morticed and
fcrewed to the underfide of the top.
The fcale fliews the proportions of the ftandard, and the
height of the table; its breadth is fourteen or fifteen inches.
I The
( 4^5 )
The boat part, which ferves as a convenience for fewing imple
ments, is fix inches over the middle, and three at each end.
I have, in thefe two defigns, introduced ftri6t fliadowing,
that the learner may better judge of its efFe6^s in fuch cafes. —
But I muft obferve the fliadows here are rather too faint, be
caufe 1 was afraid to make the plate look heavy. The fun's
rays are here confidered parallel to the pi6ture, which is fully
illuftrated by different cafes, in the Treatife on Shadowing,
fee page 328. And, therefore, I fliall only obferve here to the
learner, that, in making out the fliadows of objects, a harfli out
line ought carefully to be avoided. In fa61:, there ought to be
no outline at all, except thofe firft drawn by a pencil to deter
mine the boundaries of the fhadow ; after which a large hair
pencil fliould be ufed to fill up the fliadow. We may likewife
remark, that if Nature be obferved duly, fhe teaches us that the
fhadows of obje6ls are flronger nearell: the foot or place where
they reft, and grow fainter the further they recede from the
foot of the obje61:. The reafon of this is : becaufe if fliadows are
very long, as from a houfe, there is a ftrong refledion of light
towards the boundaries, which mixes with the fliadow, and
confequently weakens it. It is fomewhat fimilar to what aftro
nomers term a penumbra, or imperfed: fliadow accompanying a
total one.
Laftly,
( 4i6 )
Laflly, it may alfo be obferved, that when an objeil is to
tally immerfed in the fliadow of another, as the table claws are
in the Ihadow of the top, there is a fort of additional fliadow,
occafioned partly by refle6tion, and partly by the conta6t of the
two furfaces, but thefe are fliort and imperfedl: in their boun
daries.
Of the Tripod CandleStand. Plate LV.
These are ufed in drawingrooms, for the convenience of
affording additional light to fuch parts of the room where it
would neither be ornamental nor eafy to introduce any other
kind.
The ftyle of finifliing thefe for noblemen's drawdngrooms
is exceeding rich. Sometimes they are finiflied in white and
gold, and fometimes all gold, to fuit the other furniture. In
inferior drawingrooms they are japanned anfwerable to the
furniture.
Perfons unacquainted with the manufafturing part of thefe
Hands may apprehend them to be flight and eafdy broken ; but
this objedion vaniflies, when it is confidered that the fcrolls are
made of Itrong wire, and the ornaments cemented to them.
3 I could
( .
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J'latf . .y,;
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Tnbh//ud ru l7if > ict tiirec'tj; hv <^' Te?rv ■ hilr 2 /. 1J,JZ . ,
Jjiir/rn' A'cllTp.
^ MAMZMQlTJjy J^EM^HOJ^^ JliBii: .
/.Li/p
•' I'^iiy.JfuuA.
Pul/iAc^ /j 7:SA^m/?^n JUr'H (^C) 2. .
\
( 4^7 )
I could not fhew to advantage more than three hghts, but,
in reahty, there are four ; one at the center, and one at each
angle. The top of the left ftand is a round vafe, which can be
turned and have the fquare handles put on afterwards. The
handles fhould be placed parallel to two of the feet. The top of
the right one is a concave fpherical triangle, having all its fides
equal.
As to any other part, the workman's own notions will fug
geft every thing neceffary in their manufa6lure.
Of the Harlequin Pembroke 'Table. Plate LVI.
This piece ferves not only as a break fall, but alfo as a
"writing table, very fuitable for a lady. It is termed a Harlequin
Table, for no other reafon but becaufe, in exhibitions of that
fort, there is generally a great deal of machinery introduced in
the fcenery.
Tables like this have already been made, but not according
to the improved plan of the machinery here propofed.
In this, however, I alTume very little originality or merit
to myfelf, except what is due to the manner of fhewing and
3 G defcribing
( 4i8 )
defcribing the mechanifm of it : the reft is due to a friend, from
whom I received my firft ideas of it.
The particular advantages arifing from the machinery arc
as follows :
Firft, the neft of drawers, or till, fliewn in the defign, can
be raifed to any height, gradually, imtil at length the whole
is out.
Second, when the whole is out, as reprefented in the defign,
it cannot be taken away, becaufe of three ftops which keep
it in; two at one end, and one at the other, according to the
grooves in No. i.
Thirdly, but if neceftity require that the till ftiould be taken
quite away from the reft of the table, in order to come at the
machinery, then one of thefe ftops at one end is fo conftrudled
that it can be flipped back, and, the till being raifed up at the
fame end where the ftop is flipped back, the two at the other
end of courfe will relieve themfelves, fo that the till can be
taken quite away.
Fourthly, when the till is replaced, the ftop can be puflied
into the groove again by the finger, which returns again into
the groove by the force of a fmall fpring.
Fifthly,
( 4^9 )
Fifthly, The till being let down again until it is perfeaiv
even with the reft of the tabletop, it can then be fecured in its
place by means of another flop at the bottom, fo that if the
whole table were turned upfide down the till would ftill keep
its place.
Sixthly, although the till be raifed and lowered by turning
the flybracket which fupports the flap, yet the bracket is made
to lofe this efFea or power by the turn of a key, and the bracket
may then be drawn out to fupport the flap without raifmg the
till,, and the table can then be ufed, as in common, to breakfaft
upon.
Thefe are all the advantages that are neceflary, or that can
be looked for, in tables of this fort, to render them complete,
and to obtam the approbation of the ingenious.
But it will now be requifite to fliew in what manner the
machmery operates fo as to efFe6t thefe ; and, Hkewife, to give
fome defcription of its parts, that the workman may be able to
form a proper idea of the whole.
The firft and great thing to be attended to is, to fliew the
manner of raifing the till by turning the flybracket. To ac
3^2 complifli
( 420 )
complifh this, I have given a perfpe6live view of the whole
machinery at No. i. Suppofing the till to be taken out, and the
flybrackets and inner lining away from the framing ; ab'i'i an
upright iron axis, made in two parts, and conneded together
by a round pin at the joint b ; of courfe, if the winch c be
turned round, the axis a will turn round with it by the above
pin, without moving the lower part of the axis b. Whence it
is evident, that if the winch c be fcrewcd to the under edge of
the flybracket, which bracket is fhewn in the defign, it will
turn round without afFeding any part of the machinery. This
is the caufe why the flap of the top can be up whilft the till is
down. But if the fquare focket a be prefled down paft the joint
b, the two parts of the axis will then be confined together, and
therefore if the winch c be moved this way, it is evident that
the machinery will inftantly be put in motion in the following
manner :
The winch c being fcrewed to the flybracket, and turned
fquare out, it defcribes by its paflage a quadrant of a circle ; and
the arm s of the crankrod being fixed faft into the fame axis
a b^ confequently it will defcribe the fame curve as the bracket:
and as the crankrod R is jointed into its arm at s and at /, in
moving the arm the rod R is puflied forward toy, and the hori
zontal cogwheel H of courfe turns to the lefthand on the cen
ter C. It being then turned to the left, as expreflTed by the
dotted
( 421 )
dotted line at q, it follows that the upright cog wheel N
mull be turned to the righthand; and if this be turned
to the righthand, then mull alfo the quadrant cogwheel
Q on the left turn to the right with it: and, becaufe the
axis A is fixed fall in the wheel Q, and the crooked levers e e
into A, confequently the rollers L L, fixed by the rod o to thefe
levers, will defcribe a quadrant of a circle, as denoted by the
dotted line and the roller 9 ; becaufe the conne6ting cogrod c
makes Q move in the fame curve as N does. Again, if N, the
upper part of the upright cogwheel, move to the right, then
mufl M, the lower part of it, move to the left; and, being con
necSled with the cog rod 6, and it again to the righthand qua
drant cogwheel Q, it follows, as before, that the levers//, and
the roller L, will defcribe a quadrant of a circle to the lefthand,
as at 8. The reader mufl eafily fee now, that when the winch c
is turned by the flybracket, that every part of the machinery
will be pint in motion, and that the levers and rollers, in ap
proaching gradually to 8 and 9, mufl neceffarily raife up the
till. But it mufl alfo be obferved, that the motion of the levers
// and ^ ^ is greatly promoted by the power of the common
fleelfprings S S ; for, when the till is down, thefe are always
charged ; that is, the fides of the fprings are nearly clofe to each
other, and thefe being connedled with what may be termed the
auxiliary, or affiflant cogrods, 4 and 7, and confequently prelT
ing againfl their ends, the quadrant cogwheels Q Q are there
by made to revolve, and the levers and rollers are raifed almoll
as
( 422 )
as much by this means as by the other machinery. It mull
alfo be noticed, that as thefe fprings and auxiliary rods greatly
affift the other power in raifing the till, fo do they alio check
the fudden fall of it, by a conftant refiftance againft the prelTure
of it, fo that the palTage of the till downwards is made by this
mean fmooth and eafy.
Obferve, p,p,p,p, are brafs pulleys fixed to keep the cog
rods in their place, and zv w are pieces of wood to keep the
fprings firm to their center.
The reafon why there are but three rollers, and two of
them at one end, is obvious; becaufe the till muft reft truer on
three points than on four. It cannot totter on this account when
it is fully raifed, becaufe there are two ftops at that end where
there is only one roller, which nm in the grooves G G ; and if
the ftops chuck up to the end of the grooves when the till is up,
it is impoffible that it can totter, confidering that the other end i&
upon two rollers. And here let it be noted, that if the work
man find any inconvenience owing to the double roller o being
at the fame end with the axis d b, it can be removed by putting
the double roller where the fingle one is, which makes no dif
ference with any other part of the machinery. And obferve,
that when the rollers are nearly perpendicular to their axis A A,
they enter upon an inclined plane, or on thin pieces of wood
planed
C 4^3 )
planed ofFlike a wedge, of the width of the rollers, and whofe
thin end is glued to meet the rollers as they rife, fo that the till
can thereby be raifed as high as we pleafe. Thefe wedges being
glued on the under fide of the till to fuit exactly the place of
the rollers, the projed:ion of the wedges below the till makes it
neceflary that there fhould be a vacuity in the axis A A, for
them to fall into when the till is down ; becaufe, in this fitua
tion, the till refts on the three rollers, which are nearly on a
level with the axis A A. And as the wedges above mentioned
muft lie acrofs the axis A A when' the till is down, every work
man muft fee the neceffity of a vacuity, or otherwife the till
would not fettle to its place.
The next thing in order is to fhew how one of the flops
can be relieved, or flipped back, fo that the till may be taken
quite away. The conftru6lion of this flop is fliewn by No. 4,
which fuppofes that we fee the underfide of the till. A is a hole
cut through the till, which hole is drawn by a compafs, having
one foot at C the center. P is a round pin, which comes through
to the infide of the bottom of the till. K is a tin key which
hooks this pin. In applying this key to the pin, the writing
ilider, fliewn in the deflgn, muft be puflied in, and the front
part which covers the letter holes turned up to its place ; and
there being a groove acrofs the under flde of the Aider, exailly
3 where
( 424 >
where the pin comes, and the Aider giving a little way for the
thicknefs of the aforefaid key, the groove jiift mentioned admits
the key over the head of the pin P ; then, when the key is drawn
back again, P moves toward A by the center C ; and S, the flop
which proje(5ls beyond the till, is by this mean drawn within.
B is a plate fcrewed on to the till to keep the flop firm. Again,
when the till is down to its place, it is neceflfary that it fliould be
flopped there alfo, as has been already faid. The apparatus for
this is fhewn at No. 3, which is a different view of the fame lock
as at No, 2. i, 2, 3, 4, is fuppofed to be a part of the bottom,
not of the till, but that whereon the machinery is placed at
No. I. / J is a kind of trammel with flits in it, moving on a
center at s. A pin is fixed to the bolt of the lock, and there
being a pafTage for the pin cut out of the lockplate, as fliewn
in the defign, this pin moves up and down, according as the
key is turned. ^ is a kind of lever, with two arms, moving at
the center a. c c are ftaples which are faflened to the under
fide of the till, and as the bolt of the lock llioots downwards,
the trammel ts throws the arms of the lever out of the ftaples
which are fixed to the underfide of the till ; by which means
the till is relieved, and can then be raifed by drawing out the
flybracket. And here the workman muft be careful to ob
ferve, that when the bolt b. No. i, is fhot, as it now appears,
the till is always relieved, and the bracket at the fame time has
power
( 425 )
power to raife the till ; becaufe the fork D works in the groove
d oi the axis ab zt No. i, and thereby prefles the focket a to b^
and gives the winch c power over the machinery. And obferve
further, that when the bolt b at No. 2 is up, as it is Ihewn at
No. 3, then it is evident that the arms of the ftoplever will
pafs through the beforementioned ftaples at the under fide of
the till and fecure it, while, at the fame time, the bracket will
lofe its power over the machinery; becaufe the focket a, at No.
I, is thereby raifed above b^ and of courfe as b turns on a pin,
the winch c cannot affect the crankrod s R, and therefore no
part of the machinery is moved. Thus it is, I think, fufficiently
clear that the till can be flopped and relieved when it is either
up or down, and alfo that the bracket can be drawn out to fup
port the flap, while, at the fame time, the till is both down and
flopped, fo that the whole may be ufed as a common breakfaft
table.
It remains now to give fome hints refpedting the manufac
turing part.
Of the Table Top.
The fize of the table when opened is four feet, and two
feet feven inches long ; and the rails eight and a quarter deep.
3 H The
( 4^6 )
The whole top is divided into four compartments, to anfwer
the opening for the till. Round thefe compartments is a japan
ned border, to fill up the fpace which lies between the end of the
table and the end of the till. This border muft be continued all
round alike, to make the pannels appear uniform and of equal
fizc. The bed of the top fliould be framed in two pannels of
threequarters mahogany well feafoned, and the breadth of the
fliles to fuit the opening of the till. A pannel of halfinch fluff
fliould be tongued into the other part of the bed where the till
does not rife. Then, for the fake of the allragal which is to be
worked on the edge of the top all round, a piece fhould be
tongued in, the long way of the grain, into each end of the bed.
And obferve, that as the bed of the table will frequently have to
be taken off in the courfe of the work, it is heft to put fmall
tenons into the under fide of it, and mortices into the rails all
round ; by which means the bed w ill be kept to a certain place,
and taken eafy off at any time. A black firing is put next the
till, all round the infide of the border, to hide the joint. In put
ting this black firing on at the opening of the till, the infide of
the mahogany frame fliould be rabbetted out to take a flip of
black veneer about threeeighths wide; and it being left to ftand
above the framing the thicknefs of the veneer, this black flip
can be fhot by a rabbetplain to the thicknefs of a neat firing,
and the veneer muft be jumped to it. The ufe of this is, that
when the till rifes it may not take any part of the firing away
with
( 427 )
with it, which it certainly would do if it were put on merely as
a corner firing.
Of the nil.
The carcafs of the till is made of halfinch mahogany; the
partitions and letterholes of thin quarter ftuff, and black beads
put on their edges, all of which muft be kept back about half
an inch from the edge of the carcafs, to give place to the writ
ing Aider; part of which turns up as a front to the infide of the
till, and part of it remains in it: and, as a part of the writing
llider remains in the bottom of the till below the drawers, con
lequently there muft be a joint in the Aider to anfwer it; which
joint is hinged at each end, before the crofsband is put on for
the green cloth. The workman may make the hinges himfelf
to fait that purpofe. They may be made as common delkfall
hinges, only the knuckles of the hinge are made a little higher
than common to receive a thin veneer; which, when fcrewed
on, the veneer for the band of the cloth lies upon and covers
the ftraps, fo that a part of the knuckle is only feen : but ob
ferve, that the ends of the veneer, each meeting at the knuckle,
muft be cut in a floping diredion, fo that they and the brafs
knuckle between them will be exadly in the form, and of the
fame nature, as the rulejoint of a flybracket for a Pembroke
3 H 2 table ;
( 428 )
table; and therefore it muft be evident to every workman that
the front will turn up fquare. The Aider is topped into the
till by a couple of pins which run in grooves; and when it is
puflied home, before it can turn up, a hollow muft be worked
in the bottom of the till, to give room for the angle of the rifing
part of the Aider to turn in. When the Aider is turned up, it is
kept in its place by a fpringcatch, which ftrikes into a plate
put on at the under fide of the top of the till. And obferve,
that when the front is up, it Aiould be rather within the carcafs
of the till, both for the purpofe of letting the till go eafy down,
and to admit of a Aip of thin green cloth at each end, fo that
when the front is turned upon the top of the Pembroke table it
may not fcratch it.
Another method may, however, be propofed, and which
will be attended with lefs trouble; only with this difadvantage,
that it takes off a little of the height of the drawers.
The Aider, being made in two parts, may be hinged in the
manner of a cardtable top, which, when it is folded over, can
be puAied to its place. But obferve, that the under top muft be
made fo much broader than the upper one, as will admit of its
being flopped in after the manner of the other; fo that when it
is drawn out, the upper top will rife and clear the drawer
fronts. If the Aider be made in this manner, the drawers can
then
C 429 )
then be brought within a Httle of the front edge, and what re
mains ferves to give place to a couple of thumbnail holes to
draw out the Aider by.
N. B. The profped; door is made to run in at the top like a
drawer, upon the fame principles as the front of the cabinet in
Plate L.
Of the Frame of the 'Table.
The legs are made a little ftronger than ufual, becaufe the
table is pretty heavy altogether.
Both the end rails are divided into four drawers each, in
appearance; but, in reality, there are but two in the whole:
for obferve, that, for the fake of flrength in the frame, the
lower drawer of the left hand is made real, and that above it is
a ftiam ; but at the other end, which is not feen in the defign,
the upper drawer is real, and the under one a fham. A middle
rail is tenonned, of inch fluff, into each end rail. Againft this
rail the upright part of the machinery is fixed, as fhewn at
No. i; and as this rail ftands within the edge of the top framing
about an inch, it contains the whole projection of every part of
the machinery, fo that the till pafTes without obflru(5tion.
The
( 430 ) ^
The inner lining for the flybrackets to fall againft, is not
lefs than three quarters thick when planed; and it muft be the
whole breadth of the end rails, i. e. eight and a quarter. The
flybracket makes up the remaining thicknefs of the foot, and
comes down low enough to anfwer the height of the upper
crofsband of the lower drawer. The part remaining below the
bracket is veneered the whole length with fatinwood, and
crofsbanded to match the drawer fronts. The workman, in
making the flybracket to which the winch c is fcrewed, muft
obfcrve to make a flioulder pin on the turning part of it at the
under edge: and this flioulder will require to be double the
ufual thicknefs, that the iron winch c may be let into the bracket
without injuring the rulejoint, or interfering with the wire of
its center.
The lock, at No. i or 3, is put on at the infidc of the inner
lining, fo near to the axis ab, at No. i, as that the fork D of the
lock fliall extend to the groove d in the focket of the axis a b,
which then will determine the place of the keyhole, as fliewn
in the defign.
Of
(7i2lr/'i ■ j'l'f/^.
A''"/ />/ '
(^^/■//a///^/// /('/■ a ^^r/r~i (>/• '^/ff/'/r^
;,/ .!r:
r..u.,.,f„„ ././.,,
/>J/,ri,../ .,.■ rl. ./,/ ,/,r,,/.r f'./ru_/yi/,A If.lW
r. 7*/vi^<v/^.
/K V ././. /
TSMMEJVm /orMooKfASES
M''Z
'W« •■!«««
TSh^ratcn.iip/
&Tfrrtf,S,'u!/l
J'u^/iyh'ff i'if ir 'Jhr'n^. ^e.^^y*ft .
( 431 )
Of the Pediments. Plate LVIf.
With rcfpcd to thefc pediments little can be faid, as the
de/igns themfclves Hiew in what manner they fliould be exe
cuted.
No. T. Should have the facia, or ground board, glued up
in three thicknefres, having the middle piece with the grain
right up and down. The foliage ornaments are cut out along
with the aftragal, and planted on; and the whole may eafily be
made to take off from the cornice, by having a tenon at each
end and one in the center.
N. 1. The tablet part is intended to have a crofsband
round it, and the drapery may be japanned. The aftragal on
the top of it is meant to return over the ogee. The fquare of
the ogee may come forward, level with the tablet, to prevent
too great a projedlion.
No. 3. In the center there are two pilafters to proje<St a little
from the ground, which are fluted. The pannels at each end
arc intended to be fanned the reverfe ^yay, or with the rounds
out.
No. 4.
( 432 )
No. 4. The fcrolls are continued in one piece from the foU
age, and planted on.
No. 5. The center is intended to be veneered and crofs
banded, with an oval let in, and japanned. The pedeftal above
is intended to be thrown back, in a hollow carved in leaves.
The foliage on the fcrolls is meant to lap on the aftragal, and
to finifh off at the patera. The ground of the facia is fanned
out.
Of the Cornices. Plate LIX.
In thefe cornices the fpring is fliewn, and the proper
gaging is pointed out. The width and thicknefs alfo of the
mahogany is fliewn. The aftragal, in No. 3 and 5, can be
worked feparate, and glued on afterwards. The pateras, in
No. 6, are turned and planted on.
Of the Method of gaging and working Cornices,
The explanation of this may be thought, by fome, an un
neceflary bufinefs ; but from the bungling manner in which I
have feen many workmen proceed to ftick cornices, I am cer
tain
Nfijplz
COT^A^ICAJS d SZ/J^BASKS, .
MM ,
I Sheraton J^/
JuUt'Ai/ ,ur r/,rArf t/.'rrch.lif o.Tfirry. (?ef:'l6j^^i.
rf^Jryj'.'CwA
( 433 )
tain that a few hints will be of fervice, efpecially to the inex
perienced. For this purpofe I have, in No. i, lettered each
gagepoint, and I fliall proceed, as fuppofing that it is neceffary
that the whole fliould be taught.
When the pattern of any cornice is given to be worked,
t^ke the drawing and ftrike a line a n to touch as near as may
be each member. From this front line ftrike one at each end
fquare from it, fo as to take in the whole extent of the cornice.
Then draw another line parallel to that on the front, to fhew
the neceffary thick nefs of the mahogany, and proceed as fol
lows :
Let the fluff be fawn out broad enough to plane to d o;
after which, plane it true on both fides, and glue on deal of the
breadth of e p, and thick enough to make out the whole fpring
of the cornice. After the glue is dry, plane the mahogany to
the exa(5t breadth of d o. After ftriking a fquare line acrofs the
mahogany, extend the compaffes from a to a^ and to c^f^g\ Sec.
and lay all thefe points on the fquare line, and run a gage thro'
each of them. Run then a gage from a to b^ and from ntoo;
and taking a bevel, fix the handle of it exactly by the front
line, and let the infide of the blade of it correfpond with o p.
With the bevel thus fixed, plane down the wood behind till it
fit the bevel in every place, and be brought down to o. Take
3 I then
( 434 )
then a fqnare, and plane down the wood at b and e till the fquare
fit in every place, and the wood is brought down to b. After
this lay the cornice on the fide o />, and flioot off the wood ci,a^b\
then lay it on the fide b <?, and flioot off the wood zt n o to m.
The cornice being thus properly fprung, faften it down on the
fide a p, and proceed to rabbet out the feveral fquares. Begin
at c and rabbet down to /; at b run on a fide gage, and, enter
ing in by a fiiipc's bill, work down to /, the fluting being laid
on afterwards ; at q run on a fide gage each way for the fquare
of the ovalo. From / rabbet dowai to X', and at / down to m\
and thus it is evident that the whole cornice, of whatever kind,
cannot fail of being correctly worked.
Of the Method of conira&ing and enlarging Cornices.
SupposEAtobea cornice already drawn or worked, and it
be required to draw and work one a third, fourth, or any other
proportion narrower than A, and at the fame time, to contract
its projecftion in proportion to its height :
Take the compafles and extend them to a o, the whole
height of the cornice A, and with this opening fweep an arch
each way, and where they interfe(5t, to that point draw right
lines from and «, forming an equilateral triangle. In the fame
manner
( 435 )
manner proceed with the projection of A, as fhewn in'the figure.
To the fummits of thofe triangles draw Unes from the feveral
heights and projections of each member. If the cornice to be
drawn is to be one third lefs, then divide any one fide of the
triangles into three equal parts, and take one part from o to />,
and let fall a perpendicular from p ; and from where this per
pendicular cuts each line draw parallels, which will give the
height of each member in exaCt proportion. For the proj edi
tions : ^ is one third of the fide of the triangle, as before;
draw a parallel line at q, which will give the feveral projections
fought. Take q t, and transfer this to p r, and fo of the reft,
till you have laid on each projection : after which let fall per
pendiculars, as Ihewn at No. 7, and proceed to draw the out
lines of each member within their proper fi:juares, and the cor
nice will be contracted in the moft accurate manner.
Of enlarging Cornices.
Suppose now the cornice A is required to be higher than
what it is at prefent. Draw parallel lines from each member^
and having fixed the compaffes to the height propofed, fix one
foot at 0, and move the other till it touch any where on the line
a k, as at /^; draw a line from c to k^ and where this line inter
feCts with each parallel before drawn, will be the feveral heights
3 I 2 of
( 436 )
of the mouldings as required. To find the proje6lion, proceed
thus: — fvveep the arch a c, cutting ok 2iX.b\ take a b and place
it from c to d^ and from d draw a line to o, and o m will then be
the whole projection of the cornice proportionable to the height
k\ confequently where the line o m interfe6ts, each perpendi
cular raifed from the feveral projedlions of A, will be the feveral
projedlions fought, o m is then a fcale line for the projecStions,
and k for the heights of each member; and having thefe, the
cornice can then be drawn on a feparate paper, in the fame man
ner as A was drawn at firft.
By continuing the parallel lines of A to the right, as fhewn
in the plate, and by letting fall its perpendiculars to any length,
it is evident that A may be enlarged as much as we pleafe, by
drawing the line o k more oblique, as at ^, which then makes
it rather more than one third higher. Then, by extending the
compafTes from a to where o e cuts the arch, and by replacing
this opening from c to g^ and ftriking a line from o to g through
to/, o/ will be its projedlion as before; on which principles of
will be in a ratio with o e. This the workman can prove, for
by comparing o f with the length of the projedlion of A, he
will find it rather more than one third longer; and by com
paring e with «, he will find it rather more than one third
longer alfo.
Thus
P/.rfr lli\
'^ ^^^i /////,! ^\J.'rt^/^furir^/>r?,/ yy/v/^/7 » /^'/'/^
,o
^
&"
^.
t.J^^f'^///t(7t4/.f'4ftYr /// r////////f<^n rym/' t.y^/^fre (^Wf7/r^^.
' ' I ' I ' T"
/.v/
rM^,.,ii>, /).■/,
/^.r/" /!«//.
JiiAf^TKdaj l/u^Af .6>.:/j./'< t7.Terrv . /,m'. 16.17.) i.
( 437 )
Thus it is evident that any cornice or moulding whatever,
and however complex, may be contradted and enlarged as we
pleafe, and that with the greateft mathematical nicety.
Of the Ladfs Drawing and Writing Table. Plate LX.
These tables are finiflied neat, either in mahogany or fatin
wood, with a brafs rim round the top part. The upper part is
made feparate from the under part, and fixes on to it by pins.
The rifing defk in the middle may be made to Hide for
ward*, which will then ferve to draw upon; and the fmall
drawers below the coves at each end will be found convenient
for colours.
The drawer in the middle of the front ferves to put the
drawings in.
The top is lined with green leather or cloth.
The fcale fhews the fize of every part in the front, and the
breadth is two feet three inches.
The height of the upper part is eight inches.
* See the diredlions given for the Kidney Table.
Of
( 438 )
Of the Dining Parlour. Plate LX.
This method of reprefenting a dining or drawingroom
has its advantages; though the moft general method is by a
plan and fed:ion, as the drawingroom in Plate LXl. In this
method the end wall neareft the eye is fuppofed to be laid level
•with the floor, without which the infide of the room could not
be feen. The advantage of this is, that the walls, furniture,
and every particular, are fliewn in their natural pofition, except
the firft end, fo that the efFedt of the whole may be better judged
of than in the other method.
The advantage of the method in Plate LXI is, that the fides
and ends of the room being turned down, from a geometrical
plan, every thing on the walls is fhewn geometrically, and
therefore the parts are more diftindt ; but with this difadvan
tage, that it muft be viewed at four different times, by turning
each end and fide to the eye; whereas, in the other way, ,the
whole is feen at one view.
In proceeding to draw after the method of Plate LX, make
a fcale of feet as there fhewn, and draw G R for a ground line,
and H L for the horizon. Let the center of the picture be in
the
( 439 )
the middle of the end; and, as thefe are views of a fliort dif
tance, extend the compaffes from the center to o, and turn it up
to d^ which will be the fliortefl diftance that can be applied.
Draw vifuals from o, r, b^ a^ to the center. From o to i lay on
the fize of the firft pier, and draw a line to d^ which, cutting
the vifual drawn from o to the center, gives the perfpeflive of
it. Then lay from i to 2, the breadth of the window, and draw
a line to d\ and in like manner find the appearance of all the
piers and windows. Obferve, that a line from R to a^ finds the
whole length of the room. How every other part mufl be
drawn will be obvious to every one who underftamls perfpec
tive, and no other with any propriety can attempt it.
This diningparlour gives a general idea of the Prince of
Wales's in Carlton Houfe; but in fome particulars it will be a
little varied, as I had but a very tranfient view of it.
The Prince's has five windows facing St. James's Park. This
alfo has five, one of which is hid by the left column. His win
dows are made to come down to the floor, which open in two
parts as a double door, leading to a large grafs plat to walk in.
If I remember right, there are pilaflers between each window;
but this is intended to have grafs. In his is a large glafs over
the chimneypiece, as this has. To thefe glafs frames are fixed .
candlebranches. At each end of his is a large fideboard, nearly
I twelve
( 440 )
twelve feet in length, (landing between a couple of Ionic co
lumns, worked in compofition to imitate fine variegated marble,
which have a moft beautiful and magnificent effect. In the
middle are placed a large range of diningtables, ftanding on
pillars with four claws each, which is now the fafhionable way
of making thefe tables. The chairs are of mahogany, made in
the flyle of the French, with broad toprails hanging over each
back foot ; the legs are turned, and the feats covered with red
leather.
I could not fhew the curtains of each window without con
fufion, but they are of the French kind.
Many diningrooms of the firfl nobility have, however,
only two columns and one lideboard ; and thofe of lefs note have
no columns.
The general ftyle of furnifhing a diningparlour fhould be
in fubftantial and ufeful things, avoiding trifling ornaments
and unnecelTary decorations. The pillars are emblematic of the
ufe we make of thefe rooms, in which we eat the principal
meal for nature's fupport. The furniture, without exception,
is of mahogany, as being the moft fuitable for fuch apart
ments.
Of
C 441 )
Of the Drawing Room. Plate LXI.
In drawing a room of this kind very little perfpe(5tive is
wanted. All that is required is a horizontal line on each wall.
And I would not advife drawing every object on each wall to
one point of fight, as thofe at the extremities will thereby be
come exceedingly diftorted and unnatural. For, upon fuppo
fition that the fpe6lator moves along to different ftations as he
views any one fide of the room, perfpecStive will admit that the
defigner have as many points to draw to as the fpedlator had
ftations to view from. If a room of this fort be narrow, fewer
points may do for the furniture at each end, with a little ma
nagement ; but the furniture on the fide walls fhould have al
moft as many points as pieces of furniture. The line that marks
out the boundaries of the floor, ferves as the proper ground line
to each horizon, and the geometrical meafurement of each piece
being taken from the fcale and laid down on the wall, the per
fpe6tive is drawn from each point backwards, or into the
room.
A drawingroom is of that fort which admits of the higheft
tafte and elegance; in furnifiiing of which, workmen in every
nation exert the utmoft efforts of their genius.
3 K To
( 442 )
To aflift me in what 1 have here fliewn, I had the oppor
tunity of feeing the Prince of Wales's, the Duke of York's, and
other noblemen's drawingrooms. I have not, however, fol
lowed any one in particular, but have furniflied my ideas from
the whole, with fuch particulars as I thought belt fuited to give
a difplay of the prefent tafte in fitting up fuch rooms.
><►
It may not be amifs to mention fome particulars refpefling
the Prince's room, that the reader may form fome idea of its
tafte and magnificence.
Its proportions are as follows: — fortyeight feet fix inches
long, thirtyfour broad, and between eighteen and nineteen feet
high, including the cove of the ceiling.
It has five windows in length, a fireplace at each end, and
five doors. Two doors are at each end, one of which is fham;
and a large arched double door nearly in the center opi)ofite the
windows.
Oppofite each window is a large glafs, with a circular top,
to fuit the arches above the windows ; and over each fireplace
there is alfo a glafs. In the piers betw^een each window there
are no glafles, but a couple of richly finiflied Corinthian pilaf
ters, w^ith their architrave and impofts to fuit the tops of each
window.
( 443 )
window. On the fule oppolite to the windows the fame pilaf
ters are employed ; for, as the beforementioned glalTes each oc
cupy a fpace equal to the width of a window, and are directly
oppofite to them, this preferves a regularity in the pilafters on
both fides. In like manner each end of the room has its pilaf
ters of the fame order, one on each fide of the fireplace, and of
the doors. The cove and ceiling are richly ornamented in paint
ings and gold.
A room of this defcription is not, however, a proper pre
cedent for drawingrooms in general, as it partakes principally
of the charadler and ordinance of aftate faloonroom, in which
are entertained ambafladors, courtiers, and other perfonages of
the higheft ftations.
In the drawingroom which is here fhewn, every thing
will appear eafily underftood to a workman in town, who is
accuftomed to fee fuch apartments; but for a ftranger, and
thofe workmen who refide in the country, it will be proper to
point out a few particulars.
The pier llibles have marble tops and gold frames, or white
and gold. The glafles are often made to appear to come down
to the ftretcher ot the table; that is, a piece of glafs is fixed in.
behind the pier table, feparate from the upper glafb, which
3 K 2 then
( 444 )
then appears to be the continuation of the fame glafs, and, by
refledtion, makes the table to appear double. This fmall piece
of glafs may be fixed either in the dado of the room, or in the
frame of the table.
The arches above the windows are merely artificial, being
only wooden frames put up, ftrained with canvas ; after which
the fame kind of ftufF which the curtains are made of is formed
to appear like a fan, and drapery tacked on to it.
The pannelling on the walls are done in paper, with orna
mented borders of various colours.
The figures above the glaffes are paintings in clareobfcure.
The fofas are bordered off in three compartments, and covered
with figured filk or fatin. The ovals may be printed feparately,
and fewed on. Thefe fofas may have cufhions to fill their backs,
together with bolfters at each end. In France, where their draw
ingrooms are fitted up in the moft fplendid manner, they ufe a
fett of fmall and plainer chairs, referving the others merely for
ornament.
t
The commode oppofite the fireplace has four doors; its
legs are intended to fl:and a little clear of the wings; and the
top is marble, to match the pier tables. In the freeze part of
the commode is a tablet in the center, made of an exquifite com
pofition
JVfSl.pl. I
( 445 )
poiition in imitation of ftatuary marble. Thefe are to be had,
of any figure, or on any fubjedl, at Mr. Wedgewood's, near Soho
fquare. They are let into the wood, and proje6t a little forward.
The commode fliould be painted to fuit the furniture, and the
legs and other parts in gold to harmonize with the fofas, tables,
and chairs.
fo fupply the DefeH of Figure 32, Plate V.
It is there fhewn how to find the miter of the fides of a
combtray at any pitch, and of any given projecStion; but it was
omitted to fhew how the miter is obtained in the thicknefs of
the fluff, as it rifes to any pitch.
Having found the breadth of the fides b c. Fig. 32, Plate V,
with this opening of the compafTes defcribe a femicircle, fee
Plate XXII, and make a e equal to the perpendicular height of
the fide of the tray. Draw a line from e to the center ; and,
parallel to this, fet off a line for the thicknefs of the tray fides,
and the bevel of the under edge will be at 4. Draw a fquare at
the center, the length of whofe fides fhall be equal to the thick
nefs of the tray fides, as 3, i, 2. Next draw the line B, A, E, pa
rallel to the diameter ; and take a e^ the fine of the angle of the
tray fides, and transfer it to E A. From A draw a line to the
center, cutting the fmall fquare at i, and the fpace i — 2 will be
the miter fought for; that is, when the fides are mitered in
their
3
( 446 )
their breadth, according to Fig. 32, Plate V, fet a gage to i — 2,
and run the gage along the miter, and plane it off to the gage
from the outfide, and the miters will all come exadlly together.
If the tray fides were raifed to b^ b i would then be the fine of
their angle; and which being transferred to B, a line from B to
the center cuts the fquare at 3; then is the fpace 3 — 2 the length
of the miter fought. And thus it is evident, that as b advances
to E the perpendicular, fo will the miter point B approach to D,
the full miter. It is alfo evident, that by this figure the miter
of any thing not exceeding the diameter E of the femicircle
may be found. For inftance, if the fides of any tray be half an
inch thick, and it is required to be mitered and keyed together,
draw a fquare of that dimenfion, as the fecond fhewn in the fi
gure; and if the fides bevel in an angle equal to the line ^, then
I — 2 of the fecond fquare will be the length of the miter. I
proved the truth of this theory by practice, and therefore the
workman may depend on its infallibility; but he may eafily
make the fame experiment himfelf.
THE END.
ERRATA.
^ Page 23, line 14, for b s, read b S.
• 28, • 13, read it thus : — \i yon want five tentlis of a foot, and five of the hundredth
parts of a foot, place your compafs foot —
___ il). ig, for any tenth part of an inch, read any one hundredth part of a foot.
57, 1<5, for 9, 5, read 7—5.
ib. li, for (), 5, read q — 5.
61, 1 1, for a to «, read d to n.
70, 9, for the extreme line P E and P i, read P E and I I,
. 137, 4, yir abacuo, rfW abacus.
152, Plate VIll, for 7 diameters, read 8 diameters.
16 i, line 22, Plate XII, for take wz 0, read take twice w a in the compaffcs, and with
this opening find the center of the curve for the abacus as at p on
*ig. B.
206, 10, /or from a to a, read from d to a.
2 1 1 , 1 1 , fr Plate XV. read Plate XIV.
273, 15, for Fig. 23, read Fig. 21.
APPENDIX
TO THE
CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S
DRAWINGBOOK.
CONTAINING
A VARIETY OF ORIGINAL DESIGNS FOR HOUSEHOLD FURNI
TURE, IN THE NEWEST AND MOST ELEGANT STYLE.
ALSO,
A NUMBER OF PLAIN AND USEFUL PIECES, SUITABLE EITHER FOR
TOWN OR COUNTRY;
TOGETHER WITH A DESCRIPTION AND EXPLANATION TO EACH PIECE.
By THOMAS SHERATON,
CABINETMAKER:
LONDON:
PRINTED BY T. BENSLEY, BOLT COURT, FLEET STREET,
fOR W. BAYNES, (SUCCESSOR TO G. TERRY,) 54, PATERNOSTERROW : SOLD ALSO BY
J. ARCHER, DUBLIN; AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS.
1802.
J^.^2. fif.f.
^^ E LIP TIC BED F0RASINGX,E jLaDY
JIL
TSht'fati'ri.cle/
/U/i/Ai/,^j tAfAcl dirirts /y ffar.'Terry, Mj> /■ //ip .
■iTinyS,u//i,
APPENDIX.
Of the Elliptic Bed. Plate I. of the Appendix. .
As fancifulnefs feems moft peculiar, to the tafte of females, ■
I have therefore affigned the ufe of this bed for a fingle lady,
though it. will equally accommodate a fingle gentleman.. .
The elliptic fliape of the frame of this bed contrails its
width at each end confiderably, on which account it will not
admit of more than one perfon.
On the manufadturing part of it I would offer a few hints
to affift the workman. — The frame of the bedllead fhould be
glued up in wainfcot three or four thicknefles, with the jump
joints crofling each otlier, as in the method of gluing the
frames of circular cardtables, which fome ufe. For which
purpofe, draw the full fize of the ellipfis upon a board, and
make the diameters each way, by which one quarter will be
8 found.
( 4 )
found. A thin mould muft then be made to agree with the
quarter of the eUipfis, which will ferve for cutting out the
•whole by, when different portions of it are fo taken as to form
croffingjoints. The frame being thus made an entire ellipfis,
as Fig. A. in Plate XXX. it is propofed to halflap the pillars
into the frame, and to have a ftretching rail at each end to
tenon in oppofite to each pillar ; into which ftretcher the fere ws
are to work which fix the pillars to the frame, as fhewn at
<3r, b, c, d, in Fig. A. The workman will ealily fee that the frame
made in this manner will not be defective in ftrength, nor in
convenient to move from one room to another.
The fluffed headboards at each end are framed feparate,
and grooved into the pillars, with a tenon in their center to flip
into the bedframe, which can be eafily done when the pillars
are fere wing to.
The firft tefler which fixes on the pillars, fhould form an
entire ellipfis to fuit the bed frame, and muft be glued up in two
thickneffes of good deal or wainfcot ; to the edge of which
fhould be glued two thickneffes of clean foft mahogany, of
which to work the cornice, as expreffed by figure B, in Plate
XXX.
The
( 5 )
The fecond, or falfe tefter, is that to which the ribs of the
dome part are fixed, as e in Fig.B; and /is an architrave which
is bent round the infide of the firft tefter, and rifes fo high
above it as to receive nearly the thicknefs of the falfe tefter ; fo
that the architrave is a guide to the whole dome, and is fufficient
of itfelf to keep, it firm in its place.
With refpedt to the dome, it will be beft to make it in two
parts. The cove part feparate, and the round or fpherical part
feparate. This can eafily be done, by repeating the fame ope
rations as were necelTary for fixing and managing the cove
part ; for it muft be obferved, that there is a light cornice or
moulding where the circular part of the top begins, and
which fixes on a tefter in the fame manner as the other. To
the under fide of this cornice is the drapery, which hangs in the
cove, tacked all round, as is the valence to the under cornice.
The curtains are drawn up by pullies fixed in the under tefter,
and thus forms a drapery, by being tied to the pillars with
cords.
The circular part of the top is intended to be pannelled out
in gilt mouldings, which cannot fail of producing a fine efFe6l,
particularly fo if the furniture and covering of the dome be light
blue. The foliage ornament which runs round the under cornice,
may be made either of compofition metal, or it may be cut in
B wood,
( 6 )
wood, and fixed on wire, in the fame manner as the tops of
ornamented glaffes are managed.
Of the Ducbe/fe.
The French have what they term diichefic beds, whence I
fuppofe we have derived our ideas of a duchefle. What is fome
times named a duchefle amongft us, is merely two barjier chairs
fattened to a ftool in the middle; fometimes, indeed, we add a
flight tefler and covering, but even this is very different from
theirs. The French duchefle beds are more fl:ately. The tefl:er
is full and fixed to the wall, with drapery hanging down to the
bedding and floor. The head part is formed fomething like the
back of a chair ; at the foot there are fliort flump pillars; and
the whole frame of the bed being detached from the tefler, may
be moved to any part to loll upon. The ducheflle which is here
given, is intended to anfwer three different purpofes. The ends,
when detached from the middle flool, may ferve as fmall fofas.
When they are connedted together without the tefler, and a
fquab or cufliion made to fit over the whole, it will then ferve
to reft or loll upon. When it is ufed as a bed, four fhort pillars
are fcrewed to each back foot, and a flraight lath extends acrofs
from pillar to pillar at each end. From thefe pillars are fixed
the fweep iron rods which form the tefler, and which fupport
the
A DUCHESSE
/'/ jt>.
^ Sf^.ruri'n /J,
Pui/is/u,if /;)• T. SA/raren M.irih ; ijip^
t',r/t/rtyr// />/r^r
M
( 7 )
the drapery and covering which is thrown over the whole. The
little dome or top is made feparate and entire of itfelf, with the
cornice mitered round, and the tafTels fixed to it as fliewn in
.the defign, and, the whole is placed loofe on without any faften
ings.
They are made narrow, between t^yo and three feet wide,
and feldom above it. Every thing is made exceeding light about
the teller. The ftool is fixed to each chair with ftraps and but^
tons, and the whole thus finiflied produces, a pleafing appear
ance*
Of the Librdry Cafe. Plate III. of the Appendix.
The elliptic breaks of this bookcafe will produce a good
efFe6l in the whole.
The doors in the upper part' are intended to have fluted
green lilk behind, and a drapery at top.
The pilafters are. fuppofed to be glued to the flile of the
door, and are hinged as in common.
The. lower middle part contains clothesprefs flielves, and
every other part may be fitted up for books ; or the lower ellip
tic
( 8 )
tic breaks qaay be formed into a neft of drawers, as there is
depth enough.
The half cohimns on the lower doors are glued to the ftile,
and the doors hinged as in common ; but for the fake of fliew
ing the defign to advantage, the open door is drawn as if the
columns were feparate.
The young workman fliould obferve, that the whole is to
be made in fix carcafes, and fcrewed together, and then the
plinth fliould be made to fit it, of one entire frame, and fcrewed
down on to the carcafes ; as as alfo is the cornice and its freeze.
Of the Pier tables. Plate IV.
As pier tables are merely for ornament under a glafs, they
are generally made very light, and the ftyle of finifliing them
is rich and elegant. Sometimes the tops are folid marble, but
moft commonly veneered in rich fatin, or other valuable wood,
with a crofsband on the outfide, a border about two inches
richly japanned, and a narrow crofsband beyond it, to go all
round. The frames are commonly gold, or white and burnifh
ed gold. Stretchingrails have of late been introduced to thefe
8 tables,
jiTss. /»?./.
Pier TyyjiLES
rfhfrokn.Jr/.
fu/'/ifh/h/ L '''—ry.M7rch.iy. 1703.
fiTerr,/S,;,//l
'7
J^S^. ///. 2.
i,:lBKAl^'Y .'STEP^ .*1Ta.BLE,
/,/,;
'JlTA'r'ainn. ae.
jUU/yti^ fi.rtrry.A/i'nJp
( 9 )
tables, and it muft be owned that it is with good effect, as they
take off the long appearance of the legs, and make the under
part appear more furnifhed ; befides they afford an opportunity
of fixing a vafe or bafket of flowers, which, with their re
fle<5lion when there is a glafs behind, produce a brilliant ap
pearance.
Some, in place of a ftretcher, have a thin marble flielf,
with a brafs rim round it, fupported by a light frame ; in which
cafe the top ought to be of marble alfo.
Of the Library Steps and Table. Plate V.
This defign was taken from Heps that have been made by
Mr. Campbell, Uphollterer to the Prince of Wales. They were
firft made for the King, and highly approved of by him, as
every way anfwering the intended purpofe. There are other
kinds of library fteps which I have feen, made by other perfons,
but, in my opinion, thefe muft have the decided preference,
both as to fimplicity and firmnefs when they are fet up. The
fteps may be put up in half a minute, and the whole may be
taken down and enclofed within the table frame in about the
fame time. The table, when enclofed, ferves as a library table,
and has a rifing flap, fupported by a horfe, to write on. The
C fize
( 10 )
fize of the table is three feet ten inches long, thirtythree inches
high, and two feet one inch in width. When the fteps are out
they rife thirtythree inches perpendicular from the top of the
table frame, and the whole height of the laft ftep is five feet
five perpendicular from the ground. The perpendicular height
of the handrail is three feet one inch above the laft ftep ; and
obferve, that on o, which is iron, is fixed a fmall flap on which
a book may reft, fo that a gentleman, when he is looking at
any book in his library, may note down a pafTage from it with
out the trouble of going down again. The method of folding
the whole up is as follows :
The triangular iron bracket g is unlocked by a catch
which keeps it firm to the handrail, and the defkflap fixed
to it being turned over to the infide, the whole comes for
ward, and lies level upon the upper fteps. The ftandard Z*
may then be raifed out of its focket, and, having a joint at
the top, it turns up to d, as fliewn by the dotted curve
line. The fliort ftandard <:/ ^ is then, by relieving a fpring,
prefTed down below the edge of the tabletop ; and the hand
rail and ftandard If having been folded together, as mentioned
before, they both reft on the iron focket faftened to the front
edge of the upper fteps. The horfe o is folded by the fide
of the upper fteps, and then both they and the horfe fall down
within the table frame ; and it muft be obferved, that in fold
ing
( II )
ing down the fteps, the handrail and ftandard, which refted
for a while on the focket' faftened to the front of the fteps, fall
into another focket of the fame kind faftened to the under fide
of the table top, where they remain, and fall within the table
frame when the top is folded down. Laftly, the lower fteps^J
are turned up to a horizontal polltion, and being hinged tc !^^
Aider which runs in a groove, the whole flips in as a drawer,
and is enclofed by the flap/>, which turns up and appears as the
front of a drawer.
Of the Drazvingroom Chairs. Plate VI.
The frame of the righthand chair is intended to be finiflied
in burnifhed gold, and the feat and back covered with printed
filk.
In the front rail is a tablet, with a little carving in its pan
nel. The legs and ftumps have twifted flutes and fillets, done
in the turning, which produce a good effe6t in the gold.
The chair on the left may be finiflied in japan painting, in
terfperfed with a little gilding in different parts of the banifter,
which has a lively effedl. The covering of the feat is of printed
4 chintz,
( la )
chintz, which may now be had of various patterns on purpofe
for chairfeats, together with borders to fuit them.
Of the Bidet DrejfingTable, and Nightfable BafonStand..
Plate VII.
The dreflingtable has a real drawer under the cupboard
part, and the reft are fham.
The righthand cupboard door opens by a fpringcatch
communicated to the patera handle in the center. The water
bottle is fupported by a round box, made of very thin wood,
glued and canvaffed over to ftrengthen it, and fixed to the top.
The bidet legs turn up with a joint. The defign fliews
only legs at one end, but the other legs are fuppofed to be fold
ed up till the whole is taken out ; and when ufed, the legs are
kept to their place by iron hooks and eyes.
The fcale fhews the fize of the front, and its depth from
front to back is lixteen inches and a half. The frame, to which
the glafs is hinged, is fourteen inches in width.
The nighttable requires no explanation, and I fhall only
obferve, that the covers with rings on them are meant for
a tooth
"•1. ■<~<i
■•^.::
( 13 )
a toothbrufli, and the ivory boxes on the right for tooth
powder.
The fcale for the dreffingtable fliews the fize of the night
table, applied to the front, and its depth from front to back is
eighteen inches.
Of the Wardrobe. Plate VIII.
The upper middle part contains fix or feven clothes prefs
fhelves, generally made about fix, or fix inches and an half
deep, with green baize tacked to the infide of the front to cover
the clothes with. The lower part confifts of real drawers. The
wings have each of them arms, to hang clothes on, made of
beech, with a fwivel in their center, which flips on to an iron
rod fixed by plates fcrewed on to each fide of the wings, as ex
preffed in the defign.
The whole is made in four feparate carcafes. The wings
by themfelves, and the upper and lower middle parts feparate.
The plinth is made all in one frame, and likewife the cor
nice with its freeze, and being fcrewed to each carcafs, the whole
is kept firm.
D Obferve,
( 14 )
Obferve, that in the wings a bead is put up for the doors
to fall againfk when they are fliut to ; by which means are cleared
the knuckles of the hinges on the doors of the middle part.
It fliould alfo be obferved, that as the furbafe cannot go
round the out ends of each wing on account of opening the
doors, the moulding is returned againft the front of each
door.
The furbafe on the middle part returns, and flops againft
the inner end of the wing ; and the edge of the door of each
M'ing, with the furbafe which is on them, are fcribed on to the
aforefaid return, which then appears as an internal miter, and
gives place to the opening of the door.
The fcale, applied to the middle part, gives its height and
length. The wings are two feet, and fixteen or feventeen inches
deep; and the depth of the middle part about twentythree
inches.
Of the Bed. Plate IX.
This defign requires no explanation, except that which re
lates to the tefter. The cove of the tefter is to be formed by
8 ribs ;
17.V7. p/.:i
A B 3<1 S I ©N foT A B E 15 ,
J'l.O.
I ' ' '~^
2 /,^^/
JT S^ur^n J^7.
*>'*■• >:»i^.
njU/jhfJ .IS //'f .lrf,fi/f,f.t (,r I'r.'Jhri^ — J/m' iii.r~c;3.
( 15 )
ribs; one at each miter, and other fliort ones joined to them,
with the reft about five inches apart from each other. At the
upper part of the cove is a fqnare tefter into which the ribs are
fixed. On the edge of this tefter, which is made very fight, is
fixed a fmall moulding mitered all round. The cove being
formed, the ribs may be covered with ftrong boardpaper, both
infide and out, which may either be japanned to match the fur
niture, or it may be covered with the furniture itfelf. The cir
cular part about the cove is nothing more than a ftraight board
fixed on to the upper tefter. For the fake of eafy conveyance,
the cove may. be made in four parts, mitering at each corner,
and the ornament intended to be at each miter on the outfide
running entirely up to the feathers, will hide the joint.
The fwags of filk line that appear on the drapery fhould be
faftened to the back part of the cornice, in order that they may
hang eafy. The pillars are to be japanned. The pannel that
hides the fcrews is made to flip into a groove at the bottom, and
being bevelled off behind at the top, when raifed up a little from
their place, by prefting the finger on the front, can eafily be
taken away to come at the fcrews. The valence and drapery
both together flip on to a lath as in common.
Of
( i6 )
Of the Sofa and Converfation Chairs. Plate X.
With refped: to this fofa, all that is neceffary to be ob
ferved is, that in the fpace between the divifions of the back
part, it is meant that there fhould be a groundwork covered
with lilk, to fuit the reft of the fofa. Againft this ground the
two columns and the ornament are fuppofed to reft.
The converfation chairs are iifed in library or drawing
rooms. The parties who converfe with each other fit with
their legs acrofs the feat, and reft their arms on the top rail,
which, for this purpofe, is made about three inches and an half
wide, fluffed and covered.
For the convenience of fitting in the manner juft men
tioned, the chair is made long between front and back, and
very narrow at the back and front in proportion. The height
of the chair to the fluffing is three feet ; at the back ten inches,
fpreading out in width to the top rail, which is twenty inches
in length. The front is fixteen inches, and the height of the
feat as in common.
Of
AZ^i.i. />/. /■
A Sofa
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r v/,, ..,,/„„ /J,
/'ti/'/r.i/i,,/ ,/.y M/ JiV M/'Yi/s /;/ Cr.Tcriy— .Ifiii/ /,■ i~ij.,.
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u
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X
X
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A !Lijbiix\ry Table Willi Si^^CRETAtiwBRAWER
.3
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rutt,//,J li/ &y?rrl/ ~Jtiii/y,f^ip.
frjfny ■ ^M
( 17 )
Of the Card Tables, Plate XL
On thefe tables it is fcarcely necellary to fay any thing,
cfpecially as the quarter plans fliew how they mull be framed ;
and therefore I fliall only obferve, that the ornaments may be
japanned on the frames and carved in the legs. As to the me
thod of managing the tops, I take it to be the beft to rip up dry
deal, or faulty mahogany, into four inch widths, and joint them
up. It matters not whether the pieces are whole lengths pro
vided the jumpjoints be croffed. Some tongue the jumpjoints
for flrength.
After the tops are dry, hard mahogany is tongued into the
ends of the deal, then flips are glued on the front and back, that
the whole may appear folid mahogany, if a moulding is to be
worked on the edge ; but if the edge be crofsbanded, there is in
this cafe no need for tonguing in mahogany.
■Of the Library Table iviih a Writing Drawer. Plate XII.
This table is intended either to lit or Hand and write at.
The height of the fecretary drawer is adjufted for fitting, and
£ the
( 18 )
the top of the table is high enough to ftantl and write on, efpe
cially if the middle top be raifed by a horfe, as fliewn in the de
iign. This table will alfo prove very ufcful to draw on ; for
when the middle part is up for drawing upon, there remains
fufficicnt room at each end of the table on which to place the
neceflary imj^lements for drawing ; befides, the drawers at each
end may be fitted up to hold colours of various kinds ; I mean
the two upper ones, for there are drawers quite down to the
plinth. The drawers under the fecretary will hold the large
flicets of drawing paper, together with the tee fquares ; and as
it will not be neceflary to make the drawers under the fecretary
the entire width of the table, the oppofite front being made
fliam to have the fame appearance, the whole of it may be
hinged at bottom and locked at the top, and the infide will al
low depth for books. This fliam front being a confiderable
width, it would hazard the hinges to let it reft wholly on them
when turned down, and therefore there fhould be iron rule
joints at each end as ftays.
To thefe conveniences there are alfo four cupboards en
clofed with doors, as fhewn in the defign ; and the whole finifli
ed in this manner, I venture to affirm, will prove as ufeful a
table as has ever been devifetl or publiflied.
In
( 19 )
In refpe<5l to the manufadluring part, it will be bed to
make it in two parts. The upper part containing the fecretary,
and two drawers at each end ; and the lower part, four drawers
under the fecretary, a book cafe behind, and four drawers at
each end, the lovvermoft of which is iliewn in the defign. The
top (liould be framed of inch and quarter wainfcot (as defcrib
ed in page 373), containing a well for the defk part, which
may be made to rife on the front as well as at the back, by
forming a double horfe ; but in this defign it is only intended
to rife at the back by a fmgle horfe, and hinged to the crofs
band at the front.
The cupboard doors may either be framed and pannelled,
or glued up to their fwegp in narrow flips of inch mahogany,
and clamped ; not by tonguing, but by a fquare joint, and pins
driven through the clamps.
The management of the circular bafemoulding and plinth
may be learned in page 375.
Of the Fire Screens. Plate XIIL
The lyre fcreen is conftrucSled upon an entire new plan, it
being defigned to turn upon a fwivel, which fixes to the vafe
and
( 20 )
and paflcs through the bottom rail, fo that the fkreen may be
twrned to any pofition without moving the Hand.
The fcreen part, which rifes between the ftandards or pil
lars, is fufpended by a weight in the taffels, which are commu
nicated to the fcreen by a hne pafling through the pillars and
over a pulley fixed to their top.
There muft be a dovetail groove in each ftandard, and the
fcreen made to fit into thefe ; fo that the ftandards may keep
their proper place, and not fly open at the tojj.
Obferve, that the ornament on the tops of the pillars or
ftandards rife up with the fcreen, being fixed to it, and detached
from the pillars.
It is intended that the lyre ornament be carved in has relief,
gik and burniflied ; which, when planted on to a blue filk or
fatin ground, cannot fail to produce a fine efFedt.
The other fcreen being common, needs no explanation,
only that it is fufpended by little fprings fixed in the dovetail
grooves of the ftandards.
Jn
A. Cabinet
/^
TS/„;nt!:>,.M.
jPuili/hdh/TSAeratoHMi/. 'h '. /^.V,
( 21 )
In refpedt to the general fize of horfe firefcreens, about
eighteen inches or nineteen may be allowed for the breadth, and
three feet fix or feven inches for their height.
Of the Cabinet. Plate XIV.
This cabinet, I prefume, is as new as the firefcreen, ana
will have a better effedt in the execution than in the defign.
The front of the cabinet is hinged to a Aiding piece which
runs in a groove, upon the fame principle as the writingtable
page 408. The front being turned down to a horizontal poii
tion, it may then be flipped in till it flops. To fupport the
front thus turned down, there are two Aiders which come out
of the plinth on which the cabinet refls. Thefe fliders come
out by relieving a fpring which is fixed in their fide, and having
a common fpring behind, they are forced out fo that the fingers
may lay hold to draw them quite out. They are lined with
green cloth both at top and bottom to prevent them from
fcratching both the front and top of the cabinet. The infide of
the front is alfo lined with green cloth to write on. The infide
of the cabinet is fitted up in the manner fliewn in the cabinet,
Plate XVI.
F Above
( ^2 >
Above the falling front is a drawer, to the under fide of
which the front locks, fo that the drawer and front are either
locked or opened at one time.
Above the drawer is an ornamented freeze, japanned ; and
round the top, which is marble, is a brafs edging.
The flowerpot at the top and that on the ftretcher are fup
pofed to be real, not carved.
The columns Itan^ clear, as Ihewn by the plan ; and they
are intended to have brafs bafes and capitals, with wooden.
Ihafts fluted.
The candle branches turn to any form in a focket, and the
whole may be taken away, as they are only fcrewed into a nut
fixed into the legs of the table.^
There is a brafs fret fixed at each end, which finiflies at the
llandards of the candlebranches. The lower frame contains a
drawer in front, and the legs being odtagon, are intended to be
veneered croff'ways as far as to the carving, which may be gilt
to fuit the bafes and caps of the columns.
0/
Dressing Chests
JVy.36'. />?..i.
P/. AT.
/; sA.f :*/.•■■ /
/■„/,/rJ„./ „, f/,, .1.:' />;r.;/., /,,, t; Ji,
f
( 23 )
Of the Dreffing Chejls, Plate XV.
These chefts are alfo on a new plan, particularly as the
common Aider generally ufed for merely writing on is turned
into a fhallow drawer, which contains a little writing flap which
rifes beliind by a horfe, and places for ink, fand, and pens, and alfa
dreflingboxes. When the drawer is in, it appears like a common
Aider, with a partition above and below, as that with the convex
front. There is therefore no flip under the top, as the drawer
fldes mufl: run clofe up to it. The drawer below of courfe mufi;
lock up into the under edge of the dreflingdrawer, and the
dreflingdrawer into the top, which is done at one time, by the
bolt of the under lock forcing up that of the upper one.
The height of thefe chefts are always governed by the
Aider, which runs thirtytwo or thirtythree inches from the
floor. The fcale fliews their length, and their breadth is
twentytwo or twentythree inches^
0/ the Lady's Cabinet, Plate XVI.
The cabinet in Plate XFV. is made in two parts, but this is
entirely in one. The legs and columns are therefore all in one
piece.
( 24 )
piece. The infide of the cabinet is made feparate, and (lips in
between the legs, and a piece of narrow wood, as a band, is fit
ted to fill the fpace up to the column, as the defign fliews.
The marble flielves, with frets at each end, are for a tea
equipage. Above and below thefe flielves are drawers which
turn out by a hinge. Above and below the front are alfo draw
ers. The drawer below may be made to fupport the front when
turned down to write on, or it may be fupported by brafs joints,
as fliewn in the defign for the infide of the cabinet.
The fcales and plans of each cabinet fliew their length and
breadth ; it remains only to mention their height, which is four
feet, and four feet two.
Of the Horfe Drejfing Glqfes. Plate XVII.
The dreflTmgglafs on the left rifes to any height, by leaden
weights inclofed in the ftandards. The weights are fufpended
fometimes to tambour glued on to webbing, which pafles over
a brafs roller at the top, and fixes to a piece of thin wood, tam
boured to match it. Through this piece of thin wood is put an
iron pin, with a thin plate to it to fcrew it faft ; which pin goes
through the fide of the glafs, and fallens by a nut at the infide,
fo
( 2.5 )
fo that when the glafs is raifed, it may be turned to any direct
tion. But fome ufe a kind of coloured llrong webbing, without
the tambour, which makes it lefs troublefome, and lefs Hablc
to injury, though it does not look fo neat. Thofe unacquainted
with the manner of gluing up the ftandards, may fee a fediou
of them in Plate XXX. Fig. C.
There is a brafs handle behind the ornamented top to raife
the glafs by.
The boxes on each fide arc intended to hold conveniences
for dreffing. On thefe, there is a combtray on the left fide,
and a pincufliion on the right. When the dreflingboxes arc
not in ufe, they are intended to turn behind the glafs. For this
purpofe they are fixed to a brafs focket, which turns upon a
fliort brafs rod, and by a fcrew they may be raifed up or Ionv
cred at pleafure. See Fig. D. Plate XXX.
The other drefiingglafs has a convenience for writing as
well as for dreffing, which convenience rifes by a little horfe.
The dreffingboxes are made with clofe covers, and a llider in
clofes the whole, fo that when the whole is turned up nothing
can come out of its place. The glafs does not rife as the other,
but fixes in centers, fo as to move in any pofition either back
or forward.
G And
( ^6 )
And obferve, that when the dieffingflap is turned up it
locks into the toj^ rail, and the glafs of eoiirfe falls to its own
place. The under fide of the flap being the front when turned
up, it may be japanned and banded. The lower parts of the
ftandards are fliapcd Uke a lyre ; and to form the ftrings, braf&
wire is let in, wliich has a pretty effecft.
Of the Charfe Longus. Plate XVIII. ^"
These have their name from the French, which imports a
long chair. Their ufe is to reft or loll upon after dinner, and
in fome cafes the lower one will ferve for a fofa. The drapery
under the rail is tacked to a rabbet left on purpofe. The upper
one is framed firft in two parts. The end, or chair part, is made
to receive the ftool part within its lides ; and the fides of the
ftool part fcrew in againft the infide of the chair. As to any
other particular, the defigns themfelves are fufficient to point
them out.
Of the Engli/h State Bed. Plate XIX.
In giving a defign for an Englilh ftatebed, or fuch an one
as is fuitable to the dignity of a prince, and worthy the notice of
a king, I conceived it neceffary to cultivate as much as I could
I  the
^^37 Pfs
Chaise Loxches
/'/ni
/:t!/jt/iJ /y tijirry  J<uif Af, iy,p
^7j'rrtiSri///i .
A^^ English Statk r>Ki»'
// /,!
//;,//.,.////'."/
„'./,,/„. ,,, d. ./,//, , ,.„ ,.
C 37 )
the moll exalted ideas, unfettered and unreftrained with the
thoughts of expenfivenefs, which naturally produces meannefs
of compolltion, and in many cafes injures the ingenious in their
defigns.
For ornament to a bed of this kind, it ftruck me that no
thing could be more fuitable and charadleriftic than fuch as ex
prefled fymbolically the different parts of our government, to
gether with thofe virtues and principles which ought to be the
fupport of regal authority, and the ruling maxims of every good
government of whatever kind, whether monarchical, ariftocrati
cal, or democratical. Emblems of war have been avoided as
much as poffible, being inconfiftent ornaments for a bed, and
becaufe good kings ought not to delight in war, but in peace,
unity, and the love of men and their fubjefls.
As our government is compofed of three diftindl branches,
the figure on the right hand bedpiUar is intended to reprefent
the democratic part of it, or the power of the people invefted in
their reprefentatives in parliament.
In iconology :'■, democracy t is reprefented by the figure of
* Iconology, from uwv, eikcn, an image ; and xiya, lego, I fpeak. The interpretation
of ancient images, monuments, and emblems.
t Democracy, from /n/uoj, detnos, people; and xf*Tf;v, kratein, to command or govern;
is when the Ibvereign power is lodged in the body of the people.
a woman
( 28 )
a woman dreffed in a homely garment, and crowned with vine
leaves. In her right hand Die holds a pomegranate, which de
notes affemblies of the people on matters of importance. In her
left hand is a clufter of ferpents, which expreffes the winding and
flow progrefllon of democratic ftates, owing to the inability of
the common people to govern. Her ftanding on the two facks
of corn which reft on the pedeftal, flgnifies that democratic go
vernment is more attentive to the obtaining of neceflary pro
vifions, than the increafe of fame, or the acquifition of honours.
If this be a juft reprefentation, and founded on fa<5t, the reader
will, no doubt, confider the democratic branch a very important
one, and for which reafon it is here placed near the ground
work.
The figure, oppofite, on the left pillar, reprefents the ari
ftocratic branch. Ariftocracy* is defcribed by the figure of an
elderly lady, in a fumptuous drefs, with a crown of gold upon
her head. Painters reprefent her fitting on a throne ; M^hich is
a pofition confonant to lawgivers, but which I could not make
fuitable to this fituation. In her right hand flie holds the con
fular fafces, that is, a number of elm rods tied in a bundle, with
a hatchet in the middle, which, originally, were the enfigns of
* Ariftocracy, from aj ijO;', ari/Ios, the beft ; and xjanx, iratlo, T command or govern ;
ks when the fupreme power is lodged in a fenate, compofed of the principal perfons of a flate,
.either for their nobility, capacity, or probity.
fovereign
( 29 )
fovereign dignity, but in after times the hatchet was taken out,
and they were carried before the confuls or magiftrates of Rome,
to denote their authority. Thefe rods are entwined with a
crown of laurels, a fymbol of reward due to thofe who have
maintained the public welfare, and have performed great ac
tions for the good of the ftate. In her left hand is a fteel cap,
at her feet a hatchet, a plate, and purfe with money, all which
denote that arms and finances are necefiary fupports of ftates.
And I would here obferve, that it is not abfolutely neceffary to
confider the fteel cap and hatchet as fymbols of war, but of the
executive power requifite in all governments for the mainte
nance of peace, and the punifliment of evil doers.
The figure in the center of the upper cornice is intended to
reprefent the monarchical branch of our government.
Monarchy is characterized by the figure of a young wo
man of grave countenance, feated on a terrertrial globe, holding
four fcepters, to denote dominion and power. The other hand
being uplifted, denotes her authority in giving command. The
rays of light furrounding her head, denote luftre, and the re
fpeft due to her greatnefs. The lion on each fide fymbolizes the
* Monarchy, from ^tvss, monos, alone; and a?^:., arche, government i is when tho
fupreme power is inverted in one pcrfon, commonly termed the King.
H power
C 30 )
power which ihe poITelTes and requires of others in order to her
fupport. Painters, however, defcribe her with trophies of war,
and a crowned head chained down as a captive at her feet, which
I have here omitted, hoping that conqueft and war are not the
prominent features in our government.
Thefe three figures in their fituation to each other form a
triangle, whofe bafe is democracy and ariflocracy, and whofe
fummit is monarchy; denoting that monarchical power and ho
nour are originally derived from the people, and that without
their fupport, monarchy in its moll exalted ftate muft fall.
The lions which fupport the bed, with oak foliage and
leaves on the bedframe and round the fliafts of each pillar, are
emblems of the ftrength and permanent nature of our govern
ment. The acorns being the fruit of the oak, denote, that by
long progreffive improvements it is arrived to a good degree of
maturity.
The ferpents in the cornice, which mutually entwine them
felves round Mercury's rod, denote the unity, prudence, and
wifdom, requifite to monarchs in the exercife of their impor
tant charge. The trumpets and laurel crown are expreflive of
the fame which the Englifli ftate has acquired through the
mildnefs of its government. The beads under the cornice de
note
( 31 )
note its riches. The bafkets of fruit on each capital, and in the
quadrantal pannels, fymboHze the profperous ftate of the na
tion, and the plenty we enjoy, hi the arch of each quadrant
are marked the degrees, to denote that navigation has contri
buted greatly to our riches and fafety. The lyre and trumpets
on the pedell:al above the cap, fignify the flourishing ilate of
the arts ; and the fpreading oak leaves and rofes, are meant to
exprefs the defigner's willi and hopes, that the ufeful arts may
long continue to grow and fpread themfelvcs under the muni
licence of our government.
The coronets round the dome are thofe of the immediate
fons and daughters of the king of Great Britain, of which there
are thirteen; but the dome being divided into fixteen compart
ments, itill leaves room for an increafe of the royal family, to
denote that the fubjedts of Great Britain fhould hope for a long
fucceffion of a mild and good government. The feftoons of
flowers denote that happinefs and prolperity are wifhed to fur
round each branch of the royal off'spring.
The crown of England is fupported on the top of the dome
by three figures, intended to reprefent Juftice, Clemency, and
Liberty; for notwithftinding thefe may, in fome. inftances, be
fiillied in our government, yet fcarcely any nation can boalt of
pnore than that which we have long enjoyed.
8 Juftice,
( 32 )
Juftice, which ought to be the moving principle of civil
government, is by painters defcribed by the figure of a woman
drelTed in white robes ; holding in her left hand a fword, to pu
nifli criminals ; and in her right a pair of fcales, to give that
which is due to every one without partiality ; which imparti
ality is denoted by a bandage over her eyes. In this fituation
the fword and fcales may be fuppofed to lie on the other fide of
the dome ready for ufe.
Clemency is a necefTaiy quality or principle in government,
by which thofe in authority are enabled to take into confidera
tidn, and to effedt the relief of the miferies of the helplefs and
infolvent. hi the exercife of this virtue, he who is ready to be
ent afunder by the uplifted hand of juflice can be faved, and
the rotting infolvent prifoner can be abfolved and releafed.
Such adtions beget gratitude in the minds of the fubje<fts, and
are as a pillar to the crown ; while cruelty and tyranny have of
ten proved fatal to princes.
. "ici J. I.
Painters defcribe this virtue by the figure of a woman
crowned with olives, as a mark of her peaceful and gentle tem
per ; and drelTed in a purple robe, which denotes her eminence.
She is chara6terifed by the mildnefs of her countenance, and
fitting on a lion (which I could not here introduce). She alfo
holds a laurel branch of honour and refpedl in her right hand.
She
( 33 )
She is faid to have a fpear by her fide, fo that when her mercy
is abufed fhe may in juflice revenge it.
The other figure, Liberty, on the other fide of the dome, is
an eflential principle to good government. It fuppofes a difpo
fition in thofe polfeffing fupreme authority to allow fubjedls to
enjoy their natural, moral, and religious rights. In the polfef
fion of thefe we are delivered from flavery ; the yoke is broken.
Therefore painters reprefent liberty by the figure of a woman,
with a broken yokeftick in her left hand, and trampling upon
it as a mark of refentment. She is dreflTed in white robes, to
denote the bleffings which flie confers on mankind; and in her
right hand flie holds a fceptre as a fign of independence. She
has alfo a cap of liberty on her head, in allufion to the cuftom
of the Romans, in fetting their flaves free ; who alfo fhaved
their heads, and permitted them to be covered in the prefence
of thofe who gave them liberty *■,
The figures on the other fide, and at the end of the bed,
may be the fame, not merely for uniformity's fake, but
to convey the fentiment exprefled by the allegory with
more weight, as it is well known that repetition is fome
* Ricbardfon's Iconolqgy, from whofe work I am indebted for feveral ideas on this fubjeft,
I times
( 34 )
times, introduced to give force and energy to a fubjecfl. How
ever, if any fliould think it n^ceffary to vary the figures on.
the different fides, there are plenty of fubje6ts fuitable
enough.
Fortitude may be placed on the center of the cornice, oppo
iite to monarchy ; to denote a quality of mind fo highly necef
fary in thofe who rule. The emblem of this quality is a wo
man refting on the fhaft of a column and its bafe, having a
brown robe and part of a military drefs, with a lion on one fide
of her ; but flie may have one at each fide, to make the outline
more agreeable to the figvire of monarchy. Her militaiy drefs
conveys the idea of courage; and refting on a column, fteadinefs
and firmnefs ; and the lion, ftrength of mind.
On the bed pillar, oppofite to the figure which reprefents
the ariftocratic branch of our government,, fiiould be Counfel,
to denote the wifdom and ability necefl*ary in thofe Avho make
up that branch.
Counfel is reprefented by the figure of a grave old man,
having a long beard, drefled in long robes of violet colour.
His age denotes that experience requires length of time, and
that wifdom. is the refult of experience. His long robes denote
his
( 35 )
his high chara<^er, and their colour his gravity. He is repre
fenfed fitting, to (liew his authority; and with a chain of gold
round his neck, to which is fufpended' a human heart, to denote
his integrity. In his right hand is a book, to Ihew he has re
gard to law, and that from literature he obtains his knowledge.
He may, however, in this fituation be Handing, as the bedpillar
will not fo well admit of a fitting attitude ; and in this attitude
he may have a mirror in his left hand, furrounded with fer
pents, to denote prudence and fpeculation, as neceffary to good
counfel.
«
On the other pillar, oppofite to the figure which reprefents
the democratic branch of our government, there may be the
emblem of Law, to denote that the members of parliament, as
the reprefentatives of the people, ought to be acquainted with
the rights and interefts of their conftituents ; and alfo, that in
their debates on thefe fubjed:s, they ought to regard the laws of
the conftitution.
Law is reprefented by the figure of a refpeaable elderly
lady, fitting on a tribunal chair. Her age denotes that law is an
ancient fubjea ; flie is feated to denote eminence, and hold^
a fceptre in her right hand to denote authority. In her left
hand fhe holds an imperial crown allufive to the law of nations,
importing
( 36 )
importing that no nation can exift without laws. Her head is
adorned with diamonds, to fignify that law is moft precious, and
that its origin was from God.
At the end of the bed, and next to law, Obedience or Sub
jedlion may be introduced, to denote the duty and refpe6t which
the people owe to their reprefentatives whom they have ap
pointed, and particularly to fignify that fubjeds ought not to
rebel againft government.
Obedience is defcribed by the figure of a humble woman,
in an upright pofition, with her eyes towards heaven, to denote
her regard to its commands as the Appointer of government.
Her upright pofition not only fhews her wdllingnefs to obey,
but that government was never appointed to opprefs or bow
down the backs of thofe who are willing to obey juft laws. She
is dreffed in white robes, denoting innocence ; and acrofs her
fhoulders is a yoke, the emblem of patience and obedience. By
her fide may be reprefented a dog, which is a fymbol of obedi
ence and faith fulnefs.
On the center of the cornice may be reprefented Authority,
to denote that without its influence law is rejected and con
temned, — obedience is without foundation, and therefore go
vernment could not exift.
8 Authoritv
( 37 )
Authority is reprefented by the figure of a matron, or old
lady, to fliew that the inftitution of authority which gives ef
fect to laws is ancient as law itfelf. She is feated on a regal
chair, becaufe princes and inagiflrates generally perform their
office fitting, indicating tranquillity of mind. She holds a fcep
tre in her left hand, denoting regal power and authority ; and
by her fide are arms, to fignify her power to punifli the licen
tious, and protedl the obedient. In her right hand is a book,
refting on her knee, to denote that civil authority is of divine
origin*.
On the other pillar may be the reprefentation of Tyranny
chained down, with her back bowed, to fignify that thofe in.
authority ought to fupprefs rather than cherifli it ; and to fliew
that tyranny ought, in all good governments, to be at the foot
of power, to prevent its baneful effe<Sls in a ftate. The em
blem of this noxious quality is a pale, proud, and cruellooking
woman, drefled in armour, and purple drapery, to denote her
readinefs to llied blood in the defence of her arbitrary meafures.
In her left hand is a yoke, and in her right an uplifted fword,
to fliew that flie is ready to enflave mankind, and punifli them
if they will not put on the yoke. She wears an iron crown, to
* See Rom. xiii. i. — Not indeed for the purpofe of enflaving mankind, but to be a terror
to evildoers, and a praiCe of them that do well. Nor is the candid reader of this defcription
to imagine, that the writer has even the moil diftant view of maintaining hereditary right of
fuccefiion as facred, but only that civi) government itfelf, of whatever kind, is of divine origin,
and ought therefore to be revered by every wife man.
K flicw
( 38 )
Ihew that the authority which tyrants feek is for bafe purpofcs
and cruelty.
To make thefe three figures harmonize — Authority, at the
top of the cornice, may be reprefented as looking towards Obe
dience with an eye of approbation ; and the book lying on her
lap, w ith the right hand flie may hold a dart pointed dire<ftly to
Tyranny below. And to reprefent Tyranny in the moft wretched
Hate, her iron crown may appear to tumble off her head, her
yoke broken, and her fword pointed to her own breall, to fliew
that in the end tyranny is her own executioner. Thus, I think,
the end of the bed wall exhibit emblematically the defign of civil
government, which is to protedl the innocent and obedient, to
fupprefs cruelty and oppreffion, which are the life and foul of
tyranny. The fiont fide fliews the nature of our government,
the dome the principles which fupport it, and the back fide
the way in which government is managed.
The ornaments on the headboard are emblems of love
and continency, exprefled by the figure of Cupid, Chafl:ity, and
a trophy below. Cupid is reprefented as drawing his bow to
guard Chaftity from tlie violent attempts of Impurity, whofe
figure, partly a woman and partly a monkey, is behind the cur
tain, to denote that fuch as praflife it lurk in fecret.
The emblem of Chaftity is the figure of a young woman in
white robes, to denote purity and innocence. Her head is
1 crowned
( 39 )
crowned with a garland of cinnamon, a pleafant and coftly plant
to lignify that Chaftity is a virtue both pleafant and valuable.
She is veiled, to exprefs her modefty; and in her right hand
holds a fceptre, as a fign of her conqueft over luft. In her left
fhe holds a turtle dove,, which is an emblem of continence.
With refpedl to the manufa6luring part of this bed, it
fliould be obferved, that the curtains draw up by a pulley at the
feveral corners, detached from the drapery valence which is fix
ed to the cornice^
The tefter on which the dome refts, is made perfectly
ftraight, and forms an even furface on both fides ; which, in the
infide, is pannelled out with gilt moulding, at each angle.
The quadrantal pannels recede back from the cornice, and
are framed into the top of the pillars, which are left fquare.
The ground of thefe pannels being continued the whole length,
from pillar to pillar, ferves as a facia on which to fix the cor
nice. Then obferve, that the bafket of fruit and the lyre being
in one piece, they are fixed to the pillar, and meet in a miter
with the other fide.
The oak foliage is in one entire piece, and fcrewed up to
the bedfides, after the drapery valence is tacked to a rabbet
made for that purpofe.
Every
( 40 )
Every other paiticnlar muft naturally occur to the work
man, after what has already been faid on the other beds in this
work. Upon the whole, though a bed of this kind is not likely
to be executed according to this defign, except under the mu
nificence of a rayal order, yet I am not without hopes that ufe
ful ideas may be gathered from it, and applied to beds of a more
general kind.
Of the DreJJing Commode. Plate XX.
With refpecfl: to the dreffing part of this commode, it may
be made either fixed faft, or to be brought forward in the man
ner of a drawer, with leapers to keep it to its place. If it is
made to be fixed faft, the doors may be opened to form the
knee hole.
The top which covers and enclofes the dreffing part, flides
down behind, in the manner defcribed in page 407, to which I
refer the reader ; only obferve, that in this top there are miters
to fit the ftraight moulding in front when the top is put down.
A bottle of water, and a pot to receive it when dirty, can both
be kept in the cupboard part.
The dreffingtable below can require no explanation, ex
cept what relates to the fize, which from front to back is
eighteen
ALABifS Bressiito Commobe,
J'/.lia.
iTJA^rainn de/tM
/ii/^l^^if ,zjmf^^UimAf,l, r.M/r,jkm Jiiir zff^iy^s.
^rS^r^'H /'""^
$
^
I"
( 41 )
eighteen inches, thirtyfour the whole height, and two feet
four the length of the front.
Of the Sideboard^ with Vafe Knifecafes. Plate. XXI.
The pedeftal parts of this fideboard may be made feparate,
and then fcrewed to the fideboard. The top extends the whole
length in one entire piece, and is fcrewed down to the pedeftala.
The hollow plinths of the vafes are worked in one length, and
mitered round. The top of the plinth is then blocked on at the
under fide, and the vafe part is made to fcrew into it fo that
the vafes may occasionally be taken off. A crofs band is meant
to be mitered all roimd the hollow plinths, coming forward to
the edge of the top ; fo that if the top be veneered, it will only
require the length between the two plinths. Within the front
is a tambour cupboard, which is both ufeful, and has a good
effedt in its appearance ; almoft any workman will know how
to manage this, fo that I need not explain it. The ornament
behind is brafs, intended as a flay to filver plate, and has branches
for three lights. The circle in the center may have a glafs
luftre hung within it, as an ornament. For any other particular
relative to fideboards in general, fee page 363, where the com
mon principles of this ufeful piece of furniture are explained.
L 0/
( 43 )
Of the Library Steps. Plate XXII.
The si: fleps are confiderably more fimple than thofe al
ready defcribed ; and though not fo generally ufeful, will come
vaftly cheaper. The upper flight of fteps turn down upon the
under ones, both of which rife up and Aide in as a drawer ; af
ter which a flap, which is Ihewn in the defign, is turned up,,
and lias the appearance of a drawer front. Obferve, that the
refting poll: at the top folds down to the fide of the fleps by
means of an ii'on joint. The horfe has green cloth under its
feet, to prevent its fcratching the top. The defign fhews that
the two fteps are connected together by hinges, fo made as to
clear the edge of the tabletop ; and alfo, that there is a Aiding
board to which the under flight is hinged, which flidingboard
runs in a groove.
The length of the table is three feet fix inches, its width
twentytwo inches. The table is thirty inches high, the upper
flight is thirty perpendicular, and the reftingpoft thirtythree.
This, and the other defign for library fteps, have obtained a
patent ; yet any part being materially altered, will evade the adt,
though the whole be nearly the fame. Thofe mafters, how
ever, who do not think it worth their while to be at the trouble
of
( 43 )
of introducing any eflential alteration in them may have thefe
fteps from Mr. Robert Campbell and Son, Marylebone Street,
London, with a fufficient allowance for felling them again.
Of the Chamber Horfe^
The upper figure fhews the infide when the leather is off,
which confilts of five wainfcot inch boards, clamped at the ends ;
to which are fixed ftrong wire twilled round a block in regular
gradation, fo that when the wire is comprefl^ed by the weight
of thofe who exercife, each turn of it may clear itfelf and fall
within each other.
The top board is fluffed with hair as a chair feat, and
the leather is fixed to each board with brafs nails, tacked all
round. The leather at each end is cut in flits to give vent
to the air, which would otherwife refifl the motion down
wards.
The workman Ihould alfo obferve, that a wooden or iron
pin is fixed at each end of the middle board, for the purpofe of
guiding the whole feat as it plays up and down. This pin runs
between the two upright pieces which are framed into the arms
at each end, as the defign lliews.
4 The
( 44 )
The length of the horfe is twentynine inches, the width
twenty, its height thirtytwo. To the top of the foot board is
eight inches, and to the board whereon the feat is fixed is thir
teen.
Of the Comer Kigbt Tables. Plate XXIII.
That on the right requires no explanation, except that
the doors may be hinged to turn in, if it is thought moft con
venient.
The table on the left is intended to anfwer the purpofe of a
waflihand ftand occafionally. To anfwer this end the top part
is framed together of itfelf, and fixed by an iron or ftrong
wooden pin, into the back corner of the lower part, which con
tains a focket, fo that the top part can be turned to one fide, as
Ihewn in the defign, or as much further as is necelTary to clear
the hole.
Obferve alfo, that on the front is worked a groove, in \vhich
a pin paflTes that is fixed to the front of the bottom of the upper
part, and prevents the top part from turning quite off from the
"bottom, which would endanger the pin on which the top part
turns; it lliould have caftors at the brackets, that when the
night
( 45 )
night table is wanted, it may be drawn a little forward from
the corner of the room to give place for turning round the
upper part. It fliould be about thirtyfour inches to the top of
the bafon llielf. The height of the feat lixteen inches and a
half, and its other dimenfions are known from the plan. The
bottom drawer may be made neat, and drawn out by means of
a dovetail groove in the middle of the drawer, and a piece to
fit it fixed acrofs the bottom of the carcafe.
Of the Pulpit. Plate XXIV.
The defign of introducing a pulpit into this work was to
afford fome affiftance to the cabinetmaker, who in the country
is generally employed on fuch occafions. In eredling a pulpit
of this kind, three particulars ought principally to be regarded.
Firft, the plan ; fecondly, the manner of conduding the fieps and
handrail round the column ; and, laftly, to fix the whole firm, fo
that it may not by fiiaking produce a difagreeable fenfation to
the preacher.
The plan of this pulpit is a regular hexagon, which to me
is th^ moil beautiful and compa6t of any. One of its fides is
occupied by the door, and one for the back of the preacher,
another to reft his arm, and the remaining three for the cufliion.
M The
( 46 )
The plan of the fteps is a circle, which is moft convenient where
there is a want of room. The plan fliould be divided according
to the number of fteps necefiary for attaining to a proper height,
which in this cafe is twelve, as one, two, three, &lc. in the
plan.
A feflion fliould then be drawn, and the height of the
rifers adjufted to the number of the fleps, as in the fed:ion a, by
c, 8cc.
Draw the femi plan P, and divide the circumference into
eight equal parts, as i, 2, 3, 4, Sec. becaufe, that in the plan
there are fo many fteps contained in its femi. Draw from i,
2, 3, 4, 8cc. lines perpendicular, and continue them to the
uppermoft fteps. From ^, the firft ftep, draw a line to a on
the plan P. Do the fame from h xo h, c to c, and fo of all
the others, which will defcribe the fteps and rifers as they re
volve on a cylinder. The face mould for the handrail, when
it is cut out of the folid, is found as follows. See Plate XXX.
Draw a quarter plan as there defcribed, divide the chord line
into any number of equal parts, as i, 3, 5; from which raife
perpendiculars to interfe<Sl the circumference; draw next the
rake or pitchboard of the fteps at Fig. R. by taking the breadth
of the ftep on the plan, and repeating it i, 2, 3, 4 ; then take
7 the
( 47 )
the height of four rifers, as from x to /, and draw the Hne y 4,
^vhich line will be the chord for the face mould; therefore
take y 4, and divide it into fix, as in the plan of the handrail.
Take the perpendicular heights as i 2, 3 4, and 5 6, of the
plan, and transfer them to the correfpondent perpendiculars
on the face mould, which will give points through which
the curve is to pafs, to form the face mould, as the figure fhews.
Three of thefe lengths will be wanted to complete the hand
rail, including the ramp and knee.
Thefe handrails are however fometimes glued up in thin
pieces round a cyhnder in one entire length, after which a crofs
banding is put on the top, and rounded off. In this cafe a cy
hnder is formed in deal, and the line of the fteps is traced out
as defcribed Plate XXIV. which is the guide for the thin maho
gany to be bent round. In fixing the fteps, I prefume it will
be found the beft method to mortice and dovetail the rifers of
each ftep into the pillar : this may be done by making the mor
tice as much wider than the breadth of the rifer as the dovetail
is intended to be in depth, fo that when the rifer is put into the
mortice, it may be forced up to its place by a wedge driven in
at the under edge of the rifer. By this means it will be impof
fible that the fteps ftiould work when they are tongued and
blocked together. The foffits of the fteps are in the form of an
'r Ogee,
( 48 )
ogee, aiifwerable to the brackets, and are fitted up feparately af
terwards.
' In fixing the pillar it muft be noticed, that it is firfl te
noned into tranfverfe pieces of oak timber, which are funk a
good depth into the ground, fo that when the clay is beat in
folidly about the pillar it cannot work ; yet it is eafy to conceive,
that in the pulpit it will be liable to fpring when the preacher
is in it ; to prevent which I have introduced a light fmall co
lumn, fituated in the center of the pulpit, and connected with it
by a cove, on which the pulpit rcfts. The found board is made
as light as pofiible, which finiflies in an odlave cove at the top,
and is fixed to the pillar by a ibong fcrew and nut, together
with a tenon, which is funk into the found board. The bannif
ters of the handrail may be llraight bars of brafs, made very
light, dovetailed into the ends of the fteps, and let into a plate
of thill iron at top, which is fcrewed to the under fide of the
handrail.
Obferve, that on the left fide of the plate is a fcale of feet
and inches, from which the various meafurements may be
taken.
N. B. Plates 25 and 27, 28 and 29, require no explanations ; '
they are therefore omitted.
■iVyjy. pi. 3
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J;,t,/,//,,,/ „.i //,f .If/ /JiiY.fs In/ n.7hry  (ia:..r,. i^o:^
( 49 )
Of the Ladies' Work Tables. Plate XXVI.
The table on the left is intended to afford conveniences for
writing, by having a part of the top hinged in front to rife up.
This rifing top when it is let down locks into the frame, and
fecures the bag where the work is. The ftandards on which
the table frame refts have tranfverfe pieces tenoned on, which
fcrew to the under fide of the frame. The drapery which hides
the workbag is tacked to a rabbet at the under edge of the
frame all round.
The defign on the right is fimply a work table; the upper
frame, to which the top is hinged, is about two inches broad,
made feparate. The pillar is fixed to the bottom of the bag,
which is a round frame made of wainfcot, with a flretcher
acrofs each way, for the purpofe of fixing the pillar to it, and to
firengthen the frame. The upper frame, already mentioned, is
connedted with the lower one by fmall upright pieces tenoned
in, after which the bag is formed of filk, and tacked to each
frame, and ornamented on the outfide with drapery.
Of the Drawing table. Plate XXX.
This table will be found highly ufeful to fuch as draw, it
being defigned from my own experience of what is neceflary
N for
( 50 )
for thofe who pradtife this art. The top of this tahle is made
to rife by a double horfe, that the defigner may ftand if he pleafe,
or he may fit, and have the top raifed to any diredlion. As it
is fometimes neceflary to copy from models or flowerpots, &c.
a fmall flap is made to draw out of the toji, which may be raifed
by a little horfe to fuit any direction that the top may be in, fo
that the model or flowerpot may ftand level. The Aiders at
each end are neceflary for the inftruments of drawing, and for
a light to ftand on. The long drawer holds paper, fqiiare and
board, and thofe drawers which form the knee hole are fitted
up for colours.
Of the Drawing Room. Plate XXXI. and XXXII.
With refpe<51: to the fedlion, it is only neceflary to obferve,
that the pier table under the glafs is richly ornamented in gold.
The top is marble, and alfo the flielf at each end ; the back of it
is compofed of three pannels of glafs, the Chinefe figure fitting
on a cufliion is metal and painted. The candle branches are gilt
metal, and the pannels are painted in the ftyle of the Chinefe ;
the whole producing a brilliant effedt.
The view, Plate XXXII. contains an otomon, or long feat, ex
tending the whole width of the room, and returning at each
I end
V/. pi.i
J
J L_
J*itra&?n (/^l .
r".// pi i
ATiTEW or THE South end of the Pifukce oFl^^AlLK3's (CiHKi'.sE BHiw^wG Room.
Tl .?/
^mm:
IJlurtibn dii.
J^^rAvf/,1^,
J'uMt?i^,tjMrJ./.Ay^/j.Ar /^nrf, (IfT 0.'*/7P^
^Awis'G Room,
I'l.az.
^rSiaZinr _/S«^.
A VlE^W OF THE iPRir^CE OF IC'^ILilGS'S OiliirTKSJE iDKAWllTG ROOI
xy4^. 7>f ii
TMtrmAn .^lAj,
JhM/?iA/ .tj l/i^ArJ dim/j. Ay /?. 7hry  M>r. "^ lfi;o .1 .
( 51 )
end about five feet. The Chinefe columns are on the front of this
feat, and mark out its boundaries. The upholftery work is very
richly executed in figured fatin, with extremely rich borders,
all worked to fuit the ftyle of the room. Within this otomon
are two grand tripod candleftands, with heating urns at the top,
that the feat may be kept in a proper temperature in cold
weather. On the front of the otomon before the columns are
two cenfers containing perfumes, by which an agreeable fmell
may be difFufed to every part of the room, preventing that of
a contrary nature, which is the confequence of lighting a num
ber of candles^
The chimneypiece is rich, adorned with a valuable time
piece, and two lights fupported by two Chinefe figures ; on each
fide of the fireplace is alfo a Chinefe figure, anfwerable to thofe
which fupport a table on the oppofite fide, under which is feated
a Chinefe figure. Over each table, the fireplace, and in the
center of the otomon, is a glafs, which by their reflecflions greatly
enliven the whole. The fubje^s painted on the pannels of each
wall are Chinefe views, and little fcenes. The carpet is worked
in one entire piece with a border round it, and the whole in
effea, though it may appear extravagant to a vulgar eye, is but
fuitable to the dignity of the proprietor.
N. B. In:
( 52 )
N. B. In addition to what has been faid on perfpecSlive in
the firfl; work, I would here annex a few remarks on taking
the geometrical or original meafurements of a piece of furniture
drawn in perfpe6tive, fuppofed to be deftitute of any lines or
fcales.
In Plate XXX. is therefore inferted a view of a bookcafe,
figure K, which the reader muft imagine to be without any
lines except thofe which form the outline of the piece. It
muft, however, be premifed, that a workman be acquainted
with the proportion of fome one or other of its parts, without
which nothing can be done or afcertained. He muft alfo be
acquainted with fo much of perfpedtive as to know that a line
pafling through the diagonal of any fquare, if produced, cuts
the horizontal line in the point of diftance. Thefe being known,
proceed firft to find the horizontal or vanifliing line by producing
c d, the top of, and /r, the bottom of the under part, till they
meet in a point, as at j, which will be the point of fight ; through
s draw a line parallel to the front of the bookcafe, which will be
the horizontal line fought for. From the point of fight draw
at random lines forward from />, and <?, or any other point
that may be neceffary. Next find out the point of diftance,
without which the depth of the ends cannot be known : in or
der to this, the workman muft recolledl that the brackets are
always
37V' /"■•'■
PL3(K
4^
A Gouty HtooIj
r. ^/(inihii IJ,/.
,t (,i/,lini// Dime'.
/"///'/////,// f'.s ///!■ .Irt /)/nrAs /jy trTern/. •'>'/'•';. '/'/A'
( 53 )
always as long at the~ ends as on the front, and that therefore
they form a fquare block; wherefore take 4/, and place it
from/ to ^, and from »■ to /j, the end bracket will be the dia
gonal of a fquare, whofe fide is 4/; produce the line ^ ^, which
will cut the horizon at D ; the diftance, as the line on the leg of
the gouty ftool, palTes to the diftance which is out of the plate.
Laflly; from D draw lines forward through r and 10, or any
other part, till they cut the front line, as at i w, by which will be
difcovered the proportion that the ends bear with the front, and
how much the lower part projects before the bookcafe. Now
if there be a fcale of the front already to the defign, then the
whole can be determined ; for by taking the compafies extended
to a foot, and repeating it on the perpendicular line from a to /,
the height of the doors are known, and by the fame rule the
height of the pediment from / to ;;/. Then if the fame compafs
be applied from / to zv, the depth of the lower part, it \yill be
found vaftly out of proportion with the front, which I have
done on purpofe, to ftiew that by a comparifon of this fort the
errors of a defign in point of perfpedtive may be difcovered. If,
however, there be no fcale to the defign, then it will be necei
fary to aflign a certain portion for a foot, as near as we can
judge, by confidering the common length of a bracket, from /
to 4, which in general is about four and a half or four inches,
which repeated three times, finds a foot, as in this cafe, and then
Q it
( 54 )
it appears that the front is four feet long, and better than four
feet high, that the doors are five feet nine high, and fo of the
reft. But if there be no bracket, any other part may be taken
whofe meafure is known, as the partition of a drawer, which is
generally feven eighths thick, the height of a llider, about thirty
two inches, or the depth of a fecretary drawer, about ten inches.
The ufefulnefs of this method is not confined to pieces of
furniture, but may be applied to any kind of regular perfpec
tive.
A Defcription of the Additional New Plates in the Second Editiofi
of the CabinetMaker and Vpholjlerer's Drazving Book,
Plate XXXI. A Sideboard.
This defignis intended to have a brafs rod behind, contain
ing lights in the center and at each end.
There is alfo a narrow mahogany flielf about three inches
and an half wide, fixed againft the middle of the rod at the
back ; on which flielf a channel is w^orked by a plane, for the
purpofe of keeping up fmall diflies placed in the fpaces between
the larger ones which reft on the fideboard top.
The frame of this table is riclily carved out of the folid
wood
,V«> pi 3
ANEW Design of a Bookcase &"svKiTEsrG Drawer
/>/jff
^ M^wm±ii j njJAuWI '.
VM^\y *■ MM
( f ( n t ['
^SAeruifn . Jf/
JiiUz/^i^as tAt^iih/f/rcfyJy i?. Terry . lu^te 2c\ /^^4 .
i^T^i fy Scu^
( 55 )
wood, and the ornament of that part of the legs, wliich crofs
the frame, is formed m hnitation of a trufs leaf.
The vafe under the table may be of mahogany, ami fitted
np in the infide to hold wine bottles, or it may be confidered
merely as ornamental.
Plate XXXIX. A Bookcaje with 'Writing Drazver.
The writing drawer reprefented out, has only the ap
pearance of a frieze when in, it being but one inch and three
quarters or two inches deep. This drawer is thrown out by a
fpring fixed on the back framing, and when in, is retained
by a fpring thumbcatch, which ftrikes into a plate fixed on
the fide of the drawer. The place where the thumb prefles
is the center of the patera at each end of the drawer, as fliewn
in the defign, which relieves the fpring behind, and confe
quently the drawer comes forward, fo much as to afford hold
for the hands to draw it entirely out.
The drawer is locked by the door lock below, which is
fo contrived as to fend the bolt upwards into the under edge
of it.
In the lower part are clothesprefs flielves, and the
glafs doors above are intended to have lookingglafs in the
center fquares. ......
4 I.aftly,
( 56 )
Laflly, the drapery is of green filk, fixed firfl to the cur
tain, and then both are pinned on to the infide of the door
framing together.
Plate XLIX. New Dejtgf is of Chairbacks*
LiTTE needs to be obferved refpe6ting thefe, as the plate
of itfelf fufficiently exprelTcs what they are ; if, however, any
of thefe be thought too crowded with work, they may be re
duced to a ftate fufficiently plain without doing the leaft in
jury to the outline of the whole, as in the following manner:
No. I is intended for painting, but may have the drapery
left out under the top rail, by means of fubflituting a plain
upright bar in the middle.
No. 2 may be reduced by taking away the fide foliage, and
making the bottom of the banifier plain.
No. 3 may be either a drawingroom chair painted, or it
may be made a handfome parlour chair, by taking out the
top drapery and making the bottom of the banifter plain ;
if for a parlour chair, the top rail is intended to be fluffed and
covered with red or green leather, or it may be entirely of
mahogany pannelled out of the folid ; but if a drawingroom
chair, it muft be fluffed and covered to fuit the feat.
No.
;za;
•:
r^ yi; nnii iin mrr]
^JhJC
■ki^ata
TTriiMllllllllMMII
■' Ill 1 1 1 1 1,1 nmiiii
7 y 7^ jf 7—rr"
( 57 )
No: 4 is a painted chair, with tlie back feet at top, formed
in imitation of the Ionic capital.
The drapery in this alfo may be taken away without
hurt done to the general outhne.
No. 5 is a painted chair, and may be fubje(n: to a variety
of alterations ; it may be executed with good effedl without
any thing, except the three compofite columns, and two
'arches in the top rail. The remaining part of the rail on
each fide of the bafket of flowers may be neatly pannelled iia
the painting ; or the diamond part may be retrenched, and
the two fmaller pillars with their arches retained.
No. 6 cannot well be fubjea to any alteration, excepting
that the ornament in the arch may be turned into a ftraight
bar.
No. LII. A turkey Sofa.
These are genteel feats introduced in the moft fafhion
able houfes, and are an imitation of the Turkifli mode of
fitting. They are therefore made very low, fcarcely exceed
ing a foot to the upper fide of the cufliion.
The frame may be made of beech, and muft be webbed
and Ilrained with canvas to fupport the cufliions.
P The
( 58 )
The back ciifliions in this defign have fpaces between
them, with drapery inferted, but they are generally made to
fill clofe up without leaving any intervals. In rooms where
there are no columns nor architrave fuitable for fuch a
feat, thefe may eafily be put up in a temporary way, fo that
if requifite, they may be taken down without any injury to the
room. The back of the fofa, by which I mean the wliole
height of the wall, from furbafe to cornice, mult have a deal
frame fixed to it, againft Which the canvas, drapery at the top,
and the fluting, muft be tacked.
Plate LXVI. A Commode.
The top of this commode is intended to be white ftatuary
marble. The ornaments are painted on fatin wood, or other
ground ; at each end is formed a niche in which may be
placed antique figures. The legs of the commode ftand clear.
The doors ^ each end are made to Hand about three inches
clear of the feet, fo that the door will open fquare out. The
internal part is merely plain flielves, as thefe pieces are never
intended for ufe but for ornament.
Plate LXXV. Bed Steps.
The defign on the right contains a bidet behind, which
runs in as a drawer. For the purpofe of raifing the bidet
4 drawer
C 59 )
drawer to a proper height, the cafe is made double, one fitting
within the other, as fhewn in the plate : for provided the outer
cafe is made nine inches deep, the inner one, being at leaft
eight, would, when raifed up, make it eighteen inches high,
which is fufficient.
The inner cafe is kept up by a couple of wooden fprings,
one at each end, which are fo made and fixed to the infide of
the outercafe, that the thumb may relieve them fo that the
bidet will fettle down even with the edge of the cafe. The
fecond ftep, which forms the nighttable part draws out, and
the ftep which covers it rifes tzp and falls againft the upper
ftep, which forms a pot cupboard. The fteps and rifers are
ufually covered with carpet, and the fides caned.
The defign on the left, when the top is down, forms only
two fteps. The front of the upper ftep is hinged to the
top, and the top to the back ; and to keep it in its place when
, down, the workman willobferve, that a groove is cut in the
ends, not in a ftraight direction, but near the bottom; the
groove is perpendicular to the feat ; a pin is then fixed to
the under fide of the front at each end, which works in the
aforefaid grooves, and the perpendicular part of the groove,
which is obvious in the defign, affifts in throwing the front
upright when it is down upon the feat,
Plate
( 6o )
riate , A Library Bookcafe.
The middle lower part of this bookcafe may have warcT
robe flielves, the reft is fimiiflied with plain Aiding flielves
for books only. The circular wings of the upper part may
be glazed, or finiflied without glafs, by a green filk curtain
only, with its drapery at the top. The diamond part is intended
to have lookinggiafs inferted, which has a pretty efFedt.
The pannels of the lower doors do not come flufli with their
framing by a ftrong eighth of an inch, which both looks
better, and is more calculated to hide the defedls, if the pan^
nel fliould Ihrink. The workman muft obferve, that the
plinth, furbafe, and cornice frames, are made and finifhed
entirely feparate from the carcafes, and are fcrewed to thern
to keep the whole together.
A DESCRIPTIVE
\
A !New Design op aLadys secretary i" Cabinet
Ji'^S./ii.S
Fl. fJh
T. S/uraToaJJtl.
j: l'nUi>o// MmC
Jid/if)u</ as t/u ActJDirrrts hi/ u Ier7i/, 4^' ?/.'^iy*.
AN ACCOMPANIMENT
TO THE
Cabinetmaker and Upholflerer's DrawingBook.
Injlru&ions for Drawing Ornaments.
As a proficiency in the art of drawing ornaments depends
chiefly on the habit of copying and the natural turn of genius
in this way, a few hints only are neccflary for the aflillance of
the learner.
Some infl:ru6lions, however, are certainly neceflary, as ap
pears from the frequent applications that are made to matters
for their information. And though no written inftrudlions can
fully fupply all that may be derived from a mafter *, yet fuch
direcStions may be given, in letterprefs, as greatly to facilitate
the attainment of this ufeful branch of drawing without a maf
ter's help.
The principal art of every branch of drawing is included in
the difpofitiun of a few fimple lines of but two different fpecies,
* One very material advantage derived from a mafter is, that the pupil fees how he
pradifes, by which he may acquire his manner and ftyle.
A the
( 2 )
the right line and the curve. Of thefe two are compofed all
that infinite variety of lliapes that wc are able to fee and con
ceive.
I will, therefore, propofe to the learner, firfl: to begin with
drawing, by the hand, right lines a tolerable length parallel to
each other in all direflions ; firft, inclined to the right, as ap
proaching neareft to the art of writing ; fecondly, perpendicu
lar ; thirdly, inclined to the left ; and laftly, horizontal and at
right angles with thofe perpendiculars, and palling through their
center. A proficiency in this is certainly the firft ftep in draw
ing, and is not fo eafily attained as may be imagined.
Secondly, let the learner then proceed to draw by the hand
a circle, as large as poflibly he can without moving the wrift.
And it will be proper for the learner to obferve, that in being
able to draw a circle by the hand and eye he thereby draws
curve lines in all poflible pofitions, as perpendicular, inclined to
the right and left, and horizontal. In addition to this pradlice
it will be necelTary to draw one circle concentric with another ;
that is, as when two or more circles of different diameters are
drawn from one center. This becomes ufeful when any thing
is to be defcribed in the fhape of volutes, as the running foliage
frequently introduced in friezes and pilafters. What has here
been faid of the circle will alfo apply to the pra(5lice of drawing an
3 ellipfis
( 3 )
ellipfis by hand. An ellipfis may be confidered as a curve con
lifting of a number of fegments of circles compound, whofe
radii differ in length. Of this kind of curve are many of the
turns in ornament, and therefore the practice of drawing them
M'ill be found worthy the attention of the learner. To pra6tife
as has been defcribed I confider as indifpenfably requilite to a
ready and perfedt attainment in the art of drawing ornaments ;
and ought particularly to be recommended to youth, as a help
to their writing any kind of hand, or drawing the Roman
letters.
The learner who is advanced in years w^ill not, perhaps,
fubmit to this kind of teaching : but if he cannot already draw
right lines, of fome length, parallel in all pofitions, and a circle
tolerably near by the eye, he ought not to be above learning
it, becaufe the time that is fpent in this, will be deducted in
future by a more fpeedy progrefs in the art of drawing orna
ments. And however this may be thought of by fome as a
thing of no merit, yet we will venture to affirm, that the hand
of a real mafter may be certainly diftinguiflied by the manner
of drawing thefe.
A 2 Of
( 4 )
Of Copying Ornaments. Plate I.
Suppose C to be the example to copy from. Take a black
lead pencil, and draw at B the principal curveline at the bottom
very faint •''. Then proceed to form a rude Iketch of the out
line, obferving carefully each projedling part of C, that a fuf
ficient breadth or fpace may be taken within the outline, in
which may be formed all the diftindt parts of B, without re
ducing their proportion.
Upon this procefs corredlnefs and difpatch very much de
pend. Therefore, if upon the firft attempt of this there fliould
appear any defedl, it will be befl to take out the lines with the
India rubber, and make them perfect.
A carver or fculptor proceeds upon tliis principle until
merely the maffive parts are made out ; and it is well known
that thofe of the greateft flvill in thefe profeffions are always
employed in this part of carving and fculpture.
After having done this, proceed to give the diftindt forms
of each leaf and rofe in faint touches, that if there fliould be
any caiife for alteration it may be more eafily efFe6led. The
* To hanJle a pencil is, in many cafes of drawing, different from the manner of hold
ing a pen. In handling a pen, the ends of the fourth and fifth fingers reft on the paper ;
but in managing a pencil, the hand is turned over more to the right, and refis on the
knuckles of the little finger.
learner
y"p. />/■'■
<J//<ty//ff/M ('/ (V?/<f/t/('f//^r^r///e ,\rr/r/,te o^ rJii7r?f)^ro
/'f /.
T'.'^A/'^.T/rft ttfiH .
/^d/ffT,^ .'./ ^^ Acldi>^,A(t /.\ 7J/yt:— July ^ zj^qS.
( 5 )
learner flioukl, in doing this, carefully obferve and touch the
fibres of each leaf, and give the proper lead to each ftem, fo
that they do not cut each other.
Laftly, take a view of the whole, and confider in what
point the light is to ftrike on the ornament ; and on that edge
of the leaves and rofes oppofite to it, retouch and ftrengthen
the outline in fuch a way as to give relief and effc6t to the
whole, even upon fuppofition that the drawing is to remain a
mere outline.
Of Shading Ornaments.
If the ornament is to be fhaded with Indian ink, mix fome
of it thin and clear, and take a crowquill pen, or fine camel
hair pencil, and touch the outlines very faintly, fo as fcarcely
to be feen on the light edges of the ornament ; becaufe in na
ture there is, in reality, no outline on the light fides of objedts,
efpecially if the fun is fuppofed to fliine on them. After this,
touch the ftronger parts of each llem and fibre, that they may
not be loft when the pencil marks are expunged.
Having cleaned your drawing, take a large camelhair pen
cil, and dip it till it flow freely with Indian ink very thin and
clear. And obferve, that if the ink do not w^ork with freedom
on a piece of wafte paper, which fliould be kept for the pur
pofe
( 6 )
pofe of trying the pencils, the brufli in this ftate ought not to
be appUed, but iliould again be well worked in the thin Indian
ink, fo that it work cafy, without, leaving white fpots on the
paper. In this ftate apply the pencil to the ornament, and give
a general tint to thofe parts fuppofed to be all in fliadow ; at
the fame time a partial tint may be given to the objeas partly
in the light. This flrft courfe of Ihadowing is the great balls of
all real efFe6t ; for if the maffes of light and fliadow are not pro
perly parted, but confounded, the drawing will look heavy, un
intelligible, and boyifli.
When the drawing is properly diy, the laft tints are to be
given with great delicacy and care, left the whole be over done,
and, as it were, tormented with harlli dabs. The intention of
this laft tint is only to give refleded lights to thofe parts which
he in the mafs of fliadow, and fliarpnefs to the partial fliadows
diredtly oppofed to the light.
It is natural for the learner, in giving the laft tint, to
think of thickening his ink ; but this muft be avoided, as
dangerous to the cffe6t of ornament ; for if the ink at firft
ufed be again repeated on the former tint, it will give fuffici
ent colour, except the openings of the fibres, which may be
touched with ftronger ink.
Effea
( 7 )
EfFeft to ornament may alfo be given by a pen, in imita
tion of etching ; which, if well executed, is moie plcafing in
ornament than Indian ink.
Italian chalk is fometimes iifed along with a blacklead
pencil, which may be done with extremely good efFedt.
The learner, being furniflied with thcfc inftru6lions, may
proceed in the fame way with the reft of the fpecimens in foli
age, the principal variety of which is here exhibited.
K, is the thiftle leaf, fliarply pointed and irregulai*.
G, is the Roman leaf, round and mafTy.
F, the parfley leaf, light and rather fharp pointed,
E, the rofe leaf, formed into groups.
D, the oak leaf, broad and mafly, fcolloped on the edge,
with fmall partings.
A, is a fancy leaf, rather Iharp, with large partings,
C, rofes and leaves alternately.
With
C 8 )
With thefe fpecimens the learner ought to be well acquaint
ed, before he proceed to draw running ornaments, that he may
give fufficient variety in each turn.
The regular leaves, in Plate XI, fliould alfo be copied, as
they are much in ufe in carving and japanning.
Next proceed with the borders in Plate III, which are in
tended for japanning or inlaying; and fo on with any other of
the Plates, as Plate V, VII, and IV, as they may appear moft fuit
able to his abilities in drawing ; obferving in all cafes to make
a very light pencilfketch of the whole defign, before any thing
is attempted to be finifhed.
Of Clarifications necejjary for Conipofition.
To qualify the learner for compofition, he ought, in fome
meafure, to be acquainted with the proportions of human
figures, efpecially thofe taken from the antiques. My very li
mited plan in publi filing thefe ornaments affords me no oppor
tunity of doing any thing in this way by example. I will, how
ever, give a few hints refpe6ting their proportions, for the af
fiftance of thofe who have no opportunity of confulting the belt
matters.
The
( 9 )
The proportion of the male figure, according to Mr. Brif
bane's Anatomy, from Albiniis, will be near enough, as follows:
If the perpendicular height of the intended figure be divided into
ten equal parts, and one of thefe parts into four, the proportions
will run thus with refpedl to length : the head, from the crown to
the chin, one tenth and one fourth ; the neck rather more than
one third of the head ; from the fummit of the fiioulders to the
bottom of the belly, three tenths ; from the bottom of the belly
to the center of the kneejoints, two tenths and one half ; and
the fame from the center of the kneejoints to the bottom of the
feet. Gbferve, the height of the hips are fix tenths and one
third from the ground, and the length of the arm four tenths
and rather more than one half.
In thicknefs as follows. — Over the fliouklers, two tenths and
one fourth ; over the hips, one tenth and rather more than
three fourths ; over the thick part of the thigh, one tenth ; the
fmall part, near two thirds. Thefe principal parts being at
tended to, the reft will follow of courfe, by prailifing a little
upon the different parts of the body from examples. When the
proportion of any male figure is to be proved, take the thick
nefs of the thigh as one tenth of its height, and by remember
ing the above proportions any figure may be examined. By
thefe proportions I have examined a figure engraved from the
famous Raphael, an Italian painter, and found them to agree
B exadllv.
( 10 )
exadly. In refpe£l to the female figure there is fome difference
in the proportions; the whole is more flender and elegant; the
flioulders are not fo broad ; the trunk or body is fliorter ; the
hips broader, and in proportion higher from the ground ; and
the mufcular parts are not fo flrong and prominent. As female
figures are frequently interfperfed in the compofing of orna
ments, it is proper to obferve, that much depends on the ma
nagement of the drapery with which they are clothed. It ought
to hang with freedom and eafe, and in fome parts to lie clofe,
fo as to difcover fome of the principal fhapes. To effect this, it
is beft, firft, to draw the figure by the pencil as if entirely def
titute of drapery, and afterwards to lay the drapery gently over
with Indian ink, or colour, as may be required ; fo that the
lines which marked out the parts of the body, now covered,
may be expunged. This method gives true eflfed^ to the dra
pery, by enabling us to determine where there ought to be
ftrong, where flight, and where no folds at all. On the pro
minent parts of the body there are no folds in the drapery ; but
after having juft palTcd over thefe, the folds commence in ten
der marks, and increafe into ftrong folds where the drapery is
detached from the body.
In examining Cipriani's figures, I find, that if the afllgned
heiglit of the female figure be divided into ten equal parts, from
the ground to the waift. \\ here the drapery is fometimes tied
5 round,
( II )
round, is feven tenths; from the waifl to the top of the fliouldeis,
one tenth and an half; the neck a quarter, the head one tenth
and a quarter, and over the fhoulders rather more than two
tenths.
As boys or cupids are frequently introduced in ornaments,
it is proper that the learner fliould take notice of their propor
tions and general appearance, as different from thofe already
defcribed. Cipriani's boys are of the following proportions: —
If the afligned height be, as before, divided into ten equal parts,
the head will be full two tenths in height ; the neck very fhort ;
from the top of the flioulders to the bottom of the belly, four
tenths ; from the bottom of the belly to the kneejoint, full two
tenths ; and from the knee to the ground, bare two tenths ; the
arms, when hanging perpendicular, come not quite to the
middle of the thigh ; the breadth of the fhoulders not quite
three tenths ; and, laftly, the thick part of the thigh, one tenth
and an half, v^hich will of courfe give the proportion of the leg.
The learner ftiould obferve the general caft of thefe figures;
the head is large and round ; the neck fcarcely diftinguifliable
between the head and flioulders ; no joints appearing in the
arms or legs fcarcely; the ankle covered with fiefli, and the
whole leg thick and mafTy.
But, belide the human figures, there are others of an ima
B 2, ginary
( i^ y
ginary kind employed by the antiques in their decorations,
Thefe are ftill, and ever will be retained in ornaments lefs or
more. The moft tafly of thefe were feleded by Raphael, and
painted by his pupils on the walls and ceilings of the Vatican
Library at Rome, and which are handed down to us, by the
Italians, in mafterly engravings ; which, in the courfe of this
work, I have confulted, and from which I have extracted fome
of my ideas, as well as from fome French works.
In the Vatican are figures whofe upper part is female, andi
the lower of foliage entwifting round. Other female figures have
their lower part of a fifh, and fome of a greyhound. Others fliew
only a human head, with foliage fpringing from it in different
forms, aiifwering for wings, and for a covering of the lower
parts. In it, we fee fometimes a dolphin fifh with an orna
mented tail ; a lion's head and an eagle's leg and talons brought
into a fmooth outline by the help of foliage : at other times a
tiger's head and paw formed in the fame manner. Some, again,
are partly a horfe with wings and two fore legs, and partly the
tail of a fifh ; all which are now a namelefs generation, but oace
the offspring, I prefume, of the ancient metamorphofes, either
what they termed real or apparent.
Befides thefe, are to be feen, in the above work, the fphinx,
a figiure of much fame amongfl the ancients, whofe upper part
8 is
( 13 :)
is a woman's head and breads, and the wings of a bird ; the
lower part the body of a dog, and the claws of a lion. This
monfter is faid to be the production of two deities, and fent as a
fcourge to the Thebans. Its bufinefs, on a mountain at Thebes,
was to propofe dark queflions to palTengers, and if not anfwered
to devour them. It is faid that the Egyptians nfed the fphinx
as a fymbol of religion, on account of the myfteries which it
was capable of interpreting. The Romans therefore placed it
on the porches of their temples.
The centaur, partly a man, and partly a horfe, ufed as one
of the figns of the zodiac, in which the man part is reprefented
fhooting with a bow.
This being is alfo faid to be the offspring of a deity in con
jundlion with a cloud. They inhabited Theflaly ; and, engaging
in hoftihties with the bow, were vanquiflied by Thefeus. As
they feem to have been a rebellious race, they may be intro
duced into fuch fubjedts as are intended to Ihew the odium of
fuch condu<5t.
The griffon is another fabulous being, exifling only in the
vain imaginations of the ancient heathen poets, as do the two
former. They reprefent it partly an eagle, and partly a lion ;
that is, the lower part of it. They fuppofe it to watch over
golden
( 14 )
golden mines and hid treafures. It was confecrated to the fun,
whofe chariot was drawn by a number of them. And thefe, if
you pleafe, may be introduced into fubjedls intended to reprefent
covetoufnefs ; or they may be placed over cabinets where trea
fure is kept.
It will be proper that the learner fliould ftudy to compofe
thefe, if he intends being a proficient in ornaments. In fhort,
to be fully qualified for ornamental decorations, is to be ac
quainted with every branch of drawing.
And, further, to compofe to much purpofe, it requires to
have a general infight into works of this nature, and particular
ly to fee the painted walls in noblemen's houfes, in many of
which the art is exhibited to its utmoft perfe6tion ; and in none
more fo than in the printed and painted filks executed of late
by Mr. Eckhardt, at his manufactory at Chelfea, adapted for the
purpofe of ornamenting pannels, and the walls of the moft ele
gant and noble houfes.
Of Compofition.
After the ideas of the pupil are extenfively furnifhed in
the manner now defcribed, it will be proper to begin with fome
fmall ground to compofe on, fuch as the frieze of a cornice;
and
( 15 )
and to confider its fituation with the eye, whether it be intended
to be much above it, fo that the parts of the ornaments may
fuit the fuppofed diftance of the eye from it. It is of no effect
to put a number of fmall ornaments in, to be viewed at a great
diftance. In this cafe the parts fliould be limple, entire, and
rather mafly, to produce a proper effect. If the frieze be near
the eye, it may then be divided into fmaller parts ; but to crowd
it in any cafe ought ftudioufly to be avoided. And obferve, the
tablets of friezes ought to be diverfe to the other ornaments
in it.
I would then recommend to compofe on the groundwork
of a pilafter not very broad ; for it is to be obferved, that the
difficulty increafes in proportion to the width, more than in the
height of a ground work. The ornaments in a pilafter or pan
nel is conlidered as growing upwards, and therefore it ought to
take its rife from fomething principal at the bafe, and grow
rather lighter towards the top, as in every inftance is fhewn in
nature. But this does not confine the compofer to fuppofe that
every thing is to be faftened or tied to each other as in ftri6l
nature, for this would fometimes be the fource of heavinefs in
ornaments ; nor do I fee it pradifed in the Vatican, or by any
of the heft artifts in this way. But certain it is, that the beft
compofitions are thofe which keep the parts moft connected in
one entire piece. The more we attain to this, whilft we avoid a
heavy
C i6 )
heavy repetition of the fame parts, the nearer do we arrive at
perfedtion ia this art.
The ornaments of a pilafter ought to fill regularly on each
fide, and not to leave niuch naked ground. And efpecially we
ought to obferve, not to have the ground alternately crowded
and naked. If we begin in an open ftyle, leaving much naked
ground, this fliould be continued uniformly all the way up, and,
if any thing, only to grow more open at the fummit. The laws
of harmony in every art, where time, motion, and fpace are
obferved, require this.
If the furface to be ornamented be horizontal, and is liable
to be viewed alike in all points, as in a ceiling, the fubjedt
fliould be regular, and formed into pannels and groups, fur
rounded with foliage of the fame kind and form on all fides.
Nature exemplifies a regularity in molt flowers, and in other
things that grow horizontal.
Laftly, to compofe ornaments for a large upright pannel,
as in rooms, is by far the moll: difficult talk in this art. Here
it is required that the artill colled; and arrange all his ideas ; and
thofe fcattered fragments which exilt in his mind through long
and repeated obfervation on the works of the bell mailers, mull
now be collecSled to form an entire whole, by a general concourfe
or
( 17 )
or aflemblage of every branch of drawing. In this large field,
architedure, perfpe6tive, figures, landfcape, foliage, and fruit,
may vie with each other, and fliew the mafter's fkill.
Attempts of this nature may be made by the learner, and
with fuccefs, though he fall vaftly fliort of a perfed; difplay of
all thefe different branches of drawing ; for it is to be obferved,
that the rule for judging in works of this nature is not to look
for eminence in each and every difi:in6l branch, but to difcern
fine tafte and jullnefs of compofition in the whole.
In compofitions of this nature fomething fpreading and
maffy ought to be at the bottom of the pannel, except the orna
ment be only intended to occupy the center, in which cafe the
principal part of the ornament fhould be in the middle ; but
where the entire pannel is to be filled up, we fhould begin as
above, that there may be an opportunity of giving breadth to
the foliage, for the purpofe of filling up the ground regularly
from one beginning only, for two defigns muft not be entwined
with each other in the manner of cyphers. This deftroys the
beauty of fimplicity, which confifts in fewnefs of parts, and en
tirenefs of forms, without which all is a jumble.
This obfervation will teach us to avoid that kind of crolling
and cutting each other, fomething like the rigging of a fliip,
C which
( i8 )
which may be obferved in fome ornaments, even of French
production as well as Englifli. A practice this, which always
denotes bad compofition, and a barrennefs of thought. It is
done with a defign to enrich, but it only turns out to be a fill
ing up to the prejudice of the whole. The learner muft there
fore fludy to enrich by a variety of thought fpringing from
fomething, yet without interfering with each other.
He fliould alfo be careful in avoiding the appearance of
Ilraight lines continued from bottom to top, which is formal
and bad. Some continuance of a right Une is beautiful ; but it
ought quickly to be broken in thefe compofitions, whether per
pendicular or horizontal.
Obferve breadth in the parts, fliun niggling and meannefs,
and flick at nothing that will have a comely and pleafant ap
pearance.
Jn Explanation of the Plates,
Plate II. are chair legs. That on the left is intended for
japanning, and is formed fquare. The other two on the right
are turned, carved, and gilt.
Obferve, the plinth of the center foot is left fquare, and
pannelled out.
^.
Borders for Pier Tabi^es
JVV^. pf /
r/.y
r.s ',■'■<,;., ztel.
/ CaUudll JJrrxrf
Piiblt/hn/ as the Ad Dirtcts by GTerri/. yov.'.s T!g;>^
?
CI
Girandoles
OHXAMIONT h'lil I'AIVTKD TA^M.
/'/ 4
r x>^.,/,.„ />,/
fuli/i/luJ ,u r/„ AitOurrh (i, S Tot,, Vovn ,,„.
CHAIK liEGS
^'^^
'Um^^^
m'm
unmm
"^^m
«if
/■iiAAt'i ■/ aj Mf .Ur J/ir/fli V ti Tfrr^ — .In/' ^
^^
( 19 )
If the leg on the right be thought to have too much work,
the hufks in the flutes and the drapery on the phnth may be
omitted.
Plate III. Borders for japanning or inlaying.
Plate IV. Ornament for a pannel. The whole fprings from
a fpreading leaf at the bottom, from which a ferpent attempts
to come at the doves on the fruit. In the center is a temple not
dedicated to the interefts of the cupids, for which reafon they
are burning it with their torches. The figure on the top of the
column, in refentment, means to pelt them with ftones ; and
the geniufes above are pouring down water to quench the
flames. The owls are emblematic of the night, at which feafon
thefe mifchiefs are generally carried on. The other defigns in.
this plate require no remark.
Plate V. Ornament for a tablet, intended for painting on a
grey or blue ground, as bell calculated to throw forward the
figure and fruit.
In the cornices, the acorns in one, and hufk in the other,
are turned with a pin ; by which they are fixed into the large
proje(5ting fquare.
C 2 I would
( 20 )
I would advife to work the upper part of the cornice fepa
rate, by which means the acorns will be more eafily fixed. The
frieze may be carved, painted, or inlaid.
Plate VI. Defigns for bedpillars.
No. I and 2 are to be painted ; No. 3 carved in mahogany ;
and No. 4 and 5 are intended for rich ftatebeds, carved in
white and gold. The fcale of feet and inches at the bottom will
give the heights, and other proportions.
The pateras which cover the fcrew heads are on loofe pan
nels let into the pillars, and which fettle down into a groove at
the bottom, by which means they are kept in their place, and
eafily taken out.
Plate VII. Ornaments for the center of a pembroke and pier
table needs no explanation.
Plate VIII. Of chair fplads.
No. I, 2, 3, and 6, are intended for parlour chairs, carved in
mahogany.
No. 3 and 4 are for painted chairs. Obferve, the curve
lines which come from the top rail at No. 2 and 6 are intended
to
.V.K /./
IU:i) IVlMiAKS
. \Ar'..' ^ />,/
/•„/./ifAt.i f/.i tA, .Ui fhrttti. All (' T^rr\ . XW.'^ tt /^.i
i:"/<'/. />i.i.
Tt 7
Center for n l*EMBEOKFi Tam.e
C/KNTKIR for a FlER TaB.LE
r.S/lrriilrtI /If/.
FtlW/ir./o^ ///, ./a/A, A /;/ /;. Tr////.— /■'f.' 2:i. /^i/t
.Vjt' pi i
SPLABS TOK BMNTEI) A^^D MAHO<ykNY CHAffiS
r/ N
r.i^^n D,/.
PufiftfAfi/ US f/u .iff Jhrf,'ts hif li rrrrif. — /Jrr/f.'i /r^*.
J.i\.lA,^// fMff'
, I. ".//. /y/./.
Lkos ^V Pn.R an<^ Card Tables
r/ (J
itri
r/fl^^
II 'II I
i^.;^c>
X° 1. NO 2. :nto ,3_ NO 4!. N<? c5.
"T r n
N"6.
/' ."^/ifra/cn JJt/.
Pti/j/^/i€/i as //i€ Act.Urr^r/ii ^^ 6^. Terry, ^tmH ff.f^^.
Jl f'ou/naJ^ Mttixa^
MU/. /I' 2
HTI'MI'S .V* Kl.BOVV^S ^>r DHAWCSIG RooM C'jums
/y, //'
J
r .^f,t'.,t.>, jj,r
luM/A/,/ ii.s //ir .1rtJ)irri/s /'// /'y^rry. Jiiii' 'f. )^^f.
/i;i/Jni' A^'
( 21 )
to fhew where the outfide fplads in a complete back will come
in, anfwerable to No. 4.
Plate IX. Of toes and knees for pier and card tables.
No. I, 3, 5, are meant for pier tables, the ornaments of
which are intended to be carved and gilt.
No. 2, 4, 6, are for card tables, with ftringing and pannels
let in.
Plate X. Of chair elbows, with part of the feat, together
with fplads for chair backs.
The fplads are all intended for japanning, except No. 4,
which may be worked in mahogany.
The elbows are meant chiefly to be carved and gilt ; but
the mere outlines of any of them will ferve as patterns either
for painted or mahogany chairs, by leaving out the ornaments
for the mahogany, and retaining fome of them, or even all of
them may be adapted for painting.
It may be proper to obferve, that as high as the fluffing of
the feat a rabbet fhould be left on the flump to fluff againfl ;
which is eafily done, as the flump is made fmaller above the
rail. The cufhions on the arms are formed by cutting a rabbet
in
( 22 )
in the arm, or leaving the wood a little above the furface. Some,
however, bring the rabbet fquare down at each end, covering
the wood entirely,, except a fillet, which is left at the bottom
and continues round the ciifliion.
Plate XI. Ornament for a tablet intended for a painting,
but which might be enlarged very well.
The fubjedt is a faint moonlight fcene, reprefenting Diana
in a vifit to Endymion ; who, as the ftory goes, having offended
Juno, was condemned by Jupiter to a thirty years fleep. It
may not be improper to advertife fome, that thefe, with a thou
fand other of the fame kind of ftories, are merely the fabrica
tions of ancient poets and idolaters, forming to themfelves in
numerable gods, according to their vain imaginations, and
which now, only ferve to try the painter's fkill in decorating
our walls. And in oppofition to thefe vanities, I cannot well
omit whifpering into the ear of the reader, that " To us
there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things.''
I Cor. viii. 6.
Plate XII. Cornices for windows.
The one acrofs the plate is intended for japanning, the
upper one for carvmg and gilding, and the two under ones may
be either carved or japanned.
The
I'l. /2.
J. I'll/i/livt// Dil/.r,t
NUof'l.'
AS"! N D 1\^ ( ' ( ) H N 1 C V. f5
/'/. f2.
r .ili,r.tl,;, />,/
/^/i/>////tfi/ ii^ t/if .iff /iirrrfa /»// it Terrt/ . />^ r W z''^*
/./VA^// />,ru.'
( 23 )
The circular ends of this cornice are fometimes formed of
a faintifh curve, and fometimes of a quick one. When they are
of a faint fweep, they ought to be made fomewhat longer at
each end than the outfide of the architraves, to give place to
the curtain rods, fo that they may be brought fufficiently for
ward on the lath, and not leave too great a vacancy between the
rod and cornice leaves, otherwife the lath will be feen when
there is no drapery. In making thefe cornices, it is beft to
plough and tongue in the leaves to the under fide of the facia of
the cornice. The ends may be formed by gluing blocks of deal
one on another till they come nearly to the fweep ; and, after
having formed the outfide curve, I would then advife to gage
on for the ploughgroove for the leaves, before the wood in the
infide is brought to its form, that the pieces for the leaves may
be put in without fplitting off the groove. After thefe are well
dried, then the fuperfluous wood on the infide can be taken
away.
When the cornices are made at each end with a quick
curve, the whole is firfl worked in flraight mouldings, and
mitered together at each end, the fame as if intended to be
fquare, according to the old fafhion. When they are glued in
the miters, get out blocks of deal, about two inches and an half
fquare, and cut them down anglewife, and let their length be
equal to the width of the cornice and length of the leaves.
7 After
( 24 )
After thefe blockings are dry, cut off as much of the old
miter as isfufficient to form the curve, and work the mould
ings again by hand ; and obferve, that as the block was left long
enough, the curved leaf is intended to reft againft it, by which
it will be much ftrengthened.
The cornices made thus, with a quick curve, needs not be
made longer than ufual, becaufe the quick curve admits the rod
to come forward more eafily than the other.
Plate XIII. Pilaflers for Commodes.
Thefe may be painted, inlaid, or gilt in gold behind glafs,
and the glafs being then beaded in the pilafter, it is fecure, and
has a good efFedt.
Plate XIV. Chair Legs.
The center leg is worked fquare ; that on the right is 0(5ta
gon, except the vafe at the knee ; and that on the left, round.
Thefe may, in the view of fome, be thought too full of work ;
but the fkilful workman will eafily fee how to reduce their
richnefs, and accommodate them to his purpofe.
FINIS.
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DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
PLATES.
XXII. Ditto, for fmaller library, inclofed in a Pembroke table  to face page 44
LXXV. In additional dejigns. — Ditto, one with nighttable only, the other
with nighttable, a bidet, and put up board  _ ^g
TABLES OF VARIOUS KINDS.
XXV. Table univerfal, to anfwer the purpofe of a dining and breakfaft table,
with a drawer divided into boxes, for tea, fugar, &c. When ufed for
breakfaft table, its flaps Aide under the bed _  _
XXX. Ditto, for Library, with four niches or knee holes, four cupboards and
four drawers, tvvo of which with rifing reading defks
XXXVII. Ditto, for a lady to write at, with fcreen to rife up by weiglits behind to
fave the fice, and fpring writing boxes, after the French   .
XLIII. Ditto, on a fimpler and more eafy plan, with fcreen behind fupported by
fprings __
XLTV. Ditto, one to read, and the other to write at   
XLVI. Ditto, for a lady to drefs at, with a glafs in the centre, and one on each
fide, as refledters, framed fo as to move to any pofition; under the
dreffing part is a knee hole forming a cupboard, and at each end a drefs
ing drawer to hold caps  . _
LIV Ditto, for a lady to work at, has a rim round tlie top, with one fide of it
hinged, fo as to turn down to a horizontal pofition _ . _
Ditto, for breakfaft, containing a bidet and two glaffes, fupported by pillar
with four claws     
LVI. Ditto, a Harlequin Pembroke one, witli a neft of drawers to rife out of
the top, with a falling flap to write on   
LVIII. Ditto, of the fhape of a kidney, for writing and reading, by a rifing defk
which Aides forward ; at each end are a number of finall drawers
LX. Ditto, to draw and write at, has a rifing flap, lined with leather, a neft of
drawers in the upper part, letter box and cupboards, the top edged about
with a brafs rim, the lower part confifting of plain drawers
V. Aipendix — Table for piers, or to ftand under a glafs, finiftied in white and
gold   ._...
VII. Ditto, for dreflTing, with glafs to rife behind, convenience for wafhing, and
a bidet __.
Ibid. Ditto, to ufe in the night, conneded with a bafon or waftihand ftand, and
pat cupboard, with reeded door .  _ _ _
XI. Ditto, for cards; one fafti plain corners, the otlier with column corners and
•round front __
XII. Ditto for Library, of an elliptic iliape ; contains a fecretary drawer to write
at ia a fitting pofture, and a rifing delk in the top, to ufe in a ftanding
pohtion ; the back part is fitted up for books, and each end has four or
five heights of plain drawers.  . _
XX. Ditto, a plain one for dreffing, with glafs in the centre, and a writing
Aider at the end    _ _
JCXIII. Ditto, for night ufes, to ftand in a corner ; one connedted with a bafon
R Hand,
362
376
390
396
398
414
ib.
430
432
440
8
12
ib.
ib.
PLATES.
XXVI.
XXX.
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
fiand, turning round on a pin, by which the nighttable part is totally
hid, the other with lifting top, &c.   to face page \h
Ditto, for a lady to work at ; one with a drawer to write a note on fup
ported with two lyre ftands; the other with a pillar on four claws, and
only a work bag     5°
Ditto for drawing, with a double rifing top, capable of being elevated to
any height, has a Aider at each end to lay drawing implements on, and
one under the top, on which to place a model, &c. to copy from  ib.
vm.
XXX.
XXXIX.
LI.
LVI.
WARDROBES.
Wardrobe with two wings, containing arms to hang clothes on, tlie upper
part has clothcsprefs (helves, and the lower plain drawers   
Gouty Stool, made with a double horfe to raife the leg to any height
Knife Cafes, ornamented with pilaflers, and pillars in front ; one with
ogee and hollow front, the other with two hollows, and a round in
centre.     " . T . "
Windowcurtains and drapery in the French taftc, exhibited with glafs
and pier table, flievving the effedl of the internal front of a fmall draw
ing room __
Ornament for a tablet, conhfting [of parfley foliage, fpringing from the
tail of a griffin. . _   
SO
392
406
43
A DESCRlPTtVB
A
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX
TO
THE ACCOMPANIMENT
TO THE
CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER'S DRAWINGBOOK,
CONSISTING OF VARIOUS ORNAMENTS.
PLATES.
I. Specimens of various foliage, for the exerclfe of learners, including
the thorn, parfley, oak, and rofe leaves, together with others of
fancy .. to face page 9
11, Chair legs, near the full fize, richly ornamented for white and gold, but
may be reduced to a plalnnefs fultable to mahogany chairs   20
III. Borders for pier tables, which may be executed in japanning, or in
laying     "  ID.
IV. Two patterns for girandole lights fupported by figures, richly orna
mented ; a trufs cornice and frieze for a pllafter, and a fpeclmen of a
richly ornamented painted pannel, confifting of a temple fet on fire by
Cupids, whofe intentions are defeated by the interpofitlon of certain
genii, who pour down water to quench the flames     ib.
V. Ornament for a tablet, and two fpecimens of new fancy cornices, with
handfome friezes ; the tablet is a boy fupportlng a bafket full of rich
flowers and fruits _    21
VI. New and elegant bedpillars, two of which for ftate beds, to be executed
in white and gold; one for mahogany carved, and two for japanning  22
VII. Centres for pier or Pembroke tables, either for japanning or inlaying ;
in the centre of the Pembroke tables, the genius of poetry, painting,
and mufic, are aflfembled     ib.
VIII. Six various patterns for fpladback chairs ; four may be executed in ma
hogany, and the remaining two for japanning   '  ib.
8 IX. Six
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
PLATES.
IX. Six various patterns for tablelegs : two for rich pier tables in white and
gold, two for plainer tables, and two for card tables   to face page 22
X. Six different patterns for ftumps and elbows of drawingroom chairs, fliew
ing part of the rail and feat, and in two the intire leg ; alfo five various
fpecimens of chair fplads for painting    1%
XI. Ornament for tablet, exhibiting Diana and Endymion, in a faint moon
light piece, ornamented with foliage ; alfo fix various fpecimens of
leaves for carving     24
XII. Four various patterns for window cornices ; one for a grand faloon room,
to be executed in white and gold ; the others for japanning   25
XIII. Three various fpecimens of pilafters, for commodes or cabinets, which
may be executed in inlaying, gilt on glafs, or japanned    26
XIV. Three patterns of chair legs near the full lize, to be executed in white
and gold .__. .2^
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX
TO
THE SEVERAL PIECES OF CABINET FURNITURE
CONTAINED IN THE WORK;
INCLUDING
THE NEW AND ORIGINAL DESIGNS,
ADDED IN THE SECOND EDITION,
ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED.
BEDS.
PLATES.
XXXl.
XL.
XLI.
XLV.
I.
III.
IX.
XIX.
A
Sofa ditto, with dome top and French drapery ; on the fide of which is
a view of its perfpe(9:ive lines   to face page 380
Alcove ditto, reprefented on afcending fleps, covered with carpet and dra
pery round the arch of the alcove _ _ _ 382
A Summer ditto, made in two feparate parts, with a dome to each part, an
ornamental arch at the foot, and both connedted by one head ; intended
for a gentlemen and lady tofleep apart in fultry, hot weather  384.
A French State ditto, with dome top, ornamrtited, and with double head,
exhibiting the perfpedtive lines according to its oblique fituation  386
ylppendlx — Elliptic Bed, dome top, with drapery, ornamented cornice, me
dallionvalence, and couch ends . _   6
A Duchefs ditto, in three parts, ftraight cornice, cove top to take off, and
drapery covering _..___ 6
A common ditto, with drapery valence, and cove top, ornamented  16
Englifli State ditto, with dome top, and crown fupported by Juftice, Cle
mency, and Mercy; the cornice, pillars, &c. adorned with various fym
bolical figures, expreflive of the different branches of the Britifh govern
ment   ._ 40
BOOKCASES AND DOORS.
XXVII. Six various Patterns of ditto
370
XXIX. Six
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
PLATES,
XXIX.
XXV II.
XXVIII.
XLVIl.
LVII.
XXXIX.
III.
XLII.
to face page 370
5°
Six ditto ditto .  . . .
appendix. — Eiglit ditto ditto . _ .
Bookcafe, with fecrct.nry drawer, glafs doors, pediment top, and clothes
prcfs Hiclvcs ill lower part     370
Ditto, with cylinder (1e(k, Aider fixed to cylinder, plain, fquarefigureddoor,
with green filk curtain, and drapery at top  . .
Pediments for ditto, ornamented and plain    4J2
Li addiiioriiil luv. pintcs. — Ditto, with writing drawer, clothesprefs ftielves,
and ornamented pediment, ligured door, and green lilk curtains, with
drapery    ~ ~ ~ Si
Library ditto, with circular and ftraight wings, glafs doors, with curious
figure; the circular winged doors notgl,v/.cd, but finiflied in fluted filk,
with drapery at top ; the lower mid<ile part contains four clothesprefs
flu'lvcs .  _  . _ _ 8
Library ditto, with circular wings, dome top on each, and ornamented
pediment, gLfs doors, with green curtains, and drapery at top
Bafon Stands, to ftand in a corner; one with a ciftcrn, and another with
tops to fold over ______ 294
CHAIRS.
XXXII. Chairs for drawing room, fluffed back and feats, finiflied in white and
gold    388
XXXIII. Ditto for parlour, finiflied in m.diogany     ib.
XXXIV. Ditto for drawing and parlour      ib.
XXXVI. Ditto, fix new Patterns for Backs ; fomefor ia(>aiiniiig, atxiditto for mahogany ib,
,, VI. Appendix — Ditto for drawing rooms, finiflied ; one tor japanning, the other
for white and gold      12
X. Ditto, Convcrfation, made with ftufFed toprails, to reft the arm upon ; the
fc.its made narrow in fiont, but longer than in common from back to
front '     ■■ 16
XXV. Ditto, fix new Pattams of Backs for painting    48
XXV III. Ditto, fix new ditto ditto    "5°
XLIX. In the additional dc/igns of the fecond edition. — Ditto, fix new ditto ditto.—
See their dcfcriptioK at the end of the appendix   56
XVIII, Afpcm/ix. — Chaife Longs, or Long Chairs, ftutVetl and covered in the man
ner of fofas  _ .  . 26,
CABINETS,
XLVIII. Cabinet, with the pcrfpeftive lines. The upper middle part for books, and
the wings for medals, rings, &c. and other fmall curious matters ; the
lower part is divided into drawers and final! cupboards
XLIX Ditto, with drcfiing table. Lower part contains convenience for a lady
8
406
to
PLATES.
L.
XIV.
XVI.
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
to warti and diefs at ; the upper part a fvving glafs in center, and each
wing is comparted for trinkets, &c.   to face page /\.o(>
Ditto, with convenience for writing, for holding books in top part, and a
private cupboard at each end, with dome tops   408
Ditto, with branch hghts, and convenience for writing in the top part;
together with finall drawers, and private places   22
Ditto, with a felfbalancing front, and convenience at each end for tea
equipage .   _ . .33
T' COMMODES.
XX. Ditto, for dreffing; containing neceffary apparatus for walking, witli a glafs
in the center, various boxes for powder, 6ic. and a convenience for wri
ting a note      ^,
LXVI. Ditto, for an ornament to ftand under a pier glafs ; has a figure at each in
a niche, and a white flatuary marble top ...
LIX. Cornices at large, in various prcrtles; together with furbafe mouldings, and
the method of enlarging and contrafling them pointed out
XXIX. ^/)^«d'/W. —Clockcalcs, to be executed in latin wood if the ornaments are
introduced on the doors ; if not, they may be executed in mahogany,
with good effedl ___.
LXI. Drawing Room, plan and fe(flion of, complete ; and a view of every necef
fary article of furniture in their proper Hruation
XXXII. Appendix. Ditto, the Prince of Wales's, with Chinefe furniture, in a
feftion, and perfpedlive view    
LX. Dining Parlour, with proper furniture'to do, exhibited in a perfpedlive view
40
58
43
50
445
52
440
SECRETARIES.
XXVIII. Ditto and Bookcafe, with clothes prcfs fljelves, 'figured docHs, and pe
diment top   . .  _ 5g5
XLIII. Ditto, a Lady's, with book(helves at top, fupported with brafs pillars;
has a cupboard at bottom for hats    ib
LH. Ditto, a Gentleman's, with felfbalancing front, and two wings for books,
with glafs figured door, and ornamented lop _ _  410
XXXIX. In additional new plates. — Ditto, a fnjall one for a Lady, with falling front,
and writing drawer    ~  SS
SIDEBOARDS.
XXVI. Ditto, with celleret drawer for wine, a plain drawer, and pot cupboard at
the other end ; (Iraight front, and fafliplain ends   366
XXIX. Ditto, with celleret drawers, hollow front, and round ends: one end opens
with
PLATES.
XXI.
XXXI
DESCRIPTIVE INDEX.
with marble fhelves, for fmall filver ware ; and the other enclofed^ for a
pot cupboard   _  _ to face page 370
Appendix. — Ditto, with vafe, knifecafes, and pedeftals at each end, with
ornamental brafs rod and lights; ^a celleret drawer, and plain ditto ; and
a pat cupboard in center, hid by a reeded front, forming a recefs to tlie
arch under the front arch      \z
In additional new plaUs. — Ditto, witii carved front rail, and trufs ornaments
on the legs, and an ornamental vafe celleret placed under the fideboard 54
SCREENS.
XXXVIII. Ditto, tripods, for japanning  _ _ _ ^90
XIII. Appendix. — A Tripod one, and Horfe ditto. The tripod one, for white
o and gold, turnson a fwivel, fo that both fides of the mount are finilhed
alike ; ditto, the horfe balance is of mahogany, with its uprights fluted
or reeded       20
STANDS OF VARIOUS KINDS.
XLTI. Stands with corner wa(hhand ones in three different patterns; one ditto
with water ciftern and lock, inclofed with reeds, and a cupboard below
to throw off the dirty water; one ditto plain and common; one ditto
with folding tops when up. to prevent tlie wall from water fplafhes  3^4
XLIII. Ditto, made fquare, with ciflern at top, plain drawer for towel, and cup
board below for foul water •  ... jg5
LIII. Ditto, cylinder wafhhand, with water ciftern at top, and glafs in center,
leaden pipe to convey off the foul water into a drawer behind for that
purpofe ; the bottom part contains alfo a bidet and two plain drawers  412
LV. Ditto, tripods for candles, in white or all gold, with figures fupporting
the lights _ _ _ . _  416
SOFAS.
XXXV. Sofa witli three loofe cufiiions at the back, and ornamented toprail for
japanning      388
X. Appendix. — Sofa, the back in three compartments covered with filk, and
white and gold frames     16
LII. Additional nnv Plates. — Sofa in the manner of the Turks, with glafs in
center, loofe cufhions all round, and the feat made low   " 57
STEPS.
XII. Appendix. — Steps for large library, with folding handrail, and a noting
delk at top, the whole folded and inclofed in a Library table.   20
XXII. Ditto,
,*
w
^
64a7